Page images
PDF
EPUB

Passer (3e), to do without, L. 39, 1. By means of de, $ 139, 2. By d,
Passive voice, $ 113, (1).

$ 139, 3. Rules on goverment of,
Passive verb, § 43, (4); L. 46. Con $ 140. Repetition of, § 141.

jugation of, g 54. Rule, S 55. Its Observations on, $ 142.

participle, L. 46, 2; L. 98, 2. Present tense, used in French, where
Past anterior, $ 45, (2), 5. Use of past used in English, L. 57, 2.
$ 122; L. 55.

Promener (se), to walk, ride, etc., for
Past definite, § 15, (2), 3. Use of pleasure or health, L. 36, 5.

$ 120; L. 51. Its terminations Prendre, to take, its government, L.
and irregularities, L. 52.

50, 1.
Past indefinite, $ 45, (2), 4. Use of, Prendre garde, to take care; prendre
$ 121; L. 41.

le deuil, to go into mourning;
Past of subjunctive, $ 45, (5), 3. prendre la peine, to take the trou-
Payer, to pay, its government, L. 50. ble; prendre les devants, to go

be
Personne, no body, § 41, (6); L. 7, 7. fore; prendre un parti, to take a
Persons, $ 31, (3.)

resolution; prendre du thé, du
Place, of subject, L. 56, 1, respective café, to take tea, coffee, L. 71, 3.

place of noun, direct and indirect Prendre le thé, to take one's tea,
regimen, L. 56, 1, 2, 3; § 76,(7), L. 71, note.
(8), (9). In interjected sentences, Pronouns, S 31. Personal, $ 32. Re-
$ 76, (3). Of noun in interrogative marks on, $ 33. Use of moi, toi,
sentences, $ 76, (4), (5); L. 56, 1; instead of subject or nominative
L. 6, 4. Of adjective, L. 8, 5; L. pronouns, $ 33, (8), etc. Use of re-
15; § 85; § 86.

Of pronoun
flective, L. 37.

Reflective pro-
subject or nominative, § 98. Of noun se, g 33, (12), (13). Soi,
regimen pronoun, L. 9, 1; L. 27 ; (14). Possessive pronouns, S 34;
L. 28; $ 101; § 102. Place of L. 9. Remarks on, $ 35. Demon-
en and y, $ 104; L. 57. Of adverb, strative pronouns, S 36; L. 9. Re-
$ 136; L. 34; L. 41, 4, 5. Of verb, marks on, $ 37. Ce, demonstra-
$ 144.

tive pronoun, § 37, (6); § 108;
Plaire (se), to take pleasure in, L. 40. $ 116; L. 81.

Used for he, she,
Used unipersonally, comme il vous L. 82. Celui, celle, celui-ci, celle-ci,

plaira, as you please, L. 89, 3. & 20; L. 10. Ceci, cela, L. 10, 6.
Pleuvoir, to rain, L. 33, 3.

Relative pronouns, S 38; L. 31.
Pluperfect of indicative, $ 45, (2), 6. Remarks on, § 39. En, $ 39,
Use of, § 123; L. 55, 4.

(17); $ 95, (5); $ 110; $ 103,
of subjunctive, $ 45, (5), (1). Place of En, § 104. Y,
4; L. 75, 6.

$ 39, (18); § 103 (2); Place of
Plural of nouns, S 8; L. 11. Of com y, $ 104; 111. Dont, L. 31, 8.
pound nouns, S 9; L. 59. Nouns

Syntax of pronouns, $ 98. Place
having no plural, § 10. Nouns of subject or nominative, § 98.
having no singular, 11. Plural Repetition of, S 99; L. 87. Place
of adjectives, S 17; L. 14, 3. Moral of regimen pronouns, $ 100;
or physical properties of man, L. 9, 1; L. 27. Respective placo
single in the individual, not put in of regimen pronouns, & 101; L.
the plural, L. 66, 5.

28. Rule on this subject, § 102.
Plus de, more than, before a number, Repetition of regimen pronoun,
L. 20, 7.

$ 105; L. 27, 7.

Rules on pos-
Plusieurs, several, $ 30, (9); L. 18, 7. sessive pronouns, $ 106. On
Pour, in order to, L. 28, 8.

demonstrative pronouns, § 107.
Porter, to carry, to wear, L. 23, 10; On relative pronouns, $ 109.

L. 44, 6. Se porter, to be, to do,
L. 36, 3.

QUE, rel. prn., § 109. Never sup-
Preposition, $ 71. Table of princi pressed, L. 19, 1; L. 31, 3. Que,

pal, S 72. Regimen or govern interrogative, L. 18, 5; L. 31, 5.
ment of, S 130. Governing with- Que, conj., never suppressed, L. 19,
out another preposition, § 139. 1. Que, idiomatic, L. 82, 3.

86, 3.

Quel, which, what, S 30,(10); $ 109; L. 80. Important rules on regi.
L. 18, 4.

men, $ 92 ; $ 133; $ 140; L. 80, 5.
Quelque, $ 30, (12); § 97; L. 18, Regimen of prendre, to take; voler,
7; L. 88.

to steal; acheter, to buy; deman-
Quel-que, quelque—que, govern der, to ask; payer, to pay, L. 50, 1.
the subjunctive, L. 88, 3.

Réjouir (se), to rejoice, L. 40, 5.
Quelque chose, something, anything, Remettre, to set a dislocated bone,

L. 7, 6. Require de before an etc., L. 93, examples.
adjective, L. 18, 3. Not used in Repetition of demonstrative adjec-
negative sentences, L. 7, 6.

tives, & 93. Of possessive adjec-
Quelque part, somewhere, anywhere, tives, $ 21, (4). Of articles, $ 80,
L. 25, 8.

L. 6, 5; L. 86. Of subject or
Quelqu'un, § 41, 7; L. 7, 6.

nominative pronouns, S99; L.
Qu'est-ce que, used idiomatically for 87. Of regimen or objective pro-
what? L. 82, 2.

nouns, & 105; L. 87. Of adverbs,
Quiconque, whoever, $ 41, (9).

§ 137. Of prepositions, s 141.
Quitter, to leave, abandon, etc., L. Rester, used unip., to remain, to have

left, L. 85, 4.
Quoi, what, L. 31, 6.

Reste de, left, L. 85, 4.
Qui, who, whom, used absolutely, | Retarder, to lose, to put back, said of
$ 39, (5).

watches, etc., L. 92, 1.
Rappeler (se), to remember, recollect,
L. 37, 2.

SAVOIR, to know, and connaître, to
Reading Lessons, p. 474.

be acquainted with, L. 30, 5.
Recevoir des nouvelles, to hear from, | Seoir, to suit, become, L. 47, 3. Used
L. 35, 6.

unipersonally, L. 49, 1.
Reflective verb, § 43, (6). Conju- | Servir (se), to use, L. 39, 2. Servir,

gation of, § 56; L. 36. Often to help at table, L. 89, 1.
used in French for the English | S'il vous plaît, if you please, L. 89, 3.
passive, L. 36, 2. Its auxiliary is Si, conj., § 125, (3). Should not pre-
être, L. 45; $ 46. Its participle, cede conditional mode, L. 62, 6.

§ 135; L. 45; L. 98, 5: L. 99, 4. Souvenir (se), to remember, recollect,
Regarder, to concern, L. 94, 5.

L. 37, 2.
Remercier, to thank, Je vous remer So, rendered by le, L. 46, 4.

cie,equivalent to a refusal, L. 89, 2. Speech, parts of, § 1, (1).
Résumé of rules on participle past, Stem of a verb, L. 23.
L. 98; L. 99.

Subject or nominative, $ 2,(1); $ 42,
Rien, nothing, etc., L. 7,7; L. 18, 3. (2). Verb having several sub-
Régime, regimen or object, § 2. jects in different persons, L. 83, 2.

Direct, $ 2, (2); $ 42, (4); L. 56, Agreement of verbs with subjects,
2, 3; & 76. Indirect, $ 2, (3); L. 83, 1; L. 84; $ 114; $ 115.

§ 42, (5); L. 56, 2, 3; & 76. Subjunctive mode, $ 45, 4th, (5).
Regimen or government of adjec Use of, S 127; $ 143 ; L. 72, 8, 9,
tives, § 87; L. 79. After être

10.

Present of, $ 45, (5), 1. Ter-
unipersonal, $ 87, (4); L. 79, 3. minations of, L. 72. Subjunctive
Adjective followed by de, § 88. used after verbs expressing con-
By à, S 89. By different preposi sent, command, etc., followed by
tions in both languages, $ 90.

que, L. 72, 8.

After several uni-
Regimen of verbs, $ 129; L. 21, 4; personal verbs followed by que, L.
L. 50; L. 76, 77, 78. Verbs fol 73, 1. After certain conjunctions,
lowed by no preposition, $ 130; L. $ 143 ; L. 73, 4. After croire, espé-
76, 1. By d, § 131. By de, $ 132; rer, etc., interrogative or negative,
L. 21, 4; L. 77. By a preposi L. 74, 2. After another verb, un-
tion in French and by none in certain, and preceded by relative
in English, L. 78, 1, 2. By a pronoun or a superlative, L. 74, 3,
different prep. in both, L. 78, 3. Past of subjunctive, L. 72, 7.
Regimen of prepositions, $ 139; | Substantive. See Noun.

4.

Superlative absolute, § 14, (11); L. just elapsed, L. 26, 2. Venir

17, l. Superlative relative, 14, trouver, to come to, L. 26, 3.
(9); L. 17, 2.

Verbal adjectives, $ 65 ; L. 97.
Syntax, $ 75. Of noun, & 76. Arti- Verbs, Four Conjugations of, L. 21;

cle, 77. Adjective, $ 83. Pro S 42. Subject or nominative of,
noun, $ 98. Verb, S 114. Parti $ 42, (2). Regimen or object
ciple, $ 134. Adverb, § 136. Prepo of, § 42, (3). Different sorts of
sition, $ 139. Conjunction, $ 143. verbs, § 43. Active, § 43, (2).

(3); L. 43. Passive, S 43, (4); L
TAIRE, to conceal, L. 96, 5. Se taire, 46. Neuter, § 43, (5); L. 43.
to be silent, L. 96, 5.

Reflective, $ 43, (6); $ 56; L. 36.
Tarder, to tarry, to long, L. 58, 3. Unipersonal, L. 33; § 43, 7;
Tel, such, 41, (12), (13). Monsieur § 61–2. Auxiliary verbs, $ 43,

un tel, Mr. such a one, S 41, 13. (8). Use of, $ 46; L. 43, L. 45.
Tenir, to hold, used in the sense of to Modes and tenses of, § 45. See

keep. Tenir sa parole, to keep Different Modes and Tenses. Ir-
one's word, tenir la porte ouverte, regular verbs, L. 24.

Table of,
to keep the door open, etc., etc., L. $ 62. Syntax of the verb, S 114.
90, 1. Tenir un langage, to make Agreement of the verb with sub-
use of language, expressions, etc., ject, $ 114; L. 83; L. 84; L. 85.
L. 90, 2. Tenir, to be attached, Verb after a collective noun,
etc., L. 90, 3. Faire tenir, to for § 115; L. 85, 1, 2, 3. Number
ward, L. 90, 5. Se tenir, to re of verb after ce, S 116. Verb

main, to abide by, etc., L. 90, 6. after several subjects in different
Tenses of verbs, § 45. Formation

persons, § 117.

Use of tenses,
of, (8 61). See Different Tenses. $ 118. Sec Different Tenses. Regi-
Terminations of regular verbs, & 60. men or government of verbs. See

Of inưicative, L. 23, 5. Of imper Regimen.
fect of indicative, L. 53, 5. Of Veuillez, be so kind, L. 70, 4.
past definite, L. 51. Of future, Vocabulary to the Reading Lessons,
L. 60. Of conditional, L. 62. Of
imperative, L. 70. Of subjunc- Voici, here is, L. 34, 4.
tive, L. 72. Of imperfect of sub- | Voilà, there is, L. 34, 4.
junctive, L. 75. Of infinitive, L. Voler, to rob, steal, its government,

Of present participle, L. L. 50, 1.
23, 3. Of past participle, L. 23, 4. Vouloir dire, to mean, L. 32, 5, 6.
Time of day, L. 20.

(en), to bear a grudge, etc..
Times, number of, in a given space, L. 94, 6.
L. 68, 4.

Vowels, L. 2.
Tout, al, etc., § 30, (15), (16); $ 97; What, rel. prn., ce que, L. 31, 4; que,
(4), (5), (6). Tout, every, L. 26,

L. 31, 5.
8. Tout, the whole, L. 26, 9.
Tout, entirely, quite, variable by

interrogative, rendered by,
euphony, L. 88, 4.

qu'est-ce que, L. 82, 2.
Tromper, to deceive, L. 38, 1.

Whole (the), le tout, L. 26, 9.

Se
tromper
, to be mistaken, etc.

, L. Will, used in the sense of wish, ren-

dered by vouloir, L. 60, 5.
38, 2.

Words, variable, g 1, (3). Invariable,
Un, une, a, an, one, $ 13, (4), (11); § 1, (4).

L. 6, 2. Not used. before nouns
placed in apposition, L. 30, 4.

Y AVOIR, to be there, § 61-2; L.

33, 4.
Unipersonal verbs, L. 33; $ 43, (7).

Used for ago, L. 41, 6.
Paradigm of, S 61-2. Auxil. and

Y avoir, followed by the present

when the action continues, L
partic of unipers. verbs, L. 45, 3, 4.

57, 2.
VALOIR, to be worth, L. 49, 3; to be Y, prn. & adv. $ 39, (18); § 103,
better, L. 49, 6.

(2). Place of, 8 104; & ill:
Venir, to come, used to indicate past L. 24. 11.

p. 493.

21, 1.

[ocr errors]

NE W FRENCH COURS E.

PART FIRST.

LEÇON I.

LESSON I.

THE LETTERS,

old names.

[ocr errors]

cas, cil,

a

[ocr errors]

he

e

[ocr errors]

ke

lit.

emm

me

[ocr errors]

enn

ne

[ocr errors]

The French alphabet contains twenty-five letters:

New names. Examples
A

ah
ah

amas,
B b

bay
bes

barre.
С

say

ke
D d

day
de

dard.
E

effet.
F f

eff
fe

frère.
G
g
jay?
ghe

grele,
н
ash

haie.
I

idée.
J j

jee'
je

jais.
K k
kah

kali.
L

ell

le M

mât. N

natte.
0

orge.
р
pay
pe

père.
ku
ke

quadre.
R
err

rat. S

soie.
T t

tay
te

tort.
U
u*

urne.
V
vay

vase.
X
eeks

rixe.
Y
у

yeux.
Z Z
zed

zèle. W, called in French double V, might be added, as many foreign words which have that letter, have been adopted into the French language.

1 The new names of the French letters are seldom used. ? Like s in pleasure.

Nearly like err in error. No corresponding sound in English. * Nearly like be in globe.

Nearly like ke and de in cake and grade. The e of the other letters has the same sound.

se in rose,

[ocr errors][merged small]
[blocks in formation]

u

V

7

de

e grec

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

6

1 kse.

8

LEÇON II.

LESSON II.

THE

VOWELS.

VOWELS are rendered long or short by certain marks placed over them. These marks, which are three in number, are called accents.

The acute accent (') is placed over e, to give it a sharp or close sound. (See 4. é.)

The grave accent (') is placed over e, to give to that vowel a grave or open sound. (See 5. è.) It is also put on å, at, or to, ld, there, and on the u of , there, to distinguish those words from a, has, la, the, and ou, or. The grave accent, however, does not change the sound of a and u.

The circumflex accent () is placed over a, e, i, o, u, to give to those letters a long and broad sound.' 1. a like a in mat, rat. Examples, face, face; bateau, boat; tableau,

picture; patte, paw; malade, sick. 2. â like a in bar, far. Ex. âge, age ; château, castle ; pâte, paste;

blâme, blame; crâne, cranium. . 3. e nearly like u in cur, and frequently silent at the end of poly

syllables. Ex. le, the ; me, me; te, thee ; que, that; meuble,

piece of furniture ; peuple, people; rime, rime. 4. é like a in fate. Ex. été, summer; amitié, friendship; élevé,

raised; épée, sword. 5. è like e in met. Ex. père, father,; frère, brother ; mère,

élève, pupil. 6. ê nearly like a in dare, fare. Ex. rêve, dream; extrême, ex

treme; crême, cream ; crêpe, crape; forêt, forest. 7. i nearly like ee in reed, creed. Ex. midi, mid-day; ici, here;

fini, finished ; crédit, credit. 8. î like ee in eel, feel. Ex. île, island; gite, lodging ; építre, epistle ;

dîme, tithe ; abîme, abyss. 9. o between the o in rob and that in robe, or that of nor and no.

Ex. robe, robe; globe, globe ; cachot, dungeon ; haricot, bean. 10. ô like o in bone, no. Ex. dépót, deposit ; prévit, provost ; bientit,

soon; suppôt, supporter.

The exact French sound of this letter is not found in English. The position of the lips in whistling, is very nearly the

mother;

11. u.

This accent indicates the suppression of the letter s after the vowel on which it is placed; fête, tête, bête, were formerly written, feste, teste, beste; the s was not sounded, but gave to the preceding vowel that prolonged sound, now represented by the circumflex accent.

« PreviousContinue »