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his liberality; which winneth to him authority fit for a stout captain, and worketh in them obedience due to good soldiers.

This last year, a little before his agreement with the Emperor, his soldiers, for lack of money and meat, fell to mutinying, and then fell the Marquis fastest to hanging, not hiding himself for fear, but coming abroad with courage, did protest that neither the proudest should make misorder without punishment, nor yet the poorest should lack, as long as either he had penny in his purse or loaf of bread in his tent. And after this sort of outward behaviour and inward condition in Marquis Albert, as I have marked his person myself, and as I have learned his doings by such as by experience knew them well, and for their honesty would report them right; and now how he fell from the Emperor, I will as briefly declare.

The Marquis served the Emperor, as I said before, in the former wars in Germany, against the Landgrave and the Duke of Saxony, where he lost some honour, and spent much money. The Emperor shortly after came down hither to Brussels, having the Marquis in his company, who, looking for a great recompense of his costs, and receiving little, and seeing his honour not only defaced in the field presently when he was taken prisoner, but also defamed for ever by writing, confirmed by the Emperor's privilege to go abroad in the world, began to take the matter so unkindly, that he left coming to the Court, and kept his own house, rising every day very early; and writing all the forenoon very diligently, yet what he did no man knew; so that his absence breda talk in the Court, and his sudden and secret study wrought a wonderful jealousy of his doings in the Emperor's head: for he knew the Marquis to have courage enough to attempt matters over great; and therefore sent Monsieur Granvelle unto the Marquis's house, as of himself, to grope out his doings, who declared unto the Marquis the Emperor's great good will towards him, showing that his Majesty was purposed to make him a great personage, and, to begin withal, had in mind to give him a goodly and profitable office in all his mints.

The Marquis answered roundly and plainly to the first, that the Emperor could not make him greater than he was, being Marquis of Brandenburgh ; and, as for the office in che mint, he said, smiling, he used not often to tell his own

money, and therefore he thought not to make the account of others'; and so made nothing of the Emperor's offer ; only he desired Granvelle that the Emperor would give him leave to go home to his own, which he obtained ; and, at his departure, the Emperor gave him a patent of 4000 crowns by the year: but the Marquis was not well four miles out of Brussels, when he sent the patent by post to the Emperor again, saying, his Majesty might better bestow on some that had more need of it. And indeed the Marquis is as loath to receive of his friends by benevolence, as he is ready to take from his enemies by violence, which cometh somewhat of too stout a courage.

Thus the Marquis came home, not best contented, as it may well appear, nor saw not the Emperor after till he met him at the siege of Metz. Casimirus, his father, and the Marquis himself were great spenders and deep debtors; the one for his stoutness in war, the other for his lustiness in youth ; and therefore became quick borrowers and slow payers, which thing brought the Marquis into such trouble as he had with the city of Nuremberg, with his neighbour

Bishop of Herbipolis, and with his godfather the Bishop of Bamberg

The Marquis was no sooner come home, but these Bishops spying their time, when he had left the Emperor's Court, and had quite lost or much lessened his friendship there, began to trouble him with new suits for old debts in Camera Imperiali at Spires, where the Marquis, because he lacked either favour in the Court, or experience in young years, or good matter on his side, was always wrong to the worst; and to

his stomach with more matter of unkindness against the Emperor, it is said, tħat letters from the great in the Emperor's Court were never lacking at Spires to help forward process against the Marquis.

Shortly after this time began the siege of Magdeburg, where Duke Maurice, by the Emperor, was appointed General. The Marquis, either weary of losing at home by suits, or desirous to win abroad by war, or else purposing to practise some way to revenge his displeasures, made him ready to serve against Magdeburg with 500 horse. And in the beginning of the spring of the year 1551, he set forward, and in his way went to visit Ernestus, his cousin, Duke of Saxony, brother to John Frederick, then prisoner with the Emperor. The self-same time Lazarus Swendy was

stuff up

sent from the Emperor as Commissary to Duke Ernestns, with earnest commandment that the Duke and all his should receive the doctrine of the Interiin. And (that I may accomplish my purpose, which is to paint out as truly as I can, by writing, the very image of such persons as have played any notable part in these affairs, and so you, being absent, shall with some more pleasure read their doings) this Lazarus Swendy is a tall and a comely personage, and being brought up in learning under Ecolampadius at Basil, making (as it was told me by an honest man that was thoroughly acquainted with him there) more account of his tall stature than of any beauty of the mind, began to be weary of learning, and became desirous to bear some brag in the world, and so made a soldier, marred a scholar; and because he would make a lusty change from the fear of God and knowledge of Christ's doctrine, he fell to be a perverse and bloody Papist: ever at hand in any cruel execution against the poor Protestants, as commonly all such do which so wittingly shake off Christ and his Gospel. Such a Commissary, you may be sure, would cruelly enough execute his office. Duke Ernestus told the Commissary that he, his lands and life, were at his Majesty's commandment: his Majesty knew how quietly he bore himself always, and therefore his trust was, as he willingly served the Emperor with true obedience, so, he might as freely serve God with right conscience; for he would rather leave his lands and goods and all to the Emperor, and go beg with his wife and children, than they would forsake the way of the Gospel, which God hath commanded them to follow.

And mark how evidently God did declare both how much such a commission sent out abroad in Germany against him and his word did displease him; and also how much the prayers

and sighing hearts of just men do in time prevail with him; for as a man of much honesty and great knowledge in all the matters of Germany did tell me, as soon as this commission was once abroad, the practices in Germany began to stir, yet not so openly as the Emperor might have just cause to withstand them, nor so covertly, but he had occasion enough to mistrust them; and thereby he both lacked help for open remedy, and wanted no displeasure for inward grief.

Duke Ernestus, Marquis Albert, and Lazarus Swendy, sat at supper together; and as they were talking of the Interim, the Marquis suddenly burst out into a fury, saying, “ What

the devil! will the Emperor never leave striving with God, in defacing true religion, and tossing the world, in debarring all men's liberties ?" adding, that he was a Prince unkind to every man, and kept touch with no man, that could forget all men's merits, and would deceive whomsoever he promised.

The Duke liked not this hot talk in his house and at his table, but said, “ Cousin, you speak but merely, and not as you think,” adding much in the praise of the Emperor's gentleness showed to many, and of his promise kept with all. “Well, (quoth the Marquis) if he had been either kind where men had deserved, or would have performed that he promised, neither should I at this time accuse him, nor you have sat here in this place to defend him; for he promised to give me this house, with all the lands that thereto belongeth: but ye be afraid, cousin, (quoth the Marquis) lest this talk be too loud, and so heard too far off; when indeed, if the Commissary here be so honest a man as I take him, and so true to his master as he should be, he will not fail to say what he hath heard; and on the same condition, Commissary, I bring thee good luck;" and drank off unto him a great glass of wine. Lazarus Swendy's talk then sounded gently and quietly, for he was sore afraid of the Marquis. But he was no sooner at home with the Emperor, but word was sent to Duke Maurice, that the Marquis, who was as then come to Magdeburg, if he would needs serve there, should serve without wages.

Ye may be sure the Marquis was chafed anew with this news, who already had lost a great sort of his men, and now must lose his whole labour thither, and all his wages there, besides the loss of his honour in taking such shame of his enemies, and receiving such unkindness of the Emperor.

The Marquis was not so grieved, but Duke Maurice was as well contented with this commandment; for even then was Duke Maurice's secretary practising, by Baron Heideck's advice, with the French King for the stir which did follow; and therefore was glad when he saw the Marquis might be made his so easily, which came very soon to pass; so that the Marquis, for the same purpose, in the end of the same year, went into France secretly, and was there with Shertly as a common lance knight, and named himself Captain Paul, lest the Emperor's spies should get out his doings; where, by the advice of Shertly, he practised with the French King for the wars which followed after. This matter was told unto me by John Mecardus, one of the chief preachers in Augsburg, who being banished the Empire, when and how ye shall hear after, was fain to fly, and was with Shertly the same year in France.

The Marquis came out of France in the beginning of the year 1552, and out of hand gathered up men, but his purpose was not known; yet the Emperor mistrusting the matter, being at Inspruck, sent Doctor Hasius, one of his council, to know what cause he had to make such stir. This Doctor Hasius was once an earnest Protestant, and wrote a book on that side, and was one of the Palsgraves privy-council; but, for hope to climb higher, he was very ready to be enticed by the Emperor to forsake first his master and then God ; by whom the Emperor knew much of all the Protestant Princes' purposes, for he was commonly one whom they had used in all their diets and private practices; which thing caused the Emperor to seek to have him; that, by his head he might the easilier overthrow the Protestants, and with them, God and his word in all Germany.

This man is very like M. Parrie, her Grace's cofferer, in head, face, legs, and belly. What answer Hasius had I cannot tell; but sure I am the Marquis then both wrote his book of complaints against the Emperor, and set it out in print. And also came forward with banner displayed, and took Dillying upon Danube, the Cardinal of Augustus town, which Cardinal, with a few priests, fed in post to the Emperor at Inspruck, where he found so cold cheer, and so little comfort, that forthwith in all haste he posted to Rome.

Horsemen and footmen in great companies still gathered to the Marquis ; and in the end of March he marched forward to Augsburg, where the Duke Maurice, the young Landgrave, the Duke of

Mecklenburg, George and Albert, with William Duke of Brunswick, and other Princes confederate, met together, and besieged that city, where I will leave the Marquis till I have brought Duke Maurice and his doings to the same time and to the same place.


Nor many years ago, whole Saxony was chiefly under two Princes; the one Duke John Frederick, born Elector, who

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