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merely in a company where I was, that his master the Emperor had won more in Naples by the death of the Viceroy, than he had lost in Lorraine by the forging of Metz.

But to my purpose. Not many years ago divers in Naples made their complaint to the Prince of Salerne of their griefs, who, it was thought, would be most willing for his good nature, and best able for his authority, to seek some remedy for them by way of intercession to the Emperor.

The Prince being here at Brussels, humbly besought his Majesty to pity the misery of his poor subjects ; who, by this suit, got of the Emperor, for his clients, words without hope, and of the Viceroy for himself hatred without end. The Prince yet always bore himself so wisely, that he could not without some stir be thrust down openly; and riding on his jour

he was once shot with a dagger secretly. Thus he seeing no end of displeasure in the Viceroy, no hope of remedy in the Emperor, when he saw the Turk on the sea, the French King in the field, Duke Maurice and the Marquis up, and a good part of Italy either risen or ready to rise, thinking the time come of their most hope for help by the Princes, and of least fear of punishment by the Emperor, came forth to play his part also amongst the rest; who, when flying first to the French King, and after, by his counsel, as it is said, to the Turk, is compelled to venture upon many hard fortunes. And what success he shall have, either of help in France, or comfort of the Turk, or mercy of the Emperor, I cannot yet write. But this last winter he hath lain in the isle of Cio, and now I hear say this summer, he is on the sea with sixty-three galleys of the Turks at his commandment; what enterprise he will make, or what success he shall have, when we shall hear of the matter, I trust I shall, either by some private letter from hence, or by present talk at home, fully satisfy you


ALBERT MARQUIS OF BRANDENBURGH. Albert Marquis of Brandenburgh, in the beginning of his stir 1552, wrote a book and set it in print, wherein he declared the causes of his falling from the Emperor, wittily alleging common misery as a just pretence of his private enterprise, making other men's hurts his remedy to heal his

own sores,
and common wrongs

his way to revenge private displeasures ; showing liberty to be lost, and religion to be defaced, in all Germany, lamenting the long captivity of the two great Princes, and all the dispossessing of his father-inlaw Duke Otto Henrick; sore envying against the pride of the Spaniards, and the authority of strangers, which had now in their hands the seal of the empire, and in their swing the doing of all things, and at their commandment all such men's voices as were to be called the Imperial Diets ; compelling the Germans in their own country to use strange tongues for their private suits, wherein they could say nothing at all, or nothing to the purpose; using camera imperialis at Spires for a common key to open all men's coffers when they listed, and these were the chiefest points in Marquis's book.

The Marquis also sore envied against Luis de Avila for writing, and against the Emperor for suffering, such a book as Luis de Avila wrote; wherein the honour of Germany and the Princes thereof, and by name Marquis Albert, who was in the first wars on the Emperor's side, was so defamed to all the world; yea, the Marquis was so thoroughly chafed with this book, that when I was in the Emperor's Court, he offered the combat with Luis de Avila, which the Emperor, for good will and wise respects, would in no case admit.

Not only the Marquis, but also the Princes at the Diet of Passau this last year, made a common complaint of this hook. I knew also the good old Prince Frederick Palsgrave of the Rhine, in September last, when the Emperor lay at Landau beside Spires, going with his great army to Metz, complained to the Emperor himself

, and to his council

, of a certain spiteful place in that book against him; the good Prince told me this tale himself at his house in Heldiburg, when I carried unto him King Edward's letters, the Lord Ambassador himself being sick at Spires.

And wise men say that the Duke of Bavaria also is evil contented for that which is written in that book against his father, when he deserved of the Imperials to have been rewarded rather with praise and thanks than with any unkind note of blame and dishonour; of whom the Emperor in his wars against the Landgrave of Hesse and the Duke of Saxony received such kindness, as no Prince in Germany for all respects

in that case was able to afford him; as first, he had his whole country of Bavaria for a sure footing-place to begin the war in; and had also both men and victuals of him what he would, and at length should have had that country his only refuge, if that in war he had come to any underdele, as he was like enough to have done. But it was God's secret will and pleasure to have the matter then go as it did; and for that cause men say Duke Albert of Bavaria that now, is, that hath married the Emperor's niece, was more strange this last year to the Emperor, when he was driven to that extremity to fly away in the night from Inspruck, and was more familiar with Duke Maurice, and more friendly to the Princes confederate, than else peradventure he would have been.

And here a writer may learn of Princes' affairs a good lesson, to beware of partiality, either in flattery or spite; for although thereby a man may please his own Prince presently, yet he may perchance as much hurt him in the end, as Luis de Avila did hurt the Emperor his master in writing of this book.

Indeed this book was not the chiefest cause of this stir in Germany ; but sure I


Princes in Germany were sore aggrieved with it, as the Emperor wanted both their hearts, and their hands when he stood in most need of friends.

Just reprehension of all vices, as folly, unjust dealing, cowardice, and vicious living, must be freely and frankly used, yet so with that moderate discretion, as no purposed malice or bent hatred may seem to be the breeder of any false reproach, which humour of writing followeth so full in Paulus Jovius's books, and that by that

judgement of his own friends, as I have heard wise and well-learned men say, that his whole study and purpose is spent on these points, to deface the Emperor, to flatter France, to spite England, to belie Germany, to praise the Turk, to keep up the Pope, to pull down Christ and Christ's religion, as niuch as lieth in him. But to my purpose again.

The matters before of me briefly rehearsed, were at large declared in Marquis Albert's book; yet, that you may know what secret working went before this plain writing and open doing, and because the Marquis's part hath been so notable in all this pastime, I will, by more particular circumstances, lead you to this general complaint.

am that

There be at this day five Marquisses of Brandenburgh : Joachimus Elector, Johannes his brother, who, for civil service, is imperial with might and main, and yet in religion a Christian Prince, with heart, tongue, and honesty of life: Doctor Christopher Monte, both a learned and wise man, our King's Majesty's servant, and his agent in the affairs of Germany, hath told me divers times that this Marquis John and the Duke of Suabia be two of the worthiest Princes in all the Empire, either in considering wisely, or executing courageously, any affair. The third is Marquis George, who dwelleth in Franconia, not far from Nuremberg. The fourth Marquis Albert the elder, the mighty Duke of Prussia, able, for his power, to cope with any Prince, and fifteen years together he did stoutly withstand, in continual war, the strength of the King of Poland. He hath so fully banished Papistry, and so surely established the doctrine of the Gospel in Prussia, as no where hitherto in Germany is more diligently done ; he loveth learning and honoureth learned men; anno 1544 he founded a new university in Prussia, called Mons Regius, bringing thither, with plentiful things, excellent learned men in all tongues and sciences. He is uncle to this notable Marquis Albert, and lacking children hath made him his heir, and hath already invested him in the dukedom of Prussia. The fifth is Marquis Albert, of whom I purpose to write on; whose father was Casimirus, descended from the Kings of Poland ; and, for his nobleness against the Turk, called Achilles Germanicus; and therefore might very well engender such a hot Pyrrhus. Marquis Albert, in his young years, as I have heard wise men say, was rude in his manners, nor did not show any token of towardness likely to attempt any such affairs as indeed he hath done. It might be either for the lack of learning and good bringing up (a great and common fault in great Princes of Germany) or else for his bashful nature in youth, which property Xenophon wittily feigned to be in Cyrus at like years, judging bashfulness in youth to be a great token of virtue in age.

Marquis Albert is now at this day about thirty-one years old; of a good stature, neither very high nor very low, thick without

grossness; rather well-boned for strength, than overloaded with flesh ; his face fair, beautiful, broad, stern, and manly; somewhat resembling my Lord Marquis of Northampton, when he was of the same years; his eyes great and rolling,

making his countenance cheerful when he talketh ; and yet when he giveth ear to other, he keepeth both a sad look without sign of suspicion, and also a well-set eye without token of malice; and this behaviour I marked well in him when I dined in his company at the siege of Metz, in the County John of Nassau's tent: his voice is great, and his words not many, more ready to hear others than to talk himself. And when he talketh he so frameth his tongue to agree with heart, as speaking and meaning seemeth to be always at one in him; and herein he may be well called the son of Achilles, whom Homer wittily doth feign to have such a free open nature; whose saying in Greek is excellent, but being turned in the wrong side into English, it shall less delight you, yet thus much it signifieth:

Who, either in earnest or in sport,
Doth frame himself after such sort,
This thing to think, and that to tell,

My heart abhorreth as gate to hell. Homer meaning hereby that a Prince of noble courage should have his heart, his look, his tongue, and his hands so always agreeing together, in thinking, pretending, speaking, and doing, as no one of these four should at any time be at jar with another ; which, agreeing together in their right tune, do make a pleasant melody in all men's ears both sweetest and loudest, called in English Honour, and most fitly in Greek Tops, the price and praise of virtue.

And though the Marquis be free to say what he thinketh, yet he is both secret in purposing and close in working whatsoever he goeth about. Now very skilful to do harm to others, and as ware to keep hurt from himself, yet first beat unto it with his own rod; for in the former wars of Germany, being on the Emperor's side, he fell into the hands of Duke John Frederick of Saxony, which chance he is charged sore withall by Luis de Avila, and that with so spiteful and open a mouth, as moved the Marquis to offer him the combat, as I said before. He is now most courageous in hardest adventures, most cheerful in present jeopardy, and most painful in greatest labours, having no soldier under him that can better away with heat and cold, or longer suffer hunger and thirst than he himself. His apparel is soldierlike, better known by his fierce doings than by his gay going; his soldiers fear him for his stoutness, and love him for

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