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tationis, proprietas splendorque verborum, apta structura sententiarum, figurarum copia, et explicandi vis colligitur. Præterea imitatione optimorum, facultas similia inveniendi paratur: et quæ legentem fefellissent, transferentem fugere non possunt. Intelligentia ex hoc, et judicium acquiritur.”
You perceive how Pliny teacheth, that by this exercise of double translating is learned easily, sensibly, by little and little, not only all the hard congruities of grammar, the choice of aptest words, the right framing of words and sentences, comeliness of figures, and forms fit for every matter, and proper for every tongue, but that which is greater also, in marking daily and following diligently thus the steps of the best authors, like invention of arguments, like order in disposition, like utterance in elocution is easily gathered up; whereby your scholar shall be brought not only to like eloquence, but also to all true understanding and right judgement both for writing and speaking. And where Dionysius Halicarnassæus hath written two excellent books, * the one de Delectu optimorum Verborum (the which, I fear, is lost), the other, Of the right framing of words and sentences, which doth remain yet in Greek, to the great profit of all them that truly study for eloquence: yet this way of double translating shall bring the whole profit of both these books to a diligent scholar, and that easily and pleasantly, both for fit choice of words and apt composition of sentences.
And by these authorities and reasons am I moved to think this way of double translating, either only or chiefly, to be fittest for the speedy and perfect attaining of any tongue. And for speedy attaining, I durst venture a good wager, if a scholar, in whom is aptness, love, diligence, and constancy, would but translate after this sort, one little book in Tully, (as de Senectute, with two epistles, the first ad Q. Fratrem, the other ad Lentulum, the last save one in the first book,)
* Dionysius, in the beginning of his excellent treatise meçi Euve Bérews ovoubtwv, acquaints young Rufus Melítius, he designed him another present the year following, on his next ensuing birth-day, which should be a treatise concerning the right choice of words. But whether he ever performed what he there promises, is uncertain. Εάν δε έγγένηταί μοι σχολή, και περί της 'Εκλογής των ονομάτων ετέραν έξοίσω σοι γραφήν, ίνα τον Λεκτικόν τόπον τελειώς εξειργασμένον έχης. εκείνην, μέν ούν την πραγματείαν εις νέωτα πάλιν ώραις ταις αυταίς xou.
that scholar, I say, should come to a better knowledge in the Latin tongue, than the most part do, that spend four or five years in tossing all the rules of grammar in common schools. Indeed this one book, with these two epistles, is not sufficient to afford all Latin words (which is not necessary for a young scholar to know), but it is able to furnish him fully for all points of grammar, with the right placing, ordering, and use of words, in all kind of matter. And why not ? For it is read, that Dion Prussæus, that wise philosopher and excel. lent orator of * all his time, did come to the great learning and utterance that was in him, by reading and following only two books, Phædon Platonis, and Demosthenes most notable Oration, περί Παραπρεσβείας.
And a better and nearer example herein may be, our most noble queen Elizabeth, who never took yet Greek nor Latin grammar in her hand, after the first declining of a noun and a verb; but only by this double translating of Demosthenes and Isocrates daily, without missing every forenoon, and likewise some part of Tully every afternoon, for the space of a year or two, hath attai ned to such a perfect understanding in both the tongues, and to such a ready utterance of the Latin, and that with such a judgement, as they be few in number in both the universities, or elsewhere in England, that be in both tongues comparable with Her Majesty. And to conclude in a short room the commodities of double translation : : surely the mind by daily marking, first, the cause and matter; then, the words and phrases; next, the order and composition; after, the reason and arguments; then, the forms and figures of both the tongues; lastly, the measure and compass of every sentence, must needs, by little and little, draw unto it the like shape of eloquence, as the author doth use which is read. And thus much for double translation.
PARAPHRASIS. Paraphrasis, the second point, is not only 7 to express at large with more words, but to strive and contend (as Quinti
* He lived in Trajan's time, and in great favour and esteem with the Emperor.
† “ Neque ego trapádpaon esse interpretationem tantum volo, sed circa eosdem sensus certamen atque æmulationem." Quintil.
lian saith) to translate the best Latin authors into other Latin words, as many, or thereabout. This way
of exercise was used first by C. Carbo, and taken up for a while by L. Crassus, but soon after, upon due proof thereof, rejected justly by Crassus and Cicero; yet allowed and made sterling again by M. Quintilian : nevertheless, shortly after, by better assay, disallowed of his own scholar, Plinius Secundus, who termeth it rightly thus, faudax contentio. It is a bold comparison indeed, to think to say better, than that is best. Such turning of the best into worse, is much like the turning of good wine, out of a fair sweet flagon of silver, into a foul musty bottle of leather ; or to turn pure gold and silver into foul brass and copper.
Such kind of Paraphrasis, in turning, chopping, and changing the best to worse, either in the mint or schools, (though Mr. Brokke and Quintilian both say
the contrary,) is much misliked of the best and wisest men. I can better allow another kind of Paraphrasis, to turn rude and barba
proper and eloquent: which nevertheless is an exercise not fit for a scholar, but for a perfect master; who in plenty hath good choice, in copy hath right judgement, and grounded skill; as did appear to be in Sebastian Castalio, in translating Kempe's book de Imitando Christo.
But to follow Quintilian's advice for Paraphrasis, were even to take pain to seek the worse and fouler way, when the
The old and best authors that ever wrote, were content, if occasion required to speak twice of one matter, not to change the words, but pñtūs, that is, word for word to express it again. For they thought that a matter, well expressed with fit words and apt composition, was not to be altered, but li
* “ In quotidianis autem cogitationibus equidem mihi adolescentulus proponere solebam illam exercitationem maximè, qua C. Carbonem nostrum illum inimicum solitum esse uti sciebam, ut aut versibus propositis quàm maximè gravibus, aut oratione aliqua lecta ad eum finem, quem memoria possem comprehendere, eam rem ipsam, quam legissem, verbis aliis quàm maximè possem lectis pronunciarem.” Cic de Orat. lib. 1.
† “ Licebit interdum et notissima eligere, et certare cum electis. Audax hæc, non tamen improba, quia secreta, contentio : quanquam multos videmus ejusmodi certamina sibi cum multa laude sumpsisse, quosque subsequi satis habebant, dum non desperant, antecessisse.” Pliny, in the same epistle.
king it well themselves, they thought it would also be well allowed of others.
A schoolmaster (such a one as I require) knoweth that I say true. He readeth in Homer, almost in every book, and specially in secundo, et nono Iliados, not only some verses, but whole leaves, not to be altered with new, but to be uttered with the old self same words. He knoweth that Xenophon, writing twice of Agesilaus, once in his Life, again in the History of the Greeks, in one matter, keepeth always the self same words. He doth the like, speaking of Socrates, both in the beginning of his apology and in the last end of 'Απομνημονευμάτων.
Demosthenes also, in the fourth Philippic, doth borrow his own words, uttered before in his oration de Chersoneso. He doth the like, and that more at large, in his orations against Andration and Timocrates.
In Latin also, Cicero in some places, and Virgil in more, do repeat one matter with the self same words. These excellent authors did thus, not for lack of words, but by judgement and skill, whatsoever others, more curious and less skilful, do think, write, and do.
Paraphrasis nevertheless hath good place in learning, but not, by mine opinion, for any scholar; but it is only to be left to a perfect master, either to expound openly a good author withal, or to compare privately for his own exercise, how some notable place of an excellent author may be uttered with other fit words. But if you alter also the composition, form, and order, then that is not Paraphrasis, but Imitatio, as I will fully declare in fitter place.
The scholar shall win nothing by Paraphrasis, but only, if we may believe Tully, to choose worse words, to place them out of order, to fear overmuch the judgement of the master, to mislike overmuch the hardness of learning; and by use to gather up faults which hardly will be left off again.
The master, in teaching it, shall rather increase his own labour than his scholar's profit. For when the scholar shall bring unto his master a piece of Tully or Cæsar, turned into other Latin, then must the master come to Quintilian's goodly lesson de Emendatione ; “which (as he saith) is * the
* “ Sequitur emendatio, pars studiorum longe utilissima. Neque enim sine causa creditum est, Stilum non minus agere, cum delet,". Quint.
most profitable part of teaching;” but not in mine opinion, and namely for youth in grammar schools. For the master now taketh double pains; first, to mark what is amiss ; again, to invent what may be said better. And here perchance, a very good master may easily both deceive himself and lead his scholar into error.
It requireth greater learning and deeper judgement than is to be hoped for at any schoolmaster's hand; that is, to be able always learnedly and perfectly,
-Mutare, * quod ineptum est:
Transmutare, quod perversum est :
Expungere, quod inane est. And that which requireth more skill and deeper consideration,
Premere tumentia :
Componere dissoluta. The master may here only stumble, and perchance fall in teaching, to the marring and maiming of the scholar in learning; when it is a matter of much reading, of great learning, and tried judgement, to make true difference betwixt
Sublime, et tumidum :
Perfectum, et nimium. Some men of our time counted perfect masters of eloquence, in their own opinion the best, in other men's judgements very good ; (as Omphalius every where, Sadoletus in many places; yea, also
friend Osorius, namely in his epi* These directions for emendation, are taken from Quntilian. Hujus autem operis est, adjicere, detrahere, mutare. Sed facilius in his simpliciusque judicium, quæ replenda, vel dejicienda sunt: premere verò tumentia, humilia extollere, luxuriantia astringere, inordinata digerere, soluta componere, exultantia coercere, duplicis operæ.”