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Non, monsieur; nous n'avons que le No, sir; it is only the eleventh.

Onze,

Lequel de ces deux volumes avez Which of those two volumes have you?

vous ? J'ai l'un et l'autre.

I have both. Avez-vous la première place, ou la Have you the first, or the second deuxième ?

place ? J'ai la première, et mon frère a la I have the first, and my brother has deuxième.

the second.

EXERCISE 35.
A ujourd'hui, to-day, Février, m. February; Outil, m. tool;
Canelle, f. cinnamon; Franc, m. franc; Ouvrage, m. work;
Centime, m. centime- Histoire, f. history; (Euvres, f works ;

the 100th part of a Italien, m. Italian; Place, f. place;
franc;

Kilogramme, m. kilo- Quart, m. quarter ; Combien, how much, how gramme-about two Septembre, m. Septemmany ; pounds;

ber; Cravate, f. cravat; Menuisier, m. joiner ; Volume, m. volume. Demi, hatf, § 84, (2.) Mousseline, f. muslin ;

1. Le cheval que vous avez est-il bon? 2. Il est meilleur que celui que vous avez, et que celui de notre ami. 3. Combien d'enfants avezwous ? 4. Je n'en ai qu'un, mais l'Italien en a plus que moi. 5. Avonswous le dix septembre ? 6. Non, monsieur; nous avons le neuf de février. 7. Avez-vous ma cravate de soie, ou ma cravate de mousseline? 8. J'ai l'une et l'autre. 9. Avez-vous liuit kilogrammes de

10. Non, monsieur; je n'en ai qu'un demi-kilogramme. 11. Combien de francs avez-vous, monsieur ? 12. Je n'ai qu'un demifranc, mais mon ami a un franc et demi. 13. Votre sæur a-t-elle vingt-cinq centimes? 14. Oui, monsieur; elle a un quart de franc. 15. N'avons-nous pas le premier août? 16. Non, monsieur; nous avons le six septembre. 17. Est-ce aujourd'hui le dix ? 18. Non, monsieur; c'est le onze. 19. Votre frère a-t-il la première place ? 20. Non, monsieur; il a la dixième. 21. Votre menuisier a-t-il beaucoup d'outils ? 22. Oui, monsieur.; il en a beaucoup. 23. Cet ouvrage a-t-il dix volumes ?

24. Non, monsieur; il n'en a que neuf. 25. J'ai le sixième volume des ceuvres de Molière, et le premier van lume de l'histoire de France de Michelet.

EXERCISE 16. 1. Is that cinnamon good ? 2. That cinnamon is better than yours and your brother's. [R. 1.] 3. What day of the month is it to-day? 4. It is the sixth. 5. Has your father twenty francs ? 6. No, sir; he has only six francs fifty centimes. 7. How many volumes has your work? 8. It has many, it has fifteen. 9. Has the joiner read (lu) the second volume of Michelet's history of France ? 10. Yes, sir; he has

read the second volume (of it). 11. Has your friend Molière's works? 12. He has only two volumes of them. 13. Have you my cloth coat or my velvet coat? 14. We have both. 15. We have this and that. 16. How much cinnamon have you? 17. We have two kilogrammes. 18. How many centimes has the merchant? 19. He has twenty-six. 20. Have you the third or the fourth place ? 21. I have neither the third nor the fourth, I have the tenth. 22. Are you not ashamed today? 23. No, sir; I am not ashamed, but I am afraid. 24. Have you a quarter of a franc? 25. No, sir; but I have half a franc. 26. Is it the sixth of July ? 27. No, sir ; it is the fourth of March. 23. Has your uncle six children? 29. No, sir; he has only one. 30. Have you ten kilogrammes of meat? 31. I have only five kilogrammes. 32. Is the butcher's meat good ? 33. It (elle) is not very good. 34. How many kilogrammes have you (of it)? 35. I have only two, but my brother has four.

LEÇON XX.

LESSON XX.

THE TIME OF THE DAY.–AGE, ETC.

1. For the time of the day, the verb étre is used unipersonally in French, in the same manner as the verb to be is used in English for the same object. The word heure, sing. heures, plur. represents the English expressions, o'clock, or time, and must always be expressed. Quelle heure est-il ?

What o'clock (time) is it?
Il est une heure.

It is one o'clock.
Il est dix heures.

It is ten; it is ten o'clock. 2. Midi is used for twelve o'clock in the day, and minuit, for midnight, or twelve at night. Douze heures is never used, except in the sense of twelve hours.

Est-il midi? Est-il minuit ?

Is it noon? Is it midnight?

3. Et quart, et demie, [S 84, (3.)] answer to the English expressions, a quarter, half-past, after, &c.

Il est neuf heures et quart.
Il est midi et demi.
Il est une heure et demie.

It is a quarter after ninc.
It is half after twelve.
It is half after one.

4. Moins un quart, moins vingt minutes, answer to the English expressions, a quarter before, twenty minutes before, &c.

Il est dix heures moins un quart. It wants a quarter of ten.
Il est neuf heures moins dix mi. It is ten minutes before nine.

putes. 5. The word demi, preceding the word heure, does not vary. Placed after it, it is variable. [§ 84, (2.) (3.)] Une demi-heure.

Half an hour.
Une heure et demie.

An hour and a haij. 6. The verb avoir, is used actively [$ 43, (2.) (3,)] in French, in speaking of age, and the word, an, year, is always expressed. Quel âge avez-vous ?

How old are you? lit. What age have

you ? J'ai plus de vingt ans.

I am more than twenty. 7. Plus de, moins de, are used for more than, less than, before a number. Avons-nous plus de dix mètres de Have we more than ten metres of this cette toile d'Hollande ?

Holland (Holland linen) ? Vous en avez moins de six aunes. You have less than six ells of it.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Il n'est pas encore deux heures. It is not yet two o'clock.
Est-il une heure et demie ?

Is it half-past one ?
Il est midi et quart ou midi et demi. It is a quarter or half-past twelve.
Il est huit heures moins un quart. It wants a quarter of eight.
Quel âge votre fils a-t-il ?

How old is your son ? Il n'a que dix-huit ans.

He is only eighteen years old. Votre beau-frère n'a-t-il pas plus de Is not your brother-in-law more than dix-neuf ans ?

nineteen years old ? Ma belle-søur n'a pas moins de dix. My sister-in-law is not less than eigh. huit ans et demi.

teen years and a half. Est-il plus de dix heures à votre Is it more than ten o'clock by your montre ?

watch? Il n'est que neuf heures à mon It is only nine by my clock.

horloge. Votre fils est-il plus âgé que le Is your son older than mine?

mien ? U est plus jeune que lo vôtre. He is younger than yours.

in-law;

EXERCISE 37.
Å gé, e, old ;
Cela, that ;

Jour, m. day;
Aune, f. ell;

Cinquante, fifty; Maintenant, now; Beau-frère, m. brother- Cousin-germain, m. first Mars, m. March;

cousin;

Mètre, m. metre, á Irench Beau-fils, m. son-in-law ; Enfant, m. child ;

measure; about three Beau-père, m. father-in- Février, m. February; French feet; about 1.09 law; Horloge, f. clock;

yards;
Belle-mère, f. mother-in- Indienne, f. printed cab Mois, m. month ;
law;

Ruban, m. ribbon;
Belle-soeur, f. sister-in- Italienne, f. Italian; Tard, late;
Jeune, young ;

Verge, f. yard.

ico;

law;

1. Votre beau-frère est-il plus âgé que le mien? 2. Le vôtre est plus jeune que le mien. 3. Quel âge votre belle-mère a-t-elle ? 4. Elle a près de cinquante ans. 5. Quelle heure est-il maintenant? 6. Il est six heures passées. 7. Etes-vous certain de cela ? 8. Oui, monsieur; j'en suis certain. 9. Est-il plus de deux heures à votre montre ? 10. Il n'est que midi à ma montre. 11. Avez-vous plus de cinq ans, mon enfant ? 12. Je n'ai pas encore quatre ans. 13. Avez-vous plus de six verges d'indienne ? 14. J'en ai moins de trois mètres. 15. Combien d'aunes de ruban votre beau-père a-t-il ? 16. Il n'a guère de ruban, il n'en a qu'une demi-aune. 17. Est-il midi moins un quart ? 18. Il est plus tard, monsieur; il est midi et quart. 19. Quel jour du mois avons-nous ? 20. Nous avons le six octobre. 21. N'est-ce pas le huit février ? 22. Non, madame; c'est le huit de

23. Combien de jardins votre cousin-germain a-t-il ? 24. Il n'en a qu'un, mais il est très beau. 25. Il en a plus de dix,

mars.

EXERCISE 38.

one.

15. It is a quar

1. How old is your brother-in-law ? 2. He is fifty years old. 3. Is your sister-in-law older than mine? 4. No, sir; my sister-inlaw is younger than yours. 5. Is your son twenty-five years old ? 6. No, madam; he is only sixteen. 7. What day of the month is it to-day ? 8. It is the eleventh. 9. Have you the twentieth volume, of Chateaubriand's works? 10. No, madam; we have the eleventh. 11. What o'clock is it, sir? 12. It is only twelve o'clock. 13. it no later?

14. It wants a quarter ter after five. 16. How many yards of this Holland (toile d'Hollande, f.) have you ? 17. I have ten ells and a half. 18. I have six metres of it, and sixteen yards of Italian silk. 19. Is your motherin-law younger than your father-in-law? 20. She is

younger

than he. 21. Are you twenty years old ? 22. No, sir; I am only nineteen and a half. 23. We are sure (sûr) that it is ten o'clock. 24. We are sure that it is noon. 25. Is it twenty minutes of ten ? 26. No. sir; it is a quarter before twelve (midi). 27. How many houses have you ? 28. I have only one, but my sister-in-law has two. 29. Have you mine (f.) or yours? 30. I hare neither yours nor mine, I have your son-in-law's. 31. Has your mother-in-law five yards of that printed calico ? 32. She has only two yards of it. 33. What o'clock is it by (à) your watch ? 34. It is half-past four, by my watch. 35. It is more than seven o'clock by mine (à la mienne.)

LEÇON XXI.

LESSON XXI.

THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS.

1. The four classes or conjugations, into which the French verbs are divided are distinguished by the endings of the present of the infinitive ($ 44]. The first conjugation ends in ER; as CHANTER, to sing ; DONNER, to give ; PARLER, to speak; CHERCHER, to seek.

The second conjugation ends in ir; as CHÉRIR, to cherish; PUNIR, to punish ; MUNIR, to provide ; FINIR, to finish.

The termination of the infinitive of the regular verbs of the third conjugation, is EVOIR; as DEVOIR, to owe ; RECEVOIR, to receive; that of the irregular verbs is oir, as VALOIR, to be worth.

The fourth conjugation ends in RE: as, RENDRE, to render ; FENDBE, to split; TENDRE, to stretch ; VENDRE, to sell.

2. A verb preceded by another verb (other than the auxiliaries' avoir and être), or by a preposition (other than en), is put in the present of the infinitive. Il va travailler ou lire,

He is going to work or to read. 3. In French, verbs are often connected with others by prepositions not answering literally to those which accompany the same verbs in English. They also often come together without prepositions. The student will find in § 129, and the following sections of the Second Part, lists of verbs, with the prepositions which they require after them.

4. The following idioms are followed by the preposition de when they come before a verb (§ 132): Avoir besoin, to want;

Avoir le temps, to have time or leisAvoir coutume, to be accustomed ; ure; Avoir dessein, to intend, to design ; Avoir peur, to be afraid; Avoir envie, to have a wish, a desire; Avoir raison, be right; Avoir honte, to be ashamed ;

Avoir regret, to regret; Avoir intention, or l'intention, to in Avoir tort, to be wrong ;

Avoir sujet, to have reason;
Avoir le courage, to have courage; Avoir soin, to take care.

Cet enfant a besoin de dormir, That child wants to sleep.
Vous avez honte de courir,

You are ashamed to run.

tend;

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Avez-vous quelque chose à dire ? Have you any thing to say?
Je n'ai rien à dire.

I have nothing to say.
Votre scur n'a-t-elle rien à écrire ? Has your sister nothing to write ?
Elle a deux lettres à écrire.

She has two letters to write

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