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sight. When so many gobbets were cut off, and cast to the dogs, as life would afford, then the dogs were let loose, and so tore him all in pieces. After this the Hungarians took three lords of Turkey: 6000 ducats were offered for their ransom; but word was sent to the bassa, that if he himself came to their hands, as they trusted he should, all the gold in Turkey should not save him : and because the Turks will eat no swine's flesh, they would prove if swine would eat Turks Aesh; and so kept up swine from meat, which very cruelly devoured the Turks up.* But now Beglierbeglie Mahomet, that hath married the Turk's daughter, and is general ruler of all the Turk’s dominions in Europe, whole Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece, is come into Hungary with two main hosts, of either side Danubius one. He hath written sharp letters to Fra. George, accusing him for the stir of this war: and even yesterday came word to this city, that Beglierbeglie hath won a great city from Ferdinand, and hath cut in pieces all the Christian folk in it, and cometh on, bringing great terror to all Hungary and Austria, and especially to Fra. George, that he knoweth not which way to turn him; insomuch that many that came to the king, be gone the Turk's side. All Christendom ought to pray to God, as a most merciful Father, to cast the rod in the fire: for even thus stands the case of Hungary.

Maximilian, the king of Bohemia, Ferdinand's eldest son, is much missed in this war, being now in Spain to fetch home his wife: for an Hungarian told me, where his father should have one soldier for his money, he should have three for his love and good-will owing him. The Hungarians hope it shall be Maximilian that shall drive the Turk out of Hungary: and it may well be so; for he is, as I wrote once, I trow, to Mr. Raven, a goodly person of stature and favour, liberal, gentle, wise, learned, speaking eight tongues, hardy, painful, loved of all, except where envy rępines; pleasant without wildness, grave without pride, lowly to every one, and reverenced of all, and one whom all Germany, protestants and others, love and commend.

The Turk's quarrel by sea is this. Andrew Doria took the city of Algiers which standeth in Africa, from Dragut Rayes, a Turk, anno 1550. The great Turk required this


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* He tells the same story in the “ Report State of Germany,” p. 10.-Ed.

city again. Whether a promise of delivery was either not made or not kept, I cannot tell ; but the Turk’s navy is come so big, that they and the French rule all mare Mediterraneum. When they were once past Eubea, and the point of summum promontorium, we had letters every week from Venice of them. They are 132 great galleys, besides a huge galleon, full of wonderful great ordnance, wherein, as one that was in it said, there was 4000 saddles of men of arms. This great navy brought such terror with it, that the Venetians were fain afresh to double man and victual Corcyra. Sicily was afraid, Naples was afraid, Rome was afraid, Genoa was afraid, all mare Mediterraneum did tremble, whi. ther this great navy would go. At last they light upon St. Paul's isle of Melita, now Malta, kept by the knights of Rhodes. Whether they would not or could not then win it, from thence they departed and came to Tripoli, a Christian city in Africa, over-against Sicily, kept by many knights of Rhodes, and well manned and victualled.' The Turks gave such cruel assaults, that the gun-shot was heard to Malta. They within asked respite for certain days, and if aid came not from Malta, then to deliver the city. Respite was granted, and in this while they conveyed out of Tripoli 2000 of old men, women, and children, which came all into the Turk's hands. After that the city could not hold out; they gave up upon condition to have their lives. The Turks came in, and thirty knights of Rhodes, most part Frenchmen, were sent to Malta : 200 of the strongest soldiers were put in galleys, and all the rest, young and old, were killed without mercy. The Turk’s promise was laid unto him, and he bid him lay the blame on those that had taught Turks to break promise. Thus was Tripoli won this last August; such a haven as scarce is like in mare Mediterraneum, which will receive 300 ships. Tripoli may keep Africa from victuals, and is like to be an ill neighbour to Sicily and Italy. The thirty knights of Rhodes went to Malta; but the great master calling a chapter, hath banished them, as both false and French. They sailed from thence, and by rage of water were driven upon Sicily, and by the viceroy are taken every man, and cast into prison.

We looked that the Turk would straightway have set upon Malta; but the whole navy is gone over into Sinum Ambracium, where Augustus gave Anthony the overthrow; and there, as we hear say, have taken up their lodging for this winter. News were brought hither, that many of the Turk's galleys were drowned by over-thwarting the seas; some said forty, some sixteen, some nine: but the ambassador of Ve. nice saith, that he heard in no letter that any ship took harm. And thus much of the Turk's stirs both by sea and land, as is most credibly known and confirmed to be true in this town and court. - Now Mhuv @eide geà, the pope is in a wonderful chafe : he abhors Germany: he is thrust out of France; he mistrusts the Emperor; and yet the Emperor hath more cause to mistrust him: the house of Farnese have robbed him of his treasure; the siege of Parma is given up, and Mirandola cares not for him; his own household wax Lutherans; none will come to his conspiracy at Trent but such as are sworn that no good shall be done there; and if he do not hang himself before October is past, he cometh to Bologna; and if we go into Italy, and happen to meet with him, as we are likely, I will describe him to you from top to toe.

Now to come to quicquid delirant reges, xal alate de nads: I beshrew their hearts, either because they begin' now, or else because they began no sooner, whilst the weather was warmer; for now we must over the cold Alps, even now full of snow. The Emperor doth little yet; but the French be a great deal aforehand.

Of ships taken in those seas towards you, ye know; and the prior of Capua the same time came to Barcelona in Spain, and using the cloak of the Emperor's arms, came quietly into the haven, and took away with him, in sight of the Spaniards, seven goodly galleys. The French have a great host in Piedmont, and have won divers cities, towns, and castles, and have well manned them, as St. Damian, Cirasco, Cheir, &c. This Cheir is bigger than Norwich, as they say that have seen it. The Emperor took a foul injury in it; for the citizens opened the gates to the French, and they will keep the gates the faster close

against the imperials, lest they drink for this treachery. We look that all the war will be in Piedmont, and that the Emperor and French king will be both there in person. We imperials crack France out of measure, that it shall be beat down of all sides with one mighty army out of Spain, one other out of Flanders, the third out of Italy. If I have convenient time and carriage, I will not fail to let you know the cause of all

these stirs ;* and will be very glad to mark them, and as ready to write them unto you. The Emperor hath many irons in the fire, and every one able alone to keep him work enough; the Turk by land and sea; the French sitting on his skirts on all sides, besides Magdeburg, &c.

The Emperor is wise enough, and it stands him in hand even now to be so. The Turk nor the French can neither be weak enemies, nor sure friends: and therefore as [to] Magdeburg, the duke of Saxony, and the landgrave, there is even this day such talk, that the Emperor will use the gentler choice of those two which the father gave to Pontius his son, when the Romans were shut in Furcæ Caudinæ. Ye know the story in Livy; for that way is not now to be taken, quæ neque amicos parat, neque inimicos tollit: and therefore ambassadors from duke Maurice, the marquis of Brandenburg, Bremen, and other sea-cities, from the kings of Denmark and Poland, are within six miles of this town; and, as men think, they are come not without the Emperor's means. If I should talk of Magdeburg at length, it should require more than a letter. They are thought more strong and stout than they were this day twelvemonth. It is said the Emperor required three persons of Magdeburg, their chief captain, the count of Mansfelt, their chief preacher, Flaccus Illyricus, and another : but the town would not lose one hair of their heads; and so they say all are forgiven. In this matter of Magdeburg, and the two princes captives, I cannot as yet assure you the truth; for the matters be now in brewing: but, God willing, ye shall know shortly.

How the good preachers were banished this town the 26th of August last, I wrote at large to Mr. Leaver. This business, if it were to do, it should not be done now. The Emperor's council lay the doing to the heads of the town; and they lay it again to the bishop of Arras, the Emperor's chief counsellor. The papists' churches be as desolate as ever they were; and yet here be more sayers than hearers of mass. The protestants constantly will come lo neither. They have obtained to christen in Dutch as they did, and to marry without mass. Every one in his own house, morning and evening, see their whole household kneel down, and sing psalms, and

* The “ Report and Discourse” is probably the fulfilment of this promise.Ed.

Ye are

I am sure,

the good man doth read a chapter of Scripture. Now protestant preachers are sought for; but none dare come, for fear of the former handling. weary,

of my long talk: therefore I bid you all farewell, and I pray you pray for me. Commend me to all my friends in the town. I count good Mr. Maden, Mr. Pember, and Mr. Zone, St. John's men. Commend me to Mr. Redman, Mr. Haddon, Mr. Blythe, Mr. Sandes, Mr. Car, Mr. Barwick, &c.; for if I should name all that I my paper would not serve.

I would I were at your problem-fire when


read this letter; then I would desire Mr. Dean, and Mr. Leaver, to remit the scholars a day of voule and punishment, that they might remember me, that can forget none of that house, praying God to niake them all virtuous and learned, and especially in the Greek tongue. Fare ye well in Christ. From Augsburg, 12 October, 1551.


R. A.





My good Raven and Ireland, I leave chiding you, but I will not leave loving you, write you or write you not. I will be your friend, and you shall be mine, whether you will or not.

By Mr. Leaver's letters you shall know how all things stand here, of the Turk, of the Imperials, of the French, and of Germany. I have not leisure to write twice of one matter; therefore I will him to communicate to you, and then you may do so to other my friends, as Mr. Maden, Mr. Blythe, Mr. Haddon, &c.

Sturmius goeth forward in Rhetor. Aristot. The first book is sent to Mr. Cheke, which was purposed to me, but I had rather it should be sent to him. Mr. John Hales, my singular friend, sent me a piece of this rhetoric this week. I never saw any thing more to be compared with antiquity, and so I trust Mr. Haddon will judge. Vahan is writing it out a-pace: if he finish it before the post go, ye do receive it; if not now, ye shall have it shortly: Sturmius is in hand with Analysis Ciceron. such a book as I believe was never set out in our

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