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harm to others, and keep hurt from himself, as he never took enterprise in hand wherein he put not his adversary always to the worse.

And to let other matters of Germany pass, even this last

year, within the compass of eight months, he professed himself open enemy against four the greatest powe ers that I know upon earth: the Turk, the Pope, the Emperor, and the French King; and obtained his purpose, and won praise against them all four. For he in person, and policy, and courage, dispatched the Turk's purpose and power this last year in Hungary. The Council of Trent, which the Pope and the Emperor went so about to establish, he only brought to none effect : first by open protestation against that council, and after by coming with his army to Inspruck, he brought such fear to the Bishops there gathered, that they ran every one far away from thence, with such speed as they never durst hitherto speak of ineeting there again. And how he dealt with the Emperor, both in forcing him to fly from Inspruck, and compelling him to such a peace at Passau, my whole Diarium shall at full instruct you.

And of all other he served the French King best, who fair pretending the delivery of the two Princes captives, and the maintenance of religion and liberty in Germany, purposed in very deed nothing else but the destruction of the Emperor, and the house of Austria ; for what cared he for religion abroad, who at home not only followeth none himself privately in his life, but also persecuteth the truth in others openly with the sword. But I do him wrong to say he followeth none, who could for his purpose be content at one time to embrace all; and for to do hurt enough to the Em. peror would become at once, by solemn league, Protestant, Popish, Turkish, and devilish. But such Princes that carry nothing else but the name of bearing up God's word deserve the same praise and the same end that that Prince did, who seemed so ready to bear up the ark of the Lord, and yet otherwise pursued God's true Prophets and his word.

Again, how much the French King cared for the liberty of Germany he well declared in stealing away so unhonourably from the Empire the city of Metz. But he thinking to abuse Duke Maurice for his ambitious purpose, in very deed and in the end Duke Maurice used him as he should; for first he made him pay well for the whole wars in Germany, as it is said, 200,000 crowns a month; and after, when the French King fell to catching of cities, Duke Maurice, tender


to pass.

ing the state of his country, brake off with him, and began to parley with the good King of the Romans at Luiz, which thing heard, when the French King came within two miles of the Rhine, he straightway hied more hastily, and with more disorder for all his great haste, out of Germany, (as they say that were there,) than the Emperor being sick without company, and pressed by his enemy, did go from Inspruck.

And see how noble Duke Maurice did, which for the love of his country, durst fall from the French King before he achieved any thing against the Emperor. And rather than Germany should lose her cities so by the French King, he had liefer hazard both the losing of his enterprise, and also the leaving of his father-in-law still in prison with the Emperor. But as he had wit to take money plenty of the French King, so had he wit also to furnish himself so from home as he durst first fall out with the French King, and durst also after to set upon the Emperor, till he had brought his honest purpose

For there is not almost any in this Court but they will say Duke Maurice did honestly in delivering his father by strong hand, which before left no fair mean unproved to do that humbly by entreaty, which after he was compelled to bring to pass stoutly by force. And I pray you mark well what he did, and then judge truly if any thing was done that he ought not to do.

For first, he himself with the Marquis of Brandenburg most humbly by private suit laboured for the Landgrave’s delivery, offering to the Emperor princely offers, and not to be refused ; as a huge sum of money; a fair quantity of great ordnance; certain holds of his, some to be defaced, some given to the Emperor; and also personal pledges of great houses, for his good haberance all the residue of his life.

After, when this suit was not regarded, they again procured all the Princes and States of Germany, being at the Diet at Augsburg, an. 1548, to be humble intercessors for him, offering the self-same conditions rehearsed before; adding this more, to become sureties themselves in any bond to his Majesty for his due obedience for time to come.

Thirdly, by the Prince of Spain, Duke Maurice never left to entreat the Emperor; yea, he was so careful of the matter, that his ambassadors followed the Prince even to his shipping at Genoa ; who had spoken often presently before, and wrote earnestly from thence to his father for the Landgrave's delivery; and it would not be. And wise men may say it was not the wisest deed that ever the Emperor did, to deny the Prince this suit; for if the Prince had been made the deliverer of the two Princes out of captivity, he had won thereby such favour in all Germany, as without all doubt he had been made coadjutor with the King of the Romans his uncle, and afterward Emperor. Which thing was lustily denied to the Emperor by the Electors, though he laboured in the matter so sore as he never did in any other before.

Fourthly, this last year, a little before the open wars, Duke Maurice procured once again, not only all the Princes and free estates of Germany, but also the King of the Romans Ferdinand, Maximilian his son King of Bohemia, the King of Poland, the King of Denmark, the King of Sweden, to send also their Ambassadors for this suit, so that at once twentyfour Ambassadors came before the Emperor together at Inspruck. To whom when the Emperor had given very fair words, in effect containing a double-meaning answer, and that was this:

“ That it did him good to see so noble an assemblage at once; and therefore so many Princes should well understand that he would make a good account of their suit. Nevertheless, because Duke Maurice was the chiefest party herein, he would with speed send for him, and use his head for the better ending of this matter.” But Duke Maurice seeing that all these Ambassadors went home without him, and the matter was referred to his present talk, who was never heard in the matter before, he wisely met this double-meaning answer of the Emperor's with a double-meaning replica again, for he promised the Emperor to come; and at last indeed came so hastily, and so hotly, as the Emperor could not abide the heat of his breath; for when Duke Maurice saw that all humble suits, all quiet means were spent in vain, and had to bear him just witness therein all the Princes of Germany; first with close policy, after with open power, both wittily and stoutly, he achieved more by force than he required by suit: for the Emperor was glad to condescend (which surely in an extreme adversity was done like a wise Prince) without money, without artillery, without defacing of holds, without receiving of pledges, to send the Landgrave home honourably, accompanied with (at the Emperor's charges) the nobility of Brabant and Flanders.

This last day I dined with the Ambassador of Venice, in company


wise heads, where Duke Maurice was greaily praised of some for his wit, of others for the execution of his purposes: “ Well," saith a lusty Italian Prie “ I cannot much praise his wit, which might have had tl Emperor in his hands and would not.” Lo such be the Machiavel's heads, who think no man have so much wit he should, except he do more mischief than he need. B Duke Maurice purposing to do no harm to the Emperor, bu good to his father-in-law, obtaining the one pursued not th other. Yea, I know it to be most true, when we fled from Inspruck so hastily, Duke Maurice sent a post to the goo King of the Romans, and bade him will the Emperor t make no such speed, for he purposed not to hurt his person but to help his friend; whereupon the Diet at Passau imme diately followed. I commend rather the judgement of John

Baptist Gascal do, the Emperor's man and the King of the Romans' genera in Hungary, who is not wont to say better, or love any mai more than he should, specially Germans, and namely Pro testants. And

yet this last winter he wrote to the Emperor that he had marked Duke Maurice well in all his doings against the Turk, and of all men that ever he had seen, he had a head to forecast the best with policy and wit, and a heart to set upon it with courage and speed, and also a discretion to stay most wisely upon the very prick of advantage.

Marquis Marignano told some in this Court four years ago, that Duke Maurice should become the greatest enemy to the Emperor that ever the Emperor had; which thing he judged (I believe) not of any troublesome nature which he saw in Duke Maurice, but of the great wrongs that were done to Duke Maurice, knowing that he had both wit to perceive them quietly, and also a courage not to bear them over long.

Some other in this Court that loved not Duke Maurice, and having no hurt to do him by power, went about to say him some for spite, and therefore wrote these two spiteful verses against him ;

* Jugurtham Mauricus prodit, Mauricus ultra,

Henricum, Patruum, Socerum, cum Cæsare, Gallum. He that gave me this verse added thereunto this his judget ment, “ Well (saith he) he that could find in his heart to

The former distich was in the old edition corrupt, and still remains barbarous in the prosody: the same defect will remain in this, though it be reformed as I believe it was written, thus, Jugurtham Maurus prodit, Mauricius ultra.

betray his friend Duke Henry of Brunswick, his nigh kinsman Duke Frederick, his father-in-law the Landgrave, his sovereign Lord the Emperor, his confederate the French King, breaking a bonds of friendship, nature, law, obedience, and oath, shall besides all these deceive all men, if at length he do not deceive himself.” This verse and this sentence, the one made of spite, the other spoken of displeasure, be here commended as men be affectioned. For my part, as I cannot accuse him for all, so will I not excuse him for part. And yet since I came to this Court, I should do him wrong if I did not confess that, which as wise heads as be in this Court have judged on him, even those that for country and religion were not his friends, that is, to have shown himself in all these affairs betwixt the Emperor and him, first, humble in entreating, diligent in pursuing, witty in purposing, secret in working, fierce to force by open war, ready to parley for common peace, wise in choice of conditions, and just in performing of covenants.

And I know he offended the Emperor beyond all remedy of amends ; so would I be loth to see, as I have once seen, his Majesty fall so again into any enemy's hands; lest peradventure less gentleness would be found in him than was found in Duke Maurice, who when he was most able to hurt, was most ready to hold his hand, and that against such an enemy, as he knew well would never love him, and should always be of most power to revenge.

If Duke Maurice had had a Machiavel's head or a coward's heart, he would have worr. a bloodier sword than he did, which he never drew out in all these stirs, but once at the Cluce, and that was to save the Emperor's men.

Hitherto I have followed the order of persons, which hath caused me somewhat to misorder both time and matter, yet where divers great affairs come together, a man shall write confusedly for the matter, and unpleasantly for the reader, if he use not such an apt kind of partition as the matter will best afford, “Which thing (Plato saith) who cannot do, knoweth not how to write.' Herein Herodotus deserveth in mine opinion a great deal more praise than Thucydides, although he wrote of a matter more confused for places, time, and persons, than the other did.

In this point also Appianus Alexandrinus is very commendable, and not by chance but by skill doth follow this order, declaring in his Prologue just causes why he should do

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