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needs; the omitting of which law (saith Leo) among the youth, hath been the only occasion why the Romans lost a great deal of their empire. But more of this I will speak when I come to the profit of shooting in war. If I should rehearse the statutes made of noble Princes of England in Parliaments, for the setting forward of shooting through this realm, and especially that act made for shooting the third year of the reign of our most dread sovereign Lord King Henry the VIIIth, I could be very long. But these few examples, especially of so great men and noble commonwealths, shall stand in stead of many.

Phi. That such Princes and such commonwealths have much regarded shooting, you have well declared. But why shooting ought so of itself to be regarded, you have scarcely yet proved.

Tox. Examples, I grant, out of histories do show a thing to be so, not prove a thing why it should be so. Yet this I suppose, that neither great men's qualities, being commendable, be without great authority for other men honestly to follow them; nor yet those great learned men that wrote such things lack good reason justly at all times for any other to approve them. Princes, being children, ought to be brought up in shooting, both because it is an exercise most wholesome, and also a pastime most honest; wherein labour prepareth the body to hardness, the mind to courageousness, suffering neither the one to be marred with tenderness nor yet the other to be hurt with idleness, as we read how Sardanapalus and such other were, because they were not brought up with outward honest painful pastirnes to be men, but cockered up with inward, naughty, idle wantonness to be wo

For how fit labour is for all youth, Jupiter or else Minos amongst them of Greece, and Lycurgus among the Lacedemonians, do show by their laws, which never ordained any thing for the bringing up of youth that was not joined with labour; and that labour which is in shooting of all other is best, both because it increaseth strength and preserveth health most, being not vehement but moderate, not overlaying any one part with weariness, but softly exercising every part with equalness, as the arms and breasts with drawing, the other parts with going, being not so painful for the labour as pleasant for the pastime, which exercise, by the judgement of the best physicians, is most allowable. By shooting also is the mind honestly exercised, where a man


always desireth to be best (which is a word of honesty), and that by the same way that virtue itself doth, coveting to come nighest a most perfect end, or mean standing betwixt two extremes, eschewing short, or gone, or either side wide; for the which causes Aristotle himself saith, that shooting and virtue be very like. Moreover, that shooting of all other is the most honest pastime, and that least occasion to naughtiness is joined with it, two things very plainly do prove, which be, as a man would say, the tutors and overseers to shooting: day-light, and open place where , every man doth come, the maintainers and keepers of shooting from all unhonest doing. If shooting fault at any time, it hides it not, it lurks not in corners and huddermother;

but openly accuseth and bewrayeth itself, which is the next way to amendment, as wise men do say. And these things, I suppose, be signs not of naughtiness for any man to disallow it, but rather very plain tokens of honesty for every man to praise it. The use of shooting also in great men's children, shall greatly increase the love and use of shooting in all the residue of youth. For mean men's minds love to be like great men, as Plato and Isocrates do say. And that every body should learn to shoot when they be young, defence of the commonwealth doth require when they be old, which thing cannot be done mightily when they be men, except they learn it perfectly when they be boys. And therefore shooting of all pastimes is most fit to be used in childhood; because it is an imitation of most earnest things to be done in manhood. Wherefore shooting is fit for great men's children, both because it strengtheneth the body with wholesome labour and pleaseth the mind with honest pastime, and also encourageth all other youth earnestly to follow the same. And these reasons (as I suppose)



both great men to bring up their children in shooting, and also noble commonwealths so straitly to command shooting. Therefore seeing Princes, moved by honest occasions, have in all commonwealths used shooting, I suppose there is no other degree of men, neither low nor high, learned nor lewd, young nor old

Phi. You shall need wade no further in this matter, Toxophilus; but if you can prove me that scholars and men given to learning may honestly use shooting, I will soon grant you that all other sorts of men may not only lawfully,

but ought of duty, to use it. But I think you cannot prove but that all these examples of shooting brought from so long a time, used of so noble Princes, confirmed hy so wise men's laws and judgements, are set before temporal men only to follow them; whereby they may the better and stronglier defend the commonwealth withal ; and nothing belongeth to scholars and learned men, which have another part of the commonwealth, quiet and peaceable, put to their cure and charge, whose end, as it is diverse from the other, so there is no one way that leadeth to them both.

Tox. I grant, Philologus, that scholars and laymen have divers offices and charges in the commonwealth, which requires divers bringing up in their youth, if they shall do them as they ought to do in their age. Yet as temporal men of necessity are compelled to take somewhat of learning to do their office the better withal, so scholars may the boldlier borrow somewhat of laymen's pastimes to maintain their health in study withal. And surely, of all other things, shooting is necessary for both sorts to learn. Which thing, when it has been evermore used in England, how much good it hath done, both old men and chronicles do tell, and also our enemies can bear us record. For if it be true as I have heard say, when the King of England hath been in France, the priests at home, because they were archers, have been able to overthrow all Scotland. Again, there is another thing, which above all other doth move me, not only to love shooting, to praise shooting, to exhort all other to shooting, but also to use shooting myself; and that is our King Henry the Eighth his most royal purpose and will, which in all his statutes generally doth command men, and with his own mouth most gently did exhort men, and by his great gifts and rewards greatly did encourage men, and with his most princely example very often did provoke all other men to the same. But here you will come with temporal man and scholar. I tell you plainly, scholar or unscholar, yea if I were twenty scholars, I would think it were my duty, both with exhorting men to shoot, and also with shooting myself, to help to set forward that thing which the King's wisdom, and his Council, so greatly labour to have go forward; which thing surely they did, because they knew it to be in war the defence and wall of our country ; in peace an exercise most wholesome for the body, a pastime



most honest for the mind, and, as I am able to prove myself, of all other most fit and agreeable with learning and learned

Phi. If you can prove this thing so plainly, as you speak it earnestly, then will I not only think as you do, but become a shooter, and do as you do. But yet beware, I



you, for the great love you bear toward shooting, blindly judge of shooting. For love, and all other too earnest affections, be not for nought painted blind. Take heed (I say) lest you prefer shooting before other pastimes, as one Balbinus, through blind affection, preferred his lover before all other women, although she was deformed with a polypus in her

And although shooting may be meet some time for some scholars, and so forth; yet the fittest always is to be preferred. Therefore, if you will needs grant scholars pastime and recreation of their minds, let them use (as many of them do) music and playing on instruments, thinks most seemly for all scholars, and most regarded always of Apollo and the Muses.

Tox. Even as I cannot deny but some music is fit for learning, so I trust you cannot choose but grant that shooting is fit also, as Callimachus doth signify in this verse :

Both merry songs and good shooting delighteth Apollo. But as concerning whether of them is most fit for learning and scholars to use, you may say


you pleasure; this I am sure, that Plato and Aristotle both, in their books entreating of the commonwealth, where they show how youth should be brought up in four things, in reading, in writing, in exercise of body, and singing, do make mention of music and all kinds of it; wherein they both agree, that music used amongst the Lydians is very

ill for young men which be students for virtue and learning, for a certain nice, soft, and smooth sweetness of it, which would rather entice them to naughtiness than stir them to honesty

Another kind of music, invented by the Dorians, they both wonderfully praise, allowing it to be very fit for the study of virtue and learning, because of a manly, rough, and stout sound in it, which should encourage young stomachs to attempt manly matters. Now whether these ballads and rounds, these galiards, pavanes, and dances, so nicely finger

will for your

ed, so sweetly tuned, be liker the music of the Lydians the Dorians, you that be learned judge. And whatsoever judge, this I am sure, that lutes, harps, all manner of pir barbitons, sambukes, with other instruments every o which standeth by fine and quick fingering, be condem of Aristotle, as noť to be brought in and used among th which study for learning and virtue.

Pallas, when she had invented a pipe, cast it away; not much, saith Aristotle, because it deformed her face, 1 much rather because such an instrument belonged nothing learning. How such instruments agree with learning, t goodly agreement betwixt Apollo God of learning, and M. syas the Satyr, defender of piping, doth well declare, who Marsyas had his skin quite pulled over his head for } labour.

“ Much music marreth men's manners,” saith Galen, a though some men will say that it doth not so, but rather createth and maketh quick a man's mind; yet, methinks, ? reason it doth as honey doth to man's stomach, which at fir receiveth it well, but afterward it maketh it unfit to abide ai good strong nourishing meat, or else any wholesome sha and quick drink. And even so in a manner these instr ments make a man's wits so soft and smooth, so tender ar queasy, that they be less able to brook strong and toug study. Wits be not sharpened, but rather dulled and mad blunt, with such sweet softness, even as good edges b blunter which men whet upon soft chalk stones.

And these things to be true, not only Plato, Aristotle, and Ga len prove by authority of reason, but also Herodotus and othe writers show by plain and evident example; as that of Cyrus which, after he had overcome the Lydians, and taken thei King Cræsus prisoner, yet after, by the means of one Pactyas a very heady man amongst the Lydians, they rebelled agains Cyrus again; then Cyrus had by and by brought them to ut ter destruction, if Cræsus, being in good favour with Cyrus had not heartily desired him not to revenge Pactyas's fault in shedding their blood. But if he would follow his counse he might bring to pass, that they should never more rebe against him. And that was this, to make them wear long kirtles to the foot, like women, and that every one of them should have a harp or a lute, and learn to play and sing. Which thing if you do, saith Cræsus (as he did indeed), you shall see them quickly of men made women. And thus

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