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ror. Yea Ferdinand his brother, Maximilian his nephew and son-in-law, the Dukes of Bavaria and Cleves, which have married his nieces, have been shrewdly touched therewith. Also the papistical bishops, as Mentz, Bamberg, Herbipolis, Saltzburg, and divers others, have felt their part herein. Few princes or states, protestants or papists, but have been troubled therewith. But even as a quartan in the beginning is a wandering disease in the body, unknown what it will turn unto, and yet at last it draweth to certain days and hours ; even so these griefs in the whole body of the Empire did first work secretly, and not appear openly, until this melancholy unkindness did so swell in men's stomachs, that at length, in Inspruck, it burst out into a shrewd sickness, whereof the first fit was felt to be so dangerous, that if the Emperor and we had not more speedily changed the air, I am afraid, and sure I am we were well afraid then, the sickness would have proved also to us that were present with him very contagious.

Well, this grief growing thus to certain fits, and I myself being not greatly grieved at the heart with it, but had leisure enough with small jeopardy (I thank God) to look quietly upon them that were sick ; because I would not be idle amongst them, I began daily to note the working of this sickness; and namely, from the 19th of May 1552, when we ran from Inspruck, till the first of next January, when the siege of Metz was abandoned. Nevertheless, before I come to these ordinary days, I will shortly touch how the Emperor, being in peace with all the world, 1550, when we came to his Court, had soon after so many enemies as he knew not which way to turn him.

THE TURK.

The date of peace between the Emperor and the Turk had to expire an. 1551. The Emperor hearing what preparation the Turk had made the year before for war, and especially by sea, which must needs be against Christendom, thought it better for him to end the peace with some advantage, than that the Turk should begin the war with too much strength : and therefore in summer 1550, he sent John de Vega viceroy of Sicily, and Andrea Doria, into Barbary, who won the strong town of Tunis from Dragut Rayes,

some time a pirate, and now the Turk's chief doer in all the affairs of Africa and the Mediterranean. This Court raised up other rumours of this breach with the Turk: how that this enterprise was made for Seripho's sake, a heathen king, but the Emperor's friend in Barbary, to whom Dragut Rayes had done great wrong. Yet men that knew the truth, and are wont also to say it, have told me that town of Tunis stood so fit to annoy Spain for the Turk, when he list, that the Emperor was compelled to seek by all means to obtain it, much fearing, lest, when he was absent in Germany, the Turk would be too nigh and too homely a guest with him in Spain, whensoever the peace should be expired.

The whole story of winning Tunis ye may read when you list, being well written in Latin, by a Spaniard that was present at it.

Tunis was earnestly required again by the Turk, and fair promised again by the Emperor; but being indeed not delivered, the Turk for a revenge the next year, first assaulted Malta, and after won Tripoli, from whence the Turk may easily and suddenly, whensoever he list, set upon Sicily, Naples, or any coast of Italy or Spain, and most commodiously whatsoever the Emperor doth hold in Barbary: so that the gain of Tunis is thought nothing comparable with the loss of Tripoli.

When Tripoli was besieged by the Turks, Monsieur Daramont was sent ambassador to Constantinople from the French king: and arriving by the way at Malta, he was desired by the great-master of the order to go to Tripoli

, and, for the friendship that was between France and the Turk, to treat for the Christians there. Daramont did so, and had leave of the Turk's general to enter the town and talk with the captain. And by this means they within yielded ; on this condition, to part safe with bag and baggage, which was granted by the general. But as soon as the Turks entered the town, they put old and young, man, woman, and child to the sword; saving two hundred of the strongest men to be their galley-slaves for ever. The general being asked why he kept no promise, made this answer: If the Emperor had kept faith with my master for Tunis, I would not have broken with them of Tripoli; and therefore (saith he) with Christian men which care for no truth, promises may justly be broken. This Turkish cruelty was revenged this last year in Hungary, when like promise of life was made, and yet all put to the sword, the Christians bidding the Turks remema ber Tripoli. To such beastly cruelty the noble feats of arms be come unto betwixt the Christian men and the Turks. And one fact of either side is notable to be known, yet horrible to be told and fouler to be followed ; and it is pity that man's nature is such as will commonly commend good things in reading, and yet will as commonly follow ill things in doing.

The Basha of Buda took in a skirmish a gentleman of the king of the Romans; for whose delivery, men for entreaty, and

money for his ransom were sent to Buda. The Basha appointed a day to give them answer; and at time and place assigned, called for them, and sent for the gentleman likewise. And suddenly came out two hangmen, bare-armed, with great butcher's knives in their hands, bringing with them certain bandogs, muzzled, kept hungry without meat of purpose. The Basha bade them do their feat : who, coming to the gentleman, stripped him naked, and bound him to a pillar; after with their knives they cut off his flesh by gobbets, and Aung it to the dogs. Thus that poor gentleman suffered grief, great for the pain, but greater for the spite; nor so tormented in feeling his flesh mangled with knives, as seeing himself piece-meal devoured by dogs. And thus, as long as he felt any, pain, they cut him in collops; and after they let their dogs loose upon him to eat up the residue of him, that the grief which was ended in him, being dead, might yet continue in his friends looking on. They were bade depart, and tell what they saw; who, ye may be sure, were in care enough to carry home with them such a cruel message.

Not long after this, three Turks of good estimation and place were taken by the Christian men; for whose ransom great sums of gold were offered. Answer was made to the messenger, that all the gold in Turkey should not save them: And because ye Turks will eat no swine's flesh, you if swine will eat any Turkish flesh. And so likewise great boars were kept hungry, and in sight of the messenger the three Turks were cut in collops and thrown amongst them.

For these foul deeds I am not so angry with the Turks that began them, as I am sorry for the Christian men that follow them. I talked with a worthy gentleman this day both for his great experience and excellent learning, Marc

shall see

men.

Anthonio d’Anula, ambassador of Venice with the Emperor; who told me, that the great Turk himself (religion excepted) is a good and merciful, just and liberal prince, wise in making and true in performing any covenant, and as sore a revenger of truth not kept. He prayed God to keep him long alive ; for his eldest son Mustapha is clean contrary, given to all mischief, cruel, false, getting he careth not how unjustly, and spending he careth not how unthriftily, whatsoever he may lay hand on; wily in making for his purpose, and ready to break for his profit, all covenants; he is weary of quietness and peace, a seeker of strife and war, a great mocker of mean men, a sore oppressor of poor men, openly contemning God, and a bent enemy againsi Christ's name and Christian

But to go forward with my purpose. The Turk being once disclosed an open enemy to the Emperor, many mean men began to be the bolder to put out their heads to seek some open remedy for their private injuries ; France being at every man's elbow to hearten and to help whosoever had cause to be aggrieved with the Emperor. And first, Octavio duke of Parma, much aggrieved, as nature well required, with his father's death, and, besides that, fearing the loss not only of his state but also of his life, fell from the Emperor in the end of the year 1550.

Pietro Ludovico Farnesio, (son to Pope Paul the Third) duke of Placentia, father to this Octavio duke of Parma, which married the Emperor's base daughter, and to Horatio duke of Castro, who of late had married also the French king's base daughter, and the two cardinals Alexandro and Ramu. sio Farnese, was slain, men say, by the means of Ferranto Gonzaga governor of Milan, by whose death the state of Placentia, belonging then to the house of Farnese, came into the Emperor's hands. The whole process of this man's death is at length set out in the stories of Italy: my purpose is only to touch it, because hereby_rose_such a heat betwixt the whole family of Farnese and Don Ferranto Gonzaga, as hath stirred up such a smoke in Italy betwixt the Emperor and France, as is not like to be quenched but with many a poor man's blood, as Horace noteth wittily out of Homer, saying:

“ What follies so ever great princes make,
The people therefore go to wrake."

put to the sword, the Christians bidding the Turks remema ber Tripoli. To such beastly cruelty the noble feats of arms be come unto betwixt the Christian men and the Turks. And one fact of either side is notable to be known, yet horrible to be told and fouler to be followed ; and it is pity that man's nature is such as will commonly commend good things in reading, and yet will as commonly follow ill things in doing.

The Basha of Buda took in a skirmish a gentleman of the king of the Romans; for whose delivery, men for entreaty, and money for his ransom were sent to Buda. The Basha appointed a day to give them answer; and at time and place assigned, called for them, and sent for the gentleman likewise. And suddenly came out two hangmen, bare-armed, with great butcher's knives in their hands, bringing with them certain bandogs, muzzled, kept hungry without meat of purpose. The Basha bade them do their feat: who, coming to the gentleman, stripped him naked, and bound him to a pillar; after with their knives they cut off his flesh by gobbets, and Aung it to the dogs. Thus that poor gentleman suffered grief, great for the pain, but greater for the spite; nor so tormented in feeling his flesh mangled with knives, as seeing himself piece-meal devoured by dogs. And thus, as long as he felt any pain, they cut him in collops; and after they let their dogs loose upon him to eat up the residue of him, that the grief which was ended in him, being dead, might yet continue in his friends looking on. They were bade depart, and tell what they saw; who, ye may be sure, were in care enough to carry home with them such a cruel message.

Not long after this, three Turks of good estimation and place were taken by the Christian men; for whose ransom great sums of gold were offered. Answer was made to the messenger, that all the gold in Turkey should not save them: And because ye Turks will eat no swine's flesh, you shall see if swine will eat any Turkish flesh. And so likewise great boars were kept hungry, and in sight of the messenger the three Turks were cut in collops and thrown amongst them.

For these foul deeds I am not so angry with the Turks that began them, as I am sorry for the Christian men that follow them. I talked with a worthy, gentleman this day both for his great experience and excellent learning, Mare

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