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your partner's? 4. He intends to go there, but he has no time to-day. 5. What do you want to-day? 6. I want my waistcoat, which (qui) is at the tailor's. 7. Are your clothes at the painter's? 8. They are not there, they are at the tailor's. 9. Where do you live, my friend ? 10. I live at your sister-in-law's. 11. Is your father at home? 12. No, sir; he is not. 13. Where does your servant carry the wood ? 14. He carries it to the Russian captain's. 15. Does the gentleman who (qui) is with your father, live at his house ? 16. No, sir; he lives with

17. Is he wrong to live with you? 18. No, sir; he is right to live with me. 19. Whence (d'où) comes the carpenter ? 20. He comes from his partner's house. 21. Has he two partners ? 22. No, sir; he has only one, who lives here (ici). 23. Have you time to go to our house, this morning ? 24. We have time to go there. 25. We intend to go there, and to speak to your sister. 26. Is she at your house? 27. She is at her (own) house. 28. Have you bread, butter, and cheese at home? 29. We have bread and butter there. 30. We have no cheese there, we do not like cheese. 31. Is your watch at the watchmaker's? 32. It (elle) is there. 33. Have you two gold watches ? 34. I have only one gold watch. 35. Who intends to go to my father's, this morning ? 36. Nobody intends to go there.

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LEÇON XXV.

LESSON XXV.

INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE,

1. In the first person singular of the present of the indicative of almost all those French verbs, which in that person have only one syllable, and in those which end in ger or gir, the common interrogative form (L. 23, 9.] is not used. To render the verb interrogative, the expression est-ce que is prefixed to the affirmative form. [$ 98 5.) (6.)]

Est-ce que je vends du drap? Do I sell cloth ?
Est-ce que je mange trop ?

Do I eat too much?
Est-ce que j'agis bien?

Do I act well ? 2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, to have ; être, to be; aller, to go; pouvoir, to be able; devoir, to owe; savoir, to know, etc., may however, be conjugated interrogatively according to the general rules. Ai-je vos mouchoirs ?

Have I your handkerchiefs ? Combien vous dois-je ?

How much do I owe you?

3. The form est-ce que is always allowable, and in conversation and familiar writing generally preferable,' even when the first person singular of the present of the indicative of a verb has several syllables, (8 98, (6.)]

Est-ce que je vous envoie des livres ? Do I send you books ? Est-ce que je commence à parler ? Do I begin to speak ? 4. Est-ce que may in conversation, be used with all the person3

of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated interrogatively : -Qu'estce que vous lisez ? may be said, instead of, Que lisez-vous ? What do

you read?

5. INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE INDICATIVE PRESENT OF
ALLER, to go.

ENVOYER, to send. VENIR, to come.
Est-ce que je vais ? do I Est-ce que j'envoie ? do Est-ce que je viens ? do I

go, or am I going ? I send, or am I sending? come, or am I coming ? Vas-tu ?

Envoies-tu?

Viens-tu ? Va-t-il ?

Envoie-t-il ?

Vient-il? Allons-nous ?

Envoyons-nous ? Venons-nous ? Allez-vous ?

Envoyez-vous ? Venez-vous ? Vont-ils?

Envoient-ils?

Viennent-ils?

6. The article le, preceded by the preposition à is contracted into au before a noun masculine commencing, with a consonant, or an h aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun. [§ 13, (8.)]

Allez-vous au bal ou ata marché? Do you go to the ball or to market
7. À l'église means at or to church ; à l'école, at or to school :-
Nous allons à l'église et à l'école. We go to church and to school.
8. Quelque part, means somewhere, anywhere; nulle part, nowhere,

Votre neveu où est-il ? Where is your nephew ?
Il est quelque part.

He is somewhere.
Il n'est nulle part.

He is nowhere.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Est-ce que je vais à l'école ?

Do I go to school ?
Vous allez à l'église aujourd'hui. You go to church to-day.
Est-ce que je commence mon travail ? Do I begin my work?
Est-ce que je parle anglais ?

Do I speak English ?
Est-ce que j'envoie ce livre à mon Do I send this book to my brother?

frère ? Allez-vous au marché demain ? Do you go to market to-morrow ? J'y vais après-demain.

I go there the day after to-morrow.

No Frenchman, for example, would ever say demandé-je? do I ask ? rapporté-je? do I bring? etc., except perhaps in oratorical style or in poetry.

This rule will apply also to the imperfect and past definite.

Envoyez-vous vos enfants à l'école? Do you send your children to school?
Je les envoie chez le professeur. I send them to the professor's.
Je les y envoie cette après-midi. I send them there this afternoon.
Vos habits où sont-ils ?

Where are your clothes ?
Ils sont quelque part.

They are somewhere.
Ils ne sont nulle part.

They are nowhere.
Est-ce que je demeure chez vous ? Do I live at your house?

EXERCISE 47.
Absent, e, absent ; Cuir, m. leather; Noir, e, black;
Adresse, f. address ; Depuis, since;

Perruquier, m. hair-dress Banque, f. bank ; École, f. school ;

er ;
Banquier, m. banker ; Écolier, m. scholar; Poste, f. post-office;
Billet, m. note, ticket; Église, f. church; Rouge, red;
Chapelier, m. hatter; Marché, m. market; Village, m. village ;
Concert, m. concert; Ne-point, not, (a stronger Vert, e, green.
Coup-er, 1. to cut; negative than pas ;)

ne vais

1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier. 3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque? 4. Vous allez à la banque et au concert. 5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois ? 6. Vous ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porte un chapeau vert ? 8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, vous en portez un noir. 9. Votre écolier va-t-il quelque part? 10. Il va à l'église, à l'école, et au marché. 11. Ne va-t-il pas chez le perruquier ? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. Ne portez-vous point des bottes de cuir rouge? 14. J'en porte de cuir noir. 15. N'allez-vous pas chez le banquier? 16. Je

pas chez lui, il est absent depuis hier. 17. Vient-il à la banque ce matin? 18. Il a l'intention d'y venir, s'il a le temps.? 19. A-t-il envie d'aller au concert ? 20. Il a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a pas de billet. 21. Demeurez-vous dans ce village? 22. Oui, monsieur, j'y demeure. 23. Envoyez-vous ce billet à la poste ? 24. Je l'envoie à son adresse.

EXERCISE 48. 1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a handsome green hat. 3. Does the banker go to the hair-dresser's this morning? 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he intend to go to the bank this morning? 6. He does not intend to go there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to the post-office ? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet written (écrites). 9. Do I send you a note? 10. You send me a ticket, but I have no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does your brother go to school to-morrow. 12. He goes (there) to-day, and remains at home to-morrow. 13, Do I go

there? 14. You

This is the

* The i of si is elided before il, ils, but in no other case. only instance of the elision of e.

ne to

house

do not go anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. I am going to your brother's, is he at home? 17. He is not at home, he is absent. 18. Does your brother live in this village ? 19. He does not; [L. 24. 12] he lives at my nephew's.

20. Are you wrong to go to school? 21. No, sir; I am right to go to church and to school. 22. Do you wish to co my

se ? 23. I like to go to your house, and to your brother's. 24. When are you coming to our house ? 25. To-morrow, if I have time. 26. Does the banker like to come here? 27. He likes to come to your house. 28. Is the hair-dresser coming? 29. He is not yet coming. 30. What are you sending to the scholar? 31. I am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. Where is he? 33. He is at school. 34. Is the school in the village? 35. It is there.

LEÇON XXVI.

LESSON XXVI.

IDIOMATIC USE OF ALLER, VENIR, ETC.

1. The verb aller, is used, in French, in the same manner as the verb to go, in English, to indicate a proximate future.

Allez-vous écrire ce matin ? Are you going to write this morning ? Je vais écrire mes lettres. I am going to write my letters.

2. The verb venir is used idiomatically, in French, to indicate a past just elapsed. It requires, in this signification, the preposition de before another verb.

Je viens d'écrire mes lettres.
Nous venons de recevoir des lettres.

I have just written my letters.
We have just received letters.

3. Aller trouver, venir trouver, are used in the sense of to go to, to come to, in connection with nouns or pronouns representing persons. Allez trouver le ferblantier.

Go to the tinman. J'ai envie d'aller le trouver.

I have a desire to go to him. Venez me trouver à dix heures. Come to me at ten o'clock.

4. Aller chercher, means to go for, to go and fetch.
Allez chercher le médecin.

Go and fetch the physician.
Je vais chercher du sucre et du café. I am going for coffee and sugar.

5. Envoyer chercher, means to send for, to send and fetch. Envoyer chercher le marchand. Send for the merchant. J'envoie chercher des légumes. I send for vegetables.

6. The first and second persons of the plural of the imperative ere, with few exceptions, the same as the corresponding persons of the present of the indicative. The pronouns nous, vous, are not used with the imperative.

7. PLURAL OF THE IMPERATIVE OF ALLER, ENVOYER, AND VENIR. Allons, let us go; Envoyons, let us send; Venons, let us come; Allez, go ; Envoyez, send;

Venez, come. 8. Tous, m. toutes, f. followed by the article les and a plural noun, are used, in French, in the same sense as the word every in English.

Votre frère vient tous les jours. Your brother comes every day.
Vous allez à l'école tous les matins. You go to school every morning.

9. Tout, m. toute, f. followed by le or la and the noun in the singular, are used for the English expression the whole, coming before

a noun.

Il reste ici toute la journée. He remains here the whole day.

10. A day of the week or of the month, pointed out as the time of an appointment or of an occurrence, is not preceded by a preposition in French.

Venez lundi ou mardi.

Come on Monday or Tuesday. Venez le quinze ou le seize avril. Come on the fifteenth or sixteenth

of April. 11. When the occurrence is a periodical or customary one, the article le is prefixed to the day of the week or the time of the day. Il vient nous trouver le lundi. He comes to us Mondays. Il va trouver votre père l'après-midi. He goes to your father in the afternoon,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Je vais parler à votre père. I am going to speak to your father. Nous venons de recevoir de l'argent. We have just received money. Que venez-vous de faire ?

What have you just done? Je viens de déchirer mon habit. I have just torn my coat. Votre frère va-t-il trouver son ami ? Does your brother go to his friend? Il va le trouver tous les jours. He goes to him every day. Il vient me trouver tous les lundis. He comes to me every Monday. Allez-vous chercher de l'argent? Do you go and fetch money? Je n'en vais pas chercher.

I do not. [L. 24. 12.] Envoyez-vous chercher des livres Do you send for Arabic books ?

arabes ? Allez-vous chez cette dame lundi ? Do you go to that lady's on Monday? J'ai l'intention d'y aller mardi. I intend to go there on Tuesday. J'y vais ordinairement le mercredi. I generally go there Wednesdays. Il va à l'église le dimanche.

He goes to church Sundays.

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