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LINNÆUS. (See Linné.)
arrangement of plants, or tne sexual sysLINNÉ, Charles, but more generally des- tem of botany, relative to which he wrote ignated by his Latinized name, Linnæus, a memoir, which was shown to Rudbeck, the most celebrated naturalist of his age, the botanical professor, who was so struck was a native of Sweden. He was the son with its ingenuity, that he received the of a clergyman, and was born May 13, author into his house, as tutor to his sons, old style, 1707, at Ræshult, in the province and made him his assistant in the office of of Smaland. His father was fond of gar- delivering lectures. Forty years before, dening, and his little domain was stocked Rudbeck had made a journey to Lapland, with plants not commonly cultivated- -a which excited the curiosity of the learned. circumstance to which the prevailing taste A new journey was now concluded upon, of the son may be fairly attributed. He and, in 1732, Linné was sent, by the acadwas sent to the grammar-school, and af- emy of sciences at Upsal, to make a tour terwards to the gymnasium of Wexio, to through Lapland, from which he returned be educated for the ministry ; but, as he towards the close of the year. Fifty disliked the studies of the school, and pre- Swedish dollars were thought sufficient ferred to collect plants and catch butter- by Linné to defray his expenses, and with flies, he remained behind his fellow-pupils this small sum he made a journey of more in Latin and Greek, and the teachers de- than 3500 miles, unaccompanied. In clared to his father that he was only fit 1733, he visited the mining district around for a mechanic. The father sent him to a Fahlun, and gave lectures on mineralogy, shoemaker; but the physician Rothmann, having formed a system of that science, having discovered talents in the boy, in- afterwards published in his Systema Natuduced his parents to let him study. As ræ. While he was thus adding to his repuLotany afforded him no prospect of a tation at Upsal, he became involved in a support, Linné was obliged to study medi- violent quarrel with the medical professor, cine. In 1727, he entered at the univer- Nicholas Rosen, who seems to have acted sity of Lund in Scania, whence he re- with a great deal of illiberality, and found moved, the following year, to Upsal. means to prevent Linné from continuing During his early residence there, the nar- his private lectures. He therefore engaged rowness of his father's circumstances ex- in a scientific tour through the province posed him to great difficulties, from which of Dalecarlia, and remained for some he was relieved by the patronage of Cel- time at Fahlun, lecturing and practissius, the theological professor, an eminent ing medicine with considerable naturalist, who had become acquainted cess. He again went to Lapland on a with him in the botanical garden at Upsal, mineralogical tour, with seven young men; and through whose recommendation he and, in 1735, published a complete Flora obtained some private pupils. He also of this country—a classical work. In the formed a friendship with Artedi, a med- same year, he went to the university of ical student like himself, devoted to the Harderwyck, in Holland, and took the decultivation of natural history. He now, in, gree of Ñ. Ó. He then visited Leyden, bis 24th year, conceived the idea of a new where the first sketch of his Systema Natui
re was printed in the form of tables, filling appeared originally in two volumes, 8vo. ; 12 folio pages. He became acquainted but the edition published by Willdenow with John Frederic Gronovius, Boerhaave, at Berlin, 1799–1810, is extended to ten aud John Burman of Amsterdam; and he volumes. In 1753, this great naturalist then published' a work, entitled Funda- was created a knight of the polar starman menta Botanica, exhibiting the basis of his honor never before bestowed on a literary botanical system.
Mr. Clifford, a rich man. In 1761, he was elevated to the merchant of Amsterdam, made him su- rank of nobility. Literary honors were perintendent of his garden at Hartecamp, also conferred on him by scientific socienear Haerlem, rich in curious exotics, of ties in foreign countries. In 1768, he comwhich Linné drew up a systematic cata- pleted the plan of his Systema Nature, logue. In 1736, he made a visit to Eng- which, through successive editions, had land. He returned to Holland with many been enlarged to three octavo volumes. new plants for Mr. Clifford's garden, his Linné acquired a moderate degree of opdescription of which, entitled Hortus Clif- ulence, sufficient to enable him to purfortianus, with 37 plates, was now publish- chase an estate and mansion at Hammared in a most splendid form. He also pub- by, near Upsal, where he chiefly resided lished the first edition of his Genera during the last 15 years of his life. There Plantarum. In 1738, he made an excur- he had a museum of natural history, on sion to Paris, and, towards the end of which he gave lectures, and to which he that year, returned to his native country, was constantly making additions, from and settled as a physician at Stockholm. the contributions of travellers and men of At first, he experienced neglect; but, science in various parts of the world. through the influence of count Tessin, he His health, during a great part of his life, was appointed physician to the navy, and enabled him to pursue his researches with had a salary for giving public lectures on vigor and activity; but in May, 1774, he botany in the summer, and on mineralogy had an apoplectic attack, which obliged in the winter. The establishment of the him to relinquish the most laborious part royal academy of Stockholm, of which he of his professorial duties, and close his was one of the first members, contributed literary labors. A second attack occurred to the advancement of his reputation, by in 1776, and he afterwards experienced a the opportunities which it afforded for the third; but his death did not take place display of his abilities. In 1741, he suc- till January 11, 1778. Besides his works ceeded Roberg in the professorship of on natural history, he published . a classimedicine at Upsal, to which was added fied Materia Medica, and a systematic the superintendence of the botanic garden, treatise on nosology, entitled Genera Morto the new arrangement and augmentation borum. Few men in the history of sciof which he devoted much of his time ence have shown such boldness, zeal, and attention. In 1745, appeared his activity and sagacity as Linné : natural Flora Suecica, and the next year his cata- science is under unspeakable obligations logue of Swedish animals, entitled Fauna to him, though the different systems esSuecica. He was elected to the post of tablished by him may be superseded by secretary of the academy of sciences at more perfect ones. Charles XIV, king of Upsal. In 1746, an honorary medal of him Sweden, in 1819, ordered a monument to was struck at the expense of some noble- be erected to him in his native place. men ; and, in 1747, he was nominated By his wife, the daughter of a physician royal archiater. Through his influence, at Fahlun, he had a son and four daughmany young naturalists were sent to ex- The former, Charles von Linné, jun. plore various countries; and to his zeal in was joint-professor of botany, and afterthe cause of science we owe the discove- wards professor of medicine at Upsal. ries in natural history made by Kalm, Os- He was well acquainted with science, but beck, Hasselquist and Loefling. He was distinguished himself by no discoveries employed by the queen of Sweden to de- of importance. On his death, without scribe her museum at Drottningholm, issue, in 1783, the family became extinct. when he made a new scientific arrange- - Elizabeth Christina von Linné, one of ment of the shells contained in it. About the daughters of the great naturalist, 1751, he published his Philosophia Botan- studied botany, and became known by ucd, and, in 1753, his Species Plantarum, her discovery of the luminous property containing a description of every known of the flower of the tropæolum, of which plant, arranged according to the sexual account was communicated to the system. This work of Linné, which Hal- academy of Stockholm. ler terms his Maximum Opus et Æternum, LINSEED OIL. (See Flax.)
Lint, in surgery, is the scrapings of mentioned improvements, and calls him fine linen, used by surgeons in dressing the first lyric poet. A few fragnients of wounds. It is made into various forms, poetry, under his name, are to be found which have different names, according to in Stobæus. the difference of the figures. Lint, made LION felis leo). The lion, like all up in an oval or orbicular form, is called a "other cats, is armed, in each jaw, with pledgit; if in a cylindrical form, or in six strong and exceedingly sharp cutting shape of a date or olive stone, it is called a teeth, two formidable canine, and six dossil. These different forms of lint are others, occupying the usual place of the required for many purposes ; as, 1. tò molars
, but differing from these by termistop blood in fresh wounds, by filling them nating in sharp protuberances. Besides up before the application of a bandage; these, there is a small tooth, or tubercle, though, if scraped lint be not at hand, a on each side of the upper jaw, immediatepiece of fine linen may be torn into small ly posterior to all the others. The tongue rags, and applied in the same manner: is covered with rough and elevated papilin very large hemorrhages, the lint or læ, with their points directed backwards. rags should be first dipped in some styptic The claws, which are five in number on liquor, as alcohol, or oil of turpentine, the fore feet, and four on the hinder, are or sprinkled with some styptic powder: of great length, extremely powerful, and 2. to agglutinate or heal wounds ; to much curved; like those of the other cats, which end lint is very serviceable, if they are retractile within a sheath enspread with some digestive ointment, closed in the skin covering the paws. balsam, or vulnerary liquor : 3. in The lion is distinguished from his kindred drying up wounds and ulcers, and species by the uniformity of his color, forwarding the formation of a cicatrix : which is pale tawny above, becoming 4. in keeping the lips of wounds at a somewhat lighter beneath, and never, exproper distance, that they may not hastily cept while very young, exhibiting any unite before the bottom is well digested markings; and also by the long and flowand healed : 5. they are highly neces- ing mane of the old male, which, coversary to preserve wounds from the injuries ing the whole head, extends backwards of the air.-Surgeons of former ages used over his shoulders. Notwithstanding the compresses of sponge, wool, feathers, or praises that have, from time immemorial, cotton, linen being less plentiful than in been bestowed on this animal, for grateful later times; but lint is far preferable to all affection, dauntless courage, and merciful these, and is, at present, universally used. forbearance, he is nothing more, in moral
LINTZ, capital of Upper Austria, on the and intellectual faculties, than a cat of imDanube, at the influx of the Traun, is mense size and strength, and endowed well built, with a bridge 400 paces long, with all the guileful and treacherous qualand has, exclusive of the garrison, a popu- ities of that treacherous tribe. His dauntlation of 18,700 inhabitants; houses, 1000. less courage is a mere consciousness of Here is the largest woollen manufactory superiority over the animals by which he in Austria, in which fine carpets are made. is surrounded, and wholly disappears in Much gunpowder is also manufactured the neighborhood of man; his merciful here. În 1784, Lintz was made a bishop's forbearance is nothing more than that he see. In 1674, the lyceum was founded by never destroys more than satiates his hunLeopold, and, in 1824, institutions for the ger or revenge, and that, when under the deaf and dumb, and one for the blind, dominion of man, he suffers his keeper to were erected. The Northern Institute is approach him without injury. The lion a college for the Catholics of the north of is only met with in the warmer regions of Germany. Lon. 14° 16' 45'' E.; lat. 48° the old world, and more particularly of 18' 54" N.
Africa, in whose vast forests and arid LINUS ; the name of a celebrated mu- deserts he reigns supreme and unconsician of antiquity, to whom Diodorus trolled. He is met with, but rarely, in Siculus, quoting Dionysius of Mitylene, parts of India, Arabia and Persia, but his attributes the introduction of verse and range in these countries is becoming very music into Greece. He was a native of limited. From Libya, whence the Romans Chalcis, and to him are ascribed a poem obtained so many, he has almost disapon the exploits of Bacchus in India, a peared; and in classic Greece, where, we treatise on mythology, the addition of a are informed by Aristotle, he once occurstring to the lyre then in use, and the in- red, none are to be found. In America, vention of melody and rhythm. Suidas this species never occurred, its place being also joins in giving him credit for the last- supplied by the puma.
supplied by the puma. Naturalists have
differed greatly as to the longevity of this often, lapping like a dog; but in this proanimal. Buffon stated it to be from 20 to cess his tongue is bent downward : his 22 years ; but it far exceeds this, as the breath is very offensive, and the odor of one in the Tower of London, which died his urine insupportable. There is some in 1760, lived in captivity above 70 years; variation, in the lions of different countries and another died in the same place, at the in external appearance, though, in essenage of 63. The lioness brings forth from tial particulars, their habits are identical. three to four at a birth. The cubs, when The Asiatic variety seldom attains an first born, are about the size of a small equal size with the Cape lion ; its color is pug dog, and continue to suck the mother a more uniform and pale yellow, and its for about a year. At this time, their color mane fuller and more complete, and being, is a mixture of reddish and gray, with a moreover, furnished with a peculiar apnumber of brown bands. The mane of pendage of long hairs, which, commencthe male begins to make its appearance ing beneath the neck, occupy the whole when the animal is about three to three of the middle line of the body beneath. years and a half old. The male attains Even the Cape lion presents two varieties, maturity in seven, and the female in six known as the pale and the black, distiné years. The strength of the lion is pro- guished, as their appellations imply, by digious, a single stroke with his paw the lighter or darker color of their coats. being sufficient to destroy most animals. The latter of these is the larger and more The bone of the fore leg is remarkably ferocious of the two. The Barbary lion fitted to sustain the great muscular strain has the same full mane as the Asiatic, but so powerful an exertion occasions. Its exceeds him in size. The number of texture is so compact, that it will strike lions, as has been observed, has greatly fire with steel. The lurking-place of the diminished, judging from the multitudes lion is generally chosen near a spring, or spoken of by ancient writers, and those by the side of a river, where he has an carried to Rome. Thus Sylla the dictator opportunity of surprising such animals as exhibited, during his pretorship, 100 of resort to the water to quench their thirst. these animals; and Pompey presented 600 Here he lies in wait, crouched in some in the circus. Lion-fights were common thicket, till his prey approaches, and then, under the consulate, and during the emwith a prodigious leap, seizes it at the first pire. Adrian, it is said, often caused 100 bound; if, however, unsuccessful in this, to be destroyed at one exhibition; and he immediately retires to wait another Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius opportunity. In the night, more particu- were equally prodigal in gratifying the larly, the lion prowls abroad in search of people. "At the cape of Good Hope, lions his prey, the conformation of his eyes are hunted, not only for the purpose of being, like those of the common cat, well extermination, but also for their skins. fitted for seeing in a dim light. The roar In the day time, and in an open country, of the lion is loud and terrific, especially from 10 to 16 dogs will easily overcome a when heard in the solitary wilds he in- lion of the largest size; nor does there habits: this roar is his natural voice; for, appear to be any necessity that the dogs when enraged, he utters a short and sud- should be very large; as he is less swift denly-repeated cry, whilst the roar is a than these animals, they readily overtake prolonged effort, a kind of deep-toned him, on which the lion turns round, and grumbling, mixed with a sharp, vibrating waits for the attack, shaking his mane, noise. It has been usually stated, that the and roaring in a short and sharp tone, or lion had constant and stated times for sits down on his haunches to face them. roaring, especially when in captivity; but The dogs then surround him, and, simulthis has been shown to be erroneous in taneously rushing upon him, subdue him some degree. It appears, however, that, by their united efforts, though not before in summer time, and especially before at- he has destroyed several of them. But mospheric changes, he uniformly com- the mode of destroying them, usual among mences about dawn; at no other time is the Bushmen, is by shooting them, either there any regularity in his roar. When
When with fire-arms or poisoned arrows. The enraged, his cry is still more appalling inhabitants know that the lion generally than his roar; he then beats his sides with kills and devours his prey at sunrise and his tail, agitates his mane, moves the skin sunset. On this account, therefore, when af his face and his shaggy eyebrows, they intend to hunt them, they notice thrusts out his tongue, and protrudes his where the antelopes are feeding at day: dreadful claws. The lion requires about break: if they perceive that these animals 15 pounds of raw flesh a day; he drinks are alarmed, they conclude that they have
been attacked by a lion. Marking the in the Mediterranean, which take their spot whence the alarm took place, about name from the principal one of the group, mid-day, when the sun is very powerful, about 24 miles from the north coast of and the object of their attack asleep, they Sicily. Lon. 15° 12 E. ; lat. 38° 34' E. carefully examine the ground, and, if they population, about 20,000. These islands find him, they lodge a bullet or poisoned were called, by the ancients, Æolia, Vularrow in him. Sometimes, however, he caniæ, and Insulæ Liparæorum, and feignis fairly brought to bay in the day time, ed to be the residence of Æolus and Vulby the hunter, as the following account can. Lipari, the largest, is populous and from Pringle testifies. After his retreat is well cultivated, producing great quantities found,“ the approved plan is to torment of corn and fruit, especially figs and raihim with dogs till he abandons his covert, sins ; it likewise produces alum, sulphur, and stands at bay in the open plain. The nitre and cinnabar. It is about 15 miles whole band of hunters then march for- in circumference; the air is healthy, and ward together, and fire deliberately, one the inhabitants industrious and good seaby one. If he does not speedily fall, but men, On the eastern coast is situated a grows angry, and turns upon his enemies, town of the same name. In this island they must then stand close in a circle, were formerly pits, which emitted fire and and turn their horses' rear outward, some smoke, but have long ceased to do either. holding them fast by the bridles, while the Population, 15,000; square miles, 100. others kneel to take a steady aim at the The other islands are Stromboli, Panaria, lion as he approaches, sometimes up to Vulcano, Salini, Alicudi and Felicudi, with the very horses? heels, crouching every two or three smaller ones. The volcanic now and then, as if to measure the eruptions, formerly frequent in the island distance, and strength of his enemies. of Lipari, ceased in the sixth century, but This is the moment to shoot him fairly in the whole island is composed of pumicethe forehead, or some other mortal part. stone, lava, volcanic glass, and black sand; If they continue to wound him ineffectu- and the warm baths, and heated vapors ally, till he becomes furious and desperate, of the Stoves (excavations which emit hot, or if the horses, startled by his terrific sulphureous exhalations), prove the activity roar, grow frantic with terror, and burst of the subterranean fires. The celebrated loose, the business becomes rather serious, crater of Vulcano was visited by general and may end in mischief
, especially if all Cockburn in 1812. (Voyage to Cadiz); the the party are not men of courage, coolness volcano is probably only slumbering, and and experience." Very full accounts of not extinct. Stromboli is at present the the lion and his habits are to be found in most remarkable of the islands ; its fires the travels of Sparmann, Barlow, Levail- are in unremitting activity, the eruptions lant, Burchell, &c., in Southern Africa, taking place at regular intervals, varying and also in the Library of Entertaining from three to eight minutes. (See the Knowledge, and the Tower Menagerie, works of Dolomieu, Spallanzani, Bryfrom which the above account has been done, &c.) condensed.
LIPINSKI, Charles, one of the greatest LION'S GULF. This is the proper violinists, was born in 1790, at Radeyn, spelling of the gulf generally called Gulf Poland. His father gave him his first inof Lyons. The name is derived from struction in music. In 1810, he was aplion, on account of the fierceness of the pointed director of music at the German gales, at some seasons, in this gulf. The theatre in Lemberg, and gave up the vioproper mode of writing it in French is loncello, till then his chief instrument, and Golfe du Lion. (See Lyons, Gulf of.) devoted himself more to the violin. In
Lion's SHARE; the whole, or a dispro- 1814, he was so attracted by Spohr's portionate share of the advantages of a playing, that he resigned his place, in orcontract, claimed by one of the parties, der to have leisure for practising that and supported by the right of the strong artist's manner. He remained in his est. The phrase is derived from a fahle native country until 1817, when he went of Æsop.
to Italy to hear the celebrated Paganini. LIPANO, COUNTESS OF (Caroline An- (q. v.) In Piacenza, he played with him nunziada); the widow of Murat (q. v.), in a concert. Since that time, he has and the sister of Napoleon. She be« travelled in Russia, Germany and France. came grand-duchess of Berg, and queen His style inclines to the elevated. of Naples. She was born March 26, LIPOGRAMMATIC COMPOSITIONS; those 1782.
in which certain letters are purposely LIPARI ; a cluster of volcanic islands left out. Thus Lope de Vega wrote a