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“ I am not now to learn what you can do; our dear friend, good Mr. Goodricke, whose judgement I could well believe, did once for all satisfy me fully therein. Again, I heard you say, not long ago, that you may thank Sir John Cheke for all the learning you have; and I know very well myself, that you did teach the Queen. And therefore, seeing God did so bless you, to make you the scholar of the best master, and * also the schoolmaster of the best scholar, that ever were in our time; surely, you should please God, benefit your country, and honest your own name, if you would take the pains to impart to others what you learned of such a master, and how you taught such a scholar. And in uttering the stuff you received of the one, in declaring the order you took with the other, you shall never lack neither matter nor manner, what to write nor how to write, in this kind of argument.”

I beginning some further excuse, suddenly was called to come to the Queen. The night following, I slept little; my head was so full of this our former talk, and I so mindful somewhat to satisfy the honest request of so dear a friend. I thought to prepare some little treatise for a new-year's gift that Christmas; but, as it chanceth to busy builders, so, in building this my poor school-house, (the rather because the form of it is somewhat new, and differing from others,) the work rose daily higher and wider, than I thought it would at the beginning

And though it appear now, and be in very deed, but a small cottage, poor for the stuff and rude for the workmanship, yet, in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was loth to give it over ; but the making so costly, outreaching my ability, as many times I wished that some one of those three, my dear friends, with full purses, Sir Thomas Smith, Mr. Haddon, or Mr. Watson had had the doing of it. Yet, nevertheless, I myself spending gladly that little, that I got at home by good Sir John Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my friend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me in reversion by my old masters Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero, I have at last patched it up, as I could, and as you see. If the matter be mean, and meanly handled, I pray you bear both with nie and it; for never work went up in worse weather, with more lets and stops, than this poor school-house of mine. Westminster Hall can bear some witness, beside * much weakness of body, but more troubi of mind, by some such sores, as grieve me to touch ther myself; and therefore I purpose not to open them to other And in the midst of outward injuries and inward cares, i increase them withal, good Sir Richard Sackville dieth, tha worthy gentleman; that earnest favourer and furtherer God's true religion, that faithful servitor to his prince an country; a lover of learning and all learned men : wise in al doinys; courteous to all persons, showing spite to none, do ing good to many; and as I well found, to me so fast friend, as I never lost the like before. When he wa gone, my heart was dead; there was not one that wore a blac gown for him, who carried a heavier heart for him than I when he was gone, I cast this book away; I could not loo! upon it but with weeping eyes, in remembering him whe was the only setter on to do it; and would have been no only a glad commender of it, but also a sure and certain com fort to me and mine for it.

Almost two years together this book lay scattered and neglected, and had been quite given over of me, if the goodness of one had not given me some life and spirit again. God, the mover of goodness, prosper always him and his, as he hath many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall comfort more and more. Of whom most justly I may say, and very oft, and always gladly I am wont to say, that sweet verse of Sophocles, spoken by Edipus to worthy Theseus :

"Έχω γαρ ά "χω διά σε, κούκ άλλον βροτών. This hope hath helped me to end this book; which, if he allow, I shall think my labours well employed, and shall not much esteem the misliking of any others. And I trust he shall think the better of it, because he shall find the best part thereof to come out of his school, whom he of all men loved and liked best.

* “ Ingravescente jam ætate, a nocturnis et pomeridianis studiis abhorrebat: Antelucanis et matutinis temporibus legebat, commentabatur, studebat, scribebat. Erat corpore imbecillis, et valetudinarius, multis morbis fractus, continentibus febribus correptus, variis ægrotationibus afflictus; quæ paucis ante mortem annis eum in hecticam febrim conjecerunt." This is taken out of Mr. Grant's excellent Oration on Mr. Ascham.

Yet some men, friendly enough of nature, but of small judgement in learning, do' think I take too much pains, and spend too much time, in setting forth these children's affairs. But those good men were never brought up in Socrates's school, who saith plainly, “ That no man goeth about a more * godly purpose, than he that is mindful of the good bringing up both of his own and other men's children."

Therefore, I trust, good and wise men will think well of this my doing. And of other, that think otherwise, I will think myself, they are but men to be pardoned for their folly and pitied for their ignorance.

In writing this book, I have had earnest respect to three special points; truth of religion, honesty in living, right order in learning. In which three ways, I pray God my poor children may diligently walk; for whose sake, as nature moved, and reason required, and necessity also somewhat compelled, I was the willinger to take these pains.

For, seeing at my death I am not like to leave them any great store of living, therefore in my life-time I thought good to bequeath unto them, in this little book, as in my last will and testament, the right way to good learning; which if they follow, with the fear of God, they shall very well come to sufficiency of living.

I wish also, with all my heart, that young Mr. Robert Sackville may take that fruit of this labour that his worthy grandfather purposed he should have done: and if other do take either profit or pleasure hereby, they have cause to thank Mr. Robert Sackville, for whom especially this my Schoolmaster was provided.

And one thing I would have the reader consider in reading this book, that, because no schoolmaster hath charge of any child before he enter into his school, therefore, I leaving all former care of their good bringing up to wise and good parents, as a matter not belonging to the schoolmaster, I do appoint this my Schoolmaster then and there to begin, where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth nat

any

* Plato in initio Theagis : 'Αλλά μεν δή, ω Δημόδοκε, και λέγεται γε συμβουλή ιερόν χρήμα είναι, είπερ ούν και άλλη ήτισούν έστιν ιερά, και αυτή αν είη περί ης συ νυν συμβουλεύη. Ου γάρ έστι περί ότου θειοτέρου αν άνθρωπος βουλεύσαιτο, ή περί Παιδείας και των αυτού, και Tüv aúto oixelwn. This passage is cited by the author, though not so fully.

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THE WORKS OF ROGER ASCHAM.

194 long, but until the scholar be made able to go to the university, to proceed in logick, rhetorick, and other kinds of learning.

Yet if my Schoolmaster, for love he beareth to his scholar, shall teach him somewhat for his furtherance and better judgement in learning, that may serve him seven year after in the university, he doth his scholar no more wrong, nor deserveth no worse name thereby, than he doth in London, who, selling silk or cloth unto his friend, doth give him better measure

than either his promise or bargain was.

Farewell in Christ,

THE

FIRST BOOK,

TEACHING

THE BRINGING UP OF YOUTH.

AFTER the child hath learned perfectly the eight parts of speech, let him then learn the right joining together of substantives with adjectives, the noun with the verb, the relative with the antecedent. And in learning further his syntaxis, by mine advice, he shall not use the common order in common schools, for making of Latin : whereby the child commonly learneth, first, an evil choice of words, (and * " right choice of words," saith Cæsar, “is the foundation of elo. quence;") then, a wrong placing of words; and lastly, an illframing of the sentence, with a perverse judgement, both of words and sentences. These faults, taking once root in youth, be never or hardly pluckt away in age. Moreover, there is no one thing, that hath more either dulled the wits, or taken away the will of children from learning, than the care they have to satisfy their masters in making of Latin.

For the scholar is commonly beat for the making, when the master were more worthy to be beat for the mending, or rather marring of the same; the master many times being as

* Cicero de claris Orat. sect. 72. p. 165. Gronoy. edit. in 4to. * Quinetiam in maximis occupationibus cum ad te ipsum (inquit ad me intuens) de ratione Latinè loquendi accuratissimè scripserit; primoque in libro dixerit, Verborum delectum, originem esse eloquentiæ,"

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