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Passer (3e), to do without, L. 39, 1. By means of de, $ 139, 2. By d,
$ 139, 3. Rules on goverment of,
jugation of, g 54. Rule, S 55. Its Observations on, $ 142.
participle, L. 46, 2; L. 98, 2. Present tense, used in French, where
Promener (se), to walk, ride, etc., for
$ 120; L. 51. Its terminations Prendre, to take, its government, L.
le deuil, to go into mourning;
resolution; prendre du thé, du
place of noun, direct and indirect Prendre le thé, to take one's tea,
tive pronoun, § 37, (6); § 108;
Used for he, she,
plaira, as you please, L. 89, 3. & 20; L. 10. Ceci, cela, L. 10, 6.
Relative pronouns, S 38; L. 31.
(17); $ 95, (5); $ 110; $ 103,
$ 39, (18); § 103 (2); Place of
Syntax of pronouns, $ 98. Place
28. Rule on this subject, § 102.
$ 105; L. 27, 7.
Rules on pos-
demonstrative pronouns, § 107.
L. 44, 6. Se porter, to be, to do,
QUE, rel. prn., § 109. Never sup-
pal, S 72. Regimen or govern interrogative, L. 18, 5; L. 31, 5.
Quel, which, what, S 30,(10); $ 109; L. 80. Important rules on regi.
men, $ 92 ; $ 133; $ 140; L. 80, 5.
to steal; acheter, to buy; deman-
Réjouir (se), to rejoice, L. 40, 5.
L. 7, 6. Require de before an etc., L. 93, examples.
tives, & 93. Of possessive adjec-
L. 6, 5; L. 86. Of subject or
nominative pronouns, S99; L.
nouns, & 105; L. 87. Of adverbs,
§ 137. Of prepositions, s 141.
left, L. 85, 4.
Reste de, left, L. 85, 4.
watches, etc., L. 92, 1.
SAVOIR, to know, and connaître, to
be acquainted with, L. 30, 5.
unipersonally, L. 49, 1.
gation of, § 56; L. 36. Often to help at table, L. 89, 1.
§ 135; L. 45; L. 98, 5: L. 99, 4. Souvenir (se), to remember, recollect,
L. 37, 2.
cie,equivalent to a refusal, L. 89, 2. Speech, parts of, § 1, (1).
Subject or nominative, $ 2,(1); $ 42,
Direct, $ 2, (2); $ 42, (4); L. 56, Agreement of verbs with subjects,
§ 42, (5); L. 56, 2, 3; & 76. Subjunctive mode, $ 45, 4th, (5).
Present of, $ 45, (5), 1. Ter-
que, L. 72, 8.
After several uni-
Superlative absolute, § 14, (11); L. just elapsed, L. 26, 2. Venir
17, l. Superlative relative, 14, trouver, to come to, L. 26, 3.
Verbal adjectives, $ 65 ; L. 97.
cle, 77. Adjective, $ 83. Pro S 42. Subject or nominative of,
(3); L. 43. Passive, S 43, (4); L
Reflective, $ 43, (6); $ 56; L. 36.
un tel, Mr. such a one, S 41, 13. (8). Use of, $ 46; L. 43, L. 45.
keep. Tenir sa parole, to keep Different Modes and Tenses. Ir-
main, to abide by, etc., L. 90, 6. after several subjects in different
persons, § 117.
Use of tenses,
Of inưicative, L. 23, 5. Of imper Regimen.
Of present participle, L. L. 50, 1.
(en), to bear a grudge, etc..
Vowels, L. 2.
L. 31, 5.
interrogative, rendered by,
qu'est-ce que, L. 82, 2.
Whole (the), le tout, L. 26, 9.
, L. Will, used in the sense of wish, ren-
dered by vouloir, L. 60, 5.
Words, variable, g 1, (3). Invariable,
L. 6, 2. Not used. before nouns
Y AVOIR, to be there, § 61-2; L.
Used for ago, L. 41, 6.
Y avoir, followed by the present
when the action continues, L
(2). Place of, 8 104; & ill:
NE W FRENCH COURS E.
The French alphabet contains twenty-five letters:
New names. Examples
zèle. W, called in French double V, might be added, as many foreign words which have that letter, have been adopted into the French language.
1 The new names of the French letters are seldom used. ? Like s in pleasure.
Nearly like err in error. • No corresponding sound in English. * Nearly like be in globe.
Nearly like ke and de in cake and grade. The e of the other letters has the same sound.
se in rose,
VOWELS are rendered long or short by certain marks placed over them. These marks, which are three in number, are called accents.
The acute accent (') is placed over e, to give it a sharp or close sound. (See 4. é.)
The grave accent (') is placed over e, to give to that vowel a grave or open sound. (See 5. è.) It is also put on å, at, or to, ld, there, and on the u of où, there, to distinguish those words from a, has, la, the, and ou, or. The grave accent, however, does not change the sound of a and u.
The circumflex accent () is placed over a, e, i, o, u, to give to those letters a long and broad sound.' 1. a like a in mat, rat. Examples, face, face; bateau, boat; tableau,
picture; patte, paw; malade, sick. 2. â like a in bar, far. Ex. âge, age ; château, castle ; pâte, paste;
blâme, blame; crâne, cranium. . 3. e nearly like u in cur, and frequently silent at the end of poly
syllables. Ex. le, the ; me, me; te, thee ; que, that; meuble,
piece of furniture ; peuple, people; rime, rime. 4. é like a in fate. Ex. été, summer; amitié, friendship; élevé,
raised; épée, sword. 5. è like e in met. Ex. père, father,; frère, brother ; mère,
élève, pupil. 6. ê nearly like a in dare, fare. Ex. rêve, dream; extrême, ex
treme; crême, cream ; crêpe, crape; forêt, forest. 7. i nearly like ee in reed, creed. Ex. midi, mid-day; ici, here;
fini, finished ; crédit, credit. 8. î like ee in eel, feel. Ex. île, island; gite, lodging ; építre, epistle ;
dîme, tithe ; abîme, abyss. 9. o between the o in rob and that in robe, or that of nor and no.
Ex. robe, robe; globe, globe ; cachot, dungeon ; haricot, bean. 10. ô like o in bone, no. Ex. dépót, deposit ; prévit, provost ; bientit,
soon; suppôt, supporter.
The exact French sound of this letter is not found in English. The position of the lips in whistling, is very nearly the
This accent indicates the suppression of the letter s after the vowel on which it is placed; fête, tête, bête, were formerly written, feste, teste, beste; the s was not sounded, but gave to the preceding vowel that prolonged sound, now represented by the circumflex accent.