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stle to the Queen, and in his whole book de Justitia), have so over-reached themselves in making true difference in the points afore rehearsed, as though they had been brought up in some school * in Asia, to learn to decline, rather than in Athens with Plato, Aristotle, and Demosthenes, (from whence Tully fetched his eloquence,) to understand, what in every matter to be spoken or written on, is in very deed nimium, satis, parum; that is for to say, to all considerations decorum : : which, as it is the hardest point in all learning, so it is the fairest and only mark that scholars in all their study must always shoot at, if they purpose, another day, to be either sound in religion or wise and discreet in any vocation of the commonwealth.
Again, in the lowest degree, it is no low point of learning and judgement, for a schoolmaster to make true difference betwixt
Humile, et depressum:
Exile, et macrum :
Linuffectatum, et neglectum. In these points, some loving Melancthon well, as he was well worthy, but yet not considering well, nor wisely, how he of nature, and all his life and study by judgement, was wholly spent in genere disciplinabili; that is, in teaching, reading, and expounding plainly and aptly school matters, and therefore employed thereunto a fit, sensible, and calm kind of speaking and writing: some, I say, with very,
well liking, but not with very well weighing Melancthon's doings, do frame themselves a style cold, lean, and weak, though the matter be never so warm and earnest; not much unlike unto one, that had a pleasure, in a rough, rainy, winter day, to clothe himself with nothing else but a demibuckram cassock, plain without plaits, and single without lining; which will neither bear off wind nor weather, nor yet keep out the sun in any hot day.
* What sort of oratory the Asiatics generally affected, is easily seen in Tully. A passage or two to this purpose I shall cite out of his book de claris Orat. “ Genera autem Asiaticæ dictionis, duo sunt: Unum sententiosum et argutum, sententiis non tam gravibus et severis, quàm concinnis et venustis. Aliud autem genus est, non tam sententiis frequentatum, quàm verbis volucre atque incitatum; quale est nunc Asia tota, nec flumine solum orationis, sed etiam exornato et faceto genere verborum." And in the same book, “ Hinc Asiatici oratores non contemnendi quidem nec celeritate, nec copia, $ed parùm pressi, et nimis redundantes. Rhodii saniores, et Atticorum similiores."
Some suppose, and that by good reason, that Melancthon himself came to this low kind of writing, by using over much Paraphrasis in reading. For studying thereby to make every thing straight and easy in smoothing and planing all things too much, never leaveth, while the sense itself be left both loose and leasy. And some of those Paraphrases of Melancthon be set out in print, as Pro Archia Poeta, et M. Marcello. But a scholar, by mine opinion, is better occupied in playing or sleeping, than by spending time, not only vainly, but also harmfully, in such a kind of exercise.
If a master would have a perfect example to follow, how in genere sublimi, to avoid nimium; or in mediocri, to attain satis; or in humili, to eschew parum ; let him read diligently for the first, secundam Philippicam; for the mean, de Natura Deorum; and for the lowest, Partitiones. Or if in another tongue you look for like example in like perfection, for all those three degrees, read Pro Ctesiphonte, Ad Leptinem, et Contra Olympiodorum ; and what wit, art, and diligence is able to afford, you shall plainly see.
For our time, the odd man to perform all three perfectly, whatsoever he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfully, whensoever he list, is, in my poor opinion, Joannes Sturmius.
He also counselleth all scholars to beware of Paraphrasis, except it be from worse to better ; from rude and barbarous, proper
and pure Latin; and yet no man to exercise that neither, except such one as is already furnished with plenty of learning, and grounded with steadfast judgement before.
All these faults, that thus many wise men do find with the exercise of Paraphrasis, in turning the best Latin into other, as good as they can, that is (you may be sure) into a great deal worse than it was, both in right choice for propriety, and true placing for good order, are committed also commonly in all common schools by the schoolmasters, in tossing and troubling young wits (as I said * in the beginning) with that butcherly fear in making of Latin.
* See page 195.
Therefore, in place of Latin for young scholars, and of Pa raphrasis for the masters, I would have double translation specially used. For in double translating a perfect piece of Tully or Cæsar, neither the scholar in learning, nor the master in teaching, can err. A true touchstone, a sure metewand lieth before both their eyes. For all right congruity, propriety of words, order in sentences; the right imitation to invent good matter, to dispose it in good order, to confirm it with good reason, to express any purpose fitly and orderly, is learned thus both easily and perfectly. Yea, to miss sometime in this kind of translation bringeth more profit, than to hit right either in Paraphrasis or making of Latin. For though you say well in a Latin making or in a Paraphrasis, yet you being but in doubt, and uncertain whether you say well or no, you gather and lay up in memory no sure fruit of learning thereby; but if you fault in translation, you are easily taught how perfectly to amend it, and so well warned how after to eschew all such faults again.
Paraphrasis therefore, by mine opinion, is not meet for grammar schools, nor yet very fit for young men in the university, until study and time have bred in them perfect learning and steadfast judgement.
There is a kind of Paraphrasis which may be used without all hurt to much profit, but it serveth only the Greek, and not the Latin, nor no other tongue; as to alter linguam Ionicam, aut Doricam, into meram Atticam. A notable example there is left unto us by a notable learned man, Dionysius Halicarnassæus; who, * in his book Tepi Surbéoews 'Ovouetur, doth translate the goodly story of Candaules and Gyges, in the first book of Herodotus, out of Ionica lingua into Atticam. Read the place, and you shall take both pleasure and profit in conference of it. A man that is exercised in reading Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, and Demosthenes, in using to turn like places of Herodotus after like sort, should shortly come to such a knowledge in understanding, speaking, and writing the Greek tongue, as few or none have yet attained in England. The like exercise out of Dorica lingua may be also used, if a man take f that little book of Plato, Timæus
* I have here given the true title of Dionysius's book. It was printed in the former edition, περί Συντάξεος, αμαρτήματι μνημονιακώ. The story of Candaules and Gyges is page 22 of the London edition of Dionysius.
f One would imagine from these words, Mr. Ascham believed
Locrus, de Anima mundi, et Natura, which is written Doricè, and turn it into such Greek as Plato useth in other works. The book is but two leaves, and the labour would be but two weeks; but surely the profit for easy
understanding, and true writing the Greek tongue, would countervail with the toil that some men take in otherwise coldly reading that tongue two years.
And yet for the Latin tongue, and for the exercise of Paraphrasis in those places of Latin that cannot be bettered, if some young man, excellent of wit, courageous in will, lusty of nature, and desirous to contend even with the best Latin, to better it if he can; surely I commend his forwardness : and for his better instruction therein, I will set before him as notable an example of Paraphrasis as is in record of learning. Cicero himself doth contend in two sundry places, to express one matter with divers words; and that is Paraphrasis, saith Quintilian. The matter, I suppose, is taken out of Panætius; and therefore being translated out of Greek at divers times, is uttered for his purpose with divers words and forms; which kind of exercise for perfect learned men is very profitable.
De FINIBUS, Lib. sec. “ Homines enim, * etsi aliis multis, tamen hoc uno à bestiis plurimum differunt, quòd rationem habeant à natura datam, mentemque et acrem et vigentem, celerrimeque multa simul agitantem, et, ut ita dicam, sagacem : quæ et causas rerum, et consecutiones videat, et similitudines transferat, et disjuncta conjungat, et cum præsentibus futura copulet, omnemque complectatur vitæ consequentis statum. Eademque ratio fecit hominem hominum appetentem, cumque his natura, et sermone, et usu congruentem; ut profectus à caritate domesticorum ac suorum, serpat longius, et se implicet primum civium, deinde omnium mortalium societate: atque, ut ad Archytam scripsit Plato, non sibi se soli natum meminerit, sed patriæ, sed suis, ut perexigua pars ipsi relin
Plato to be the author of that treatise. The title of it is Tiuaíu tu Λοκρώ περί ψυχάς Κόσμω, και Φύσιος.
* These citations, which were very imperfect before, are now carefully corrected from the printed editions of Tully. And here I cannot but observe, that this book has undergone the common fate of all orphans, and suffered very much for its parent's untimely death.
Et quoniam eadem natura cupiditatem ingenuit homini veri inveniendi, quod facillime apparet, cum vacui curis, etiam quid in cælo fiat, scire avemus :" &c.
De Officiis, Lib. pri. “ Homo autem, quòd rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, causas rerum videt, earumque progressus, et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines comparat, et rebus præsentibus adjungit, atque annectit futuras : facile totius vitæ cursum videt, ad eamque degendam præparat res necessarias. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini, et ad orationis et ad vitæ societatem : ingeneratque inprimis præcipuum quendam amorem in eos qui procreati sunt; impellitque, ut hominum cælus et celebrationes esse, et à se obiri velit; ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quæ suppeditent et ad cultum et ad victum ; nec sibi soli, sed conjugi, liberis, cæterisque, quos charos habeat, tuerique debeat. Quæ cura exsuscitat etiam animos, et majores ad rem gerendam facit. Inprimisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio, atque investigatio. "Itaque cùm sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui, tum avemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere; cognitionemque rerum aut occultarum, aut admirabilium, ad beatè vivendum necessariam ducimus.”
The conference of these two places, containing so excellent a piece of learning as this is, expressed by so worthy a wit as Tully was, must needs bring great pleasure and profit to him that maketh true account of learning and honesty, But if we had the Greek author, the first pattern of all, and thereby to see how Tully's wit did work at divers times; how, out of one excellent image might be framed two other, one in face and favour, but somewhat differing in form, figure, and colour ; surely such a piece of workmanship, compared with the pattern itself, would better please the eyes of honest, wise, and learned minds, than two of the fairest Venuses that ever Apelles made.
And thus much for all kind of Paraphrasis, fit or unfit for scholars or other, as I am led to think, not only by mine own experience, but chiefly by the authority and judgement of those whom I myself would gladliest follow, and do counsel all mine to do the same, not contending with any other, that will otherwise either think or do.