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Thus ye see how the Pope was both the brewer and broacher and also bringer of ill luck to both these princes; and as it came well to pass, drank well of it himself, both with expenses of great treasures and with the loss of many lives, and especially of two noble gentlemen, the Prince of Macedonia and Sign. Giovan-Baptista di Monte his own nephew. But the Pope's care was neither of money nor men, so that he might set the two princes surely together. And therefore he was not only content (as a man might say) to hazard Parma on the main chance; but, to make the two princes better sport and fresher game, set also even then Mic randula on a bye chance, that mischief enough might come together.

When the princes were well in, and the one so lusty with good luck that he had no lust to leave, and the other so chafed with losing that still he would venture: besides their playing in sport for the Pope at Parma and Mirandula, they fell to it a good themselves in Piedmont, Lorraine, Flanders, and Picardy, the French king robbing by sea and spoiling by land, with calling in the Turk, and stirring up all princes and states that had any occasion to bear any grudge to the Emperor. Of all their neighbours, only our noble king and the wise senate of Venice would be lookers

And when the Pope saw they were so hot at it, as he well knew as the one would not start in so great good luck, so the other could not leave by so much shame of loss. And although it did him good to see them so lustily together; nevertheless he thought it scarce his surety that they should play so near his elbow so earnestly, lest if they fell too far out, and the one should win too much of the other, then he peradventure would compel at length the Pope himself, which began the play, to keep him sport afterward for that that he had in Italy. And therefore very craftily he got them to play in another place, and took up the game for Parma and Mirandula, taking truce with France for certain years, and bid them make what sport they would further off in Lorraine and Picardy. And that they should lack neither injury nor spite in the Pope's doings, when the Emperor saw that, whether he would or no, the Pope would needs fall in with France, then he desired the Pope that such bastillions and forts of fence as were made about Mirandula when it was besieged, might either be delivered to his men's hands, or


come upon

else defaced, that the Frenchmen might not have them; which request was very reasonable, seeing the Emperor had been at all the charge in making of them: but they were neither delivered nor defaced, nor left indifferent, but so put into the Frenchmen's hands, that Mirandula now is made very strong to the French faction by the Emperor's money, and the Pope's falsehood.

This fact was very wrongful of the Pope for the deed, but more spiteful for the time : even when Duke Maurice had won Augsburg, even then the Pope gave up the siege of Mirandula, and fell in with France, that care enough might

the Emperor together, both out of Germany, and out of Italy at once. And even this day, 25th June 1553, when I was writing this place, cometh news to Brussels, that the Pope hath of new played with the Emperor more foul play at Siena, than he did before at Mirandula ; for when the Emperor had been at passing charges in keeping a great host for the recovery of Siena, from December last unto Jur the Pope would needs become stickler in that matter between the Emperor, the French King, and Siena, promising such conditions to all, as neither of the Princes should lose honour, and yet Siena should have had liberties. The Emperor, good man, yet again trusting him who so spitefully had deceived him before, dismissed his host; which done, Siena was left still in the Frenchmen's hands; who thereby have such opportunity to fortify it, as the Emperor is not like, by force, to recover it. Piramus, secretary to the Emperor, told this tale to Sir Philip Hobby and the Bishop of Westminster openly at the table, which Piramus is a papist for his life. And being asked how he could excuse the Pope's unkindness against his master the Emperor; he answered smiling, Julius the third is a knave, but the Pope is an honest man; which saying is common in this Court. And although they well understand both the spite of the Pope, and the shame of their master, yet are they content still to speak well of the Pope, though he nevertheless still do ill to the Emperor. And thus to return to my purpose, how the Pope set the two Princes together, and shift his own neck a while out of the halter, leaving most unfriendly the Emperor when he was farthest behind-hand; and how Octavio, for fear of Gonzaga, and unkindness of the Emperor, fell with all his family to be French; I have briefly passed over, for the haste I have to come to the matters of Germany.



The Emperor being thus set upon by the Turk and France with open war, and troubled by the house of Farnese with so sudden breaches, and most of all encumbered with the fear of the stirs in Germany, which secretly were then in working; the Prince of Salerne also declared himself an open enemy

This Prince in this Court is much beloved for his gentle ness, and openly praised for his wisdom, and greatly lamented for his fortune, who before-time hath done so good and faithful service to the Emperor; that I have heard some of this Court say, which love the Emperor well, and serve him in good place, that their master hath done the Prince so much wrong, as he could do no less than he did; who being so unjustly handled by his enemy, the Viceroy of Naples, and so unkindly dealt withall by his master the Emperor, was driven by necessity to seek an unlawful shift.

The Viceroy don Petro de Toledo, uncle to the Duke of Alva, and father-in-law to the Duke of Florence, used himself with much cruelty over the people of Naples, by exactions of money without measure, by inquisition of men's doings without order, and not only of men's doings, but also of men's outward lookings and inward thinkings, using the least suspicion for a sufficient witness to spoil and to kill whomsoever he listed. Men that had suits unto him, had as lief been away with the loss of their right, as have come to his presence to abide his looks and taunts; and (as I heard a wise gentleman of Italy say) he gave audience in such time and place, as he may easilier in this Court speak with Monsieur d'Arras than he could in Naples with the Viceroy's porter. And commonly he would not hear them whilst an hundred suitors should come at once, and then the porter let them in by one and by one, even as he favoured, not as the matter required, commanding them to be short, or else they should come short in the next time. And so men's suits were pulled from common law to private will, and were heard not in places open to justice, but in private parlours, shut up to all that came not in by favour or money. And therefore judgements were allotted,

not as law appointed, but as the Viceroy listed. This fault (Cicero saith) undid Cæsar, who drew the common law into his own house, and so in having other men's goods lost all men's hearts, and not long after his own life; for even those that did help him pluck down Pompey, did after kill him for pulling down the laws. So we see that Princes not in gathering much money, nor in bearing overgreat swing, but in keeping of friends and good laws, live most merely, and reign most surely; but such as gape always for other men's goods, commonly never enjoy the fruit of their own; for they never cease to win by wrong, till at length they lose by right goods, life, and all. And therefore it is notable that Dion in Plato writeth to Dionysius the tyrant, how Euripides in every tragedy bringeth for some great vice one or other great Prince to ruin, and yet not one doth complain thus,

Out out, alas alas, I die for lack of goods;

But every one singeth this song,

Out out, alas alas, I die for lack of friends.

For a Prince that will take men's goods when he listeth without order, shall want men's hearts when he needeth without pity; but in having their hearts he shall never lack their goods, as the good King Cyrus said to the rich King Croesus. And to have the people's hearts, the next way is to be gentle to every one, just to all, and liberal to many, and especially to such as either by excellency of wit or good will in true service, do well deserve it. Also to set his chief joy not on private pleasure, like Sardanapalus, but in common wealth, as we have example of Titus Vespasianus; and to think his treasure greatest, not when his coffers be fullest, as Croesus did, but when his subjects be rich, as Cyrus did, and that through his wisdom and care, as all praise-worthy Princes have ever hitherto done. And what will the people render again to such a Prince ? a small subsidy with a great grudge ? No, but their whole hearts to love him, their whole goods to aid him; their hands ready to defend him whensoever he shall have need. A Prince that thus doth live, and thus is loved at home, may be envied with much praise, and hated with small hurt of any power abroad. And therefore have I heard wise men discommend the government in France, in making their people almost slaves ; and from thence a common saying of some in England, that would have the people neither witty nor wealthy, when wit is the mere gift of God; so that to wish men less wit that have it, is to count God scarce wise that gave it. And wealth of the people, as Scripture saith, is the glory of a Prince and surety of his reign. But suspicion in all governing breedeth such sayings; when wrong doth bear such swing, as ill conscience doth always wish that men should lack either wit to perceive or ability to amend whatsoever is done amiss. But God send such Achitophels better end than their counsels do deserve, which would seem wise by other men's folly, and would be rich by other men's poverty.

To return to the Viceroy of Naples : The common opinion of those in this Court which have private cause to say well on him, do speak it boldly and openly, that he was such a one as never could content his covetousness with money, nor never satisfy his cruelty with blood; and so by this foul mean many gentlemen in Naples have lost their lives, but more their livings, and almost all their liberty. And there be at this day, as men say here that know it, a good sort by, of thousands Neapolitans, named Foriensuti

, who being spoiled at home by violence, robbed other abroad for need, which cumber so the passage betwixt Rome and Naples, as no man departeth commonly from Rome without company which cometh to Naples without robbing.

The whole body of the kingdom of Naples was so distempered inwardly with this misorder, with a little outward occasion it would easily have burst forth into a foul sore. A less matter than the ravishing of Lucrece, a meaner aid than the help of Brutus, was thought sufficient to have stirred up this inward grudge to open revenge. But see how God provided for the Emperor and the quiet of that kingdom : for God, in taking away one Spaniard, hath made Naples now more strong, than if the Emperor had set 20,000 of the best in Spain there; for even this last Lent, 1553, Don Petro de Toledo died at Florence, by whose going away, men's hearts in Naples be so come again to the Emperor, as he shall now have less need either to care for the fine fetches of France, or to fear the great power of the Turk. A gen. tleman of this Court, a true servant to the Emperor, said

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