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6. Guère, httle, but little ; PLACE

Le boucher n'a-t-il pas de la viande Has not the butcher fresh meat?

fraîche ? (See note, page 38.) Il en a, il n'en a pas.

He has some, he has none. Il en a beaucoup.

He has much (of it). Il n'en a guère.

He has but little (of it). Il en a deux livres.

He has two pounds (of it).

EXERCISE 27. Amusant, e, amusing; Bijou, m. jewel; Laine, f. wool; Américain, e, American; Blanc, blanche, white; Mademoiselle, f. Miss ; Anglais, e, English; Brave, brave, worthy; Monsieur, m. sir, Mr., Arabe, Arabian; Châle, m. shawl; gentleman; Aubergiste, m. innkeep- Couteau, m. knife; Noir, e, black; er ;

Français, e, French ; Parent, m. relation; Beaucoup, much, many:

Soldat, m. soldier ; Belge, Belgian; Guitare, f. guitar ;

Terre, f. lando 1. Avez-vous une bonne guitare? 2. Oui, monsieur; j'ai une guitare excellente. 3. Avez-vous de bons habits ? 4. Oui, madame; j'ai de bons habits noirs et de belles robes blanches. 5. Votre mère n'a-t-elle pas un châle de soie ? 6. Oui, mademoiselle; elle en a un de soie et un de laine. 7. L'aubergiste a-t-il de bons chevaux anglais ? 8. L'aubergiste a des chevaux anglais, français, et arabes. 9. Il en a de superbes. 10. L'ami de votre frère a-t-il des bijoux d'or ? 11. Oui, monsieur; il en a. 12. A-t-il aussi des bijoux d'argent? 13. Il en a aussi. 14. En a-t-il beaucoup ? 15. Non, monsieur; il n'en a guère. 16. Votre ami a-t-il des parents ? 17. Oui, monsieur; il en a. 18. Ce monsieur a-t-il une bonne plume d'acier, ou une belle plume d'or ? 19. Il en a une d'acier, et nous en avons une d'or. 20. Le général n'a-t-il pas de bons soldats ? 21. Il en a de très braves. 22. Les Américains n'ont-ils pas de bonne terre? 23. Ils en ont d'excellente. 24. Le marchand a-t-il des couteaux anglais ou français ? 25. Les couteaux du marchand ne sont ni anglais ni français, ils sont belges.

EXERCISE 28. 1. Has your brother Arabian horses ? 2. Yes, sir; he has some. 3. Has he handsome ones? 4. Yes, sir; he has handsome ones. 5. Are the good Americans wrong? 6. No, miss (madam); they are not wrong, they are right. 7. Have you a French shawl? 8. Yes, sir; I have one, I have a handsome French shawl. 9. Has your innkeeper your silver knife or mine? 10. He has neither yours nor mine, he has his sister's handsome steel knife. 11. Has the Belgian a good guitar? 12. He has an excellent French guitar. 13. He has an excellent one. 14. Has the gentleman amusing books ? 15. Yes, sir; he has two. 16. Has the general French or Arabian horses ?

17. He has French and Arabian horses, but he has no English horses. 18. Who has Arabian horses ? 19. The Arabian has some. 20. Has the Englishman any? 21. The Englishman has some. 22. Has your friend's sister a good steel pen? 23. My friend's sister has one, but my

relations have none. 24. Are you not wrong, sir ? 25. Yes, madam; I am wrong. 26. Are those knives English ?

27. No, sir; they are Belgian. 28. Have you relations ? 29. I have two, and they are here (ici). 30. Has the English butcher meat ? 31. Yes. sir; he has much. 32. Has he much money ? 33. He has but little. 34. Has the Belgian general brave soldiers ? 35. Yes, sir; he has good ones.

LEÇON XVI.

LESSON XVI.

COMPARISON.

1. Adjectives and adverbs are always compared in French, as they often are in English, by means of adverbs. Plus beau, plus souvent,

More beautiful, oftener. 2. The first part of the comparison for the degree in quality is inade by: Aussi, as, or as much ;

These adverbs come almost always Plus, more;

before an adjective, a participle, or an Pas aussi, pas si, not so, not as;

adverb. Moins, less; Aussi grand, as tall.

Plus grand, taller. Pas aussi grand, not as tall.

Moins grand, less tall, not as tall.

3. For the degree in quantity we use : Autant de, as much, as many;

Coming almost always bePlus de, more;

fore a noun, an adjective used Pas autant de, not as much or as many ; substantively, or a possessive Moins de, less, fewer ;

or demonstrative pronoun. Autanı de livres, as many books. Autant de bons, as many good ones. Plus de ceux-ci, more of these. Moins des miens, less of mine.

4. The second part of the comparison is expressed by: Que, as, than: when it does not precede a word expressing a quantity

compared with the word following the first adverb of the comparison. Autant de livres que votre frère, As many books as your brother. Tout autant d'or que sa soeur, Quite as much gold as his sister. Plus diligent que sa sœur,

More diligent than his sister.

Que de, as, than: before a word expressing a quantity compared with

that expressed by the word following the adverb of the first part. Plus de livres que de maisons, More books than houses. Autant d'or que d'argent,

As much gold as silver. J'ai tout autant de sucre que de I have quite (or just) as much suger café.

as coffee.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Avez-vous autant de livres anglais, Have you as many English books as que de livres italiens?

Italian books ? J'en ai tout autant.

I have just as many. J'ai autant de ceux-ci que de ceux. I have as many of these as of those.

là. Il est aussi heureux que vous.

He is as happy as you. Avez-vous plus d'assiettes que de Have you more plates than dishes ?

plats? J'ai plus de ceux-ci que de celles-là. I have more of these than of those. Est-il plus complaisant que ses Is he more obliging than his brothers :

frères ? Le Français a-t-il moins de légumes Has the Frenchman fewer vegetables que de fruits ?

than fruits ? Il à moins de livres que de manus He has fewer books than manuscripts.

crits. Il n'a pas autant de ceux-ci que He has not as many of these as of de ceux-là.

those. En a-t-il moins que votre frère ? Has he less (of them) than your

brother? Il en a tout autant.

He has quite as many.

EXERCISE 29.
Bleu, e, Blue;
Fer, m. iron;

Manuscrit,
Courage, m. courage ; Fromage, m. checse; script;
Davantage, * more; Hollandais, m. Dutch- Maréchal

, m. Vlacksmith; Drap, m. cloth;

man ;

Modestie, f modesty; Ennemi, m. enemy; Italien, ne, Italian; Soie, f. silk; Espagnol, e, Spaniard; Jardin, m. garden; Estampe, f. engraving; Manteau, m. cloak;

Verre, m. glass. 1. Etes-vous aussi content que votre frère ? 2. Je suis aussi content que votre frère. 3.. Votre père a-t-il autant de courage que de modestie ? 4. ]l a moins de modestie que de courage. 5. Le libraire a-t-il autant de manuscrits que d'estampes? 6. Il a plus de celles-ci que de ceux-là. 7. A-t-il autant d'amis que d'ennemis ? 8. Il a plus de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. 9. A-t-il autant de pain que de fromage? 10. Il a tout autant de celui-ci que de celui-là. 11. Le maréchal a-t-il plus de chevaux que votre frère ? 12. Il en a plus que mon père, et plus que mon frère. 13. N'avez-vous pas

m.

manu

Très, very ;

· Davantage means more. It can never be placed before a noun; it may be used instead of plus, at the end of a sentence.

froid? 14. Non, monsieur; je n'ai pas froid, j'ai très chaud. 15. Avezvous deux manteaux de drap? 16. J'en ai un de drap et un de velours bleu. 17. N'avez-vous pas plus de verres que d'assiettes ? 18. Nous en avons davantage. 19. Le maréchal a-t-il plus de fer que d'acier ? 20. Il n'a pas autant de celui-ci que de celui-là. 21. Il a moins de celui-ci que de celui-là. 22. Les Hollandais ont-ils de beaux jardins ? 23. Leurs jardins sont très beaux. 24. Les jardins des Italiens sont plus beaux que ceux des Espagnols.

EXERCISE 30. 1. Are you more attentive than your sister ? 2. I am not as attentive as your brother. 3. Have you more courage than my

brother? 4. I have quite as much. 5. Has the blacksmith as much money as iron? 6. He has more of the latter than of the former. [L. 10, R. 5.] 7. Has he more modesty than the Spaniard ? 8. He has more. 9. He has more than your friend's sister. 10. Are you not cold, sir ? 11. No, sir; but I am afraid and sleepy. 12. Has the Dutchman more cheese than the Italian? 13. He has more cheese and more money. 14. Have you as much English silk as Italian silk ? 15. I have more of this than of that. 16. Who has more friends than the Spaniard ? 17. Your friend has more. 18. Has the Spaniard as much of your money as of his ? 19. He has less of mine than of his. 20. Have we more silk cloaks than cloth cloaks? 21. We have more of these than of those. 22. Have you good cloaks ? 23. Yes, sir; I have good cloaks, good hats, and good leather shoes. 24. Have you

ates than dishes ? 25. I have not more plates than dishes, but I have more glasses than plates. 26. Are you not very cold? 27. No, sir; I am neither cold nor warm. 28. Has your carpenter wood? 29. Yes, sir; he has wood, money, cheese and meat. 30. Who has more money than the carpenter ? 31. The Dutchman has more.

32. Who has more engravings than books ? 33. The bookseller has more of these than of those. 34. Are you as attentive as your friend ? 35. I am more attentive than my friend.

more

LEÇON XVII.

LESSON XVII.

COMPARISON, -ENCORE, ETC. 1. The superlative absolute is formed by placing très, fort, or bien, very, before the adjective. [$ 14-2, (11.)]

Ces chandeliers sont très utiles. These candlesticks are very useful. Notre tailleur est bien obligeant. Our tailor is very obliging.

2. The superlative relative is formed by adding the article le, la, les, to a comparative. [§ 14-2, (9.)] Votre neveu est le plus savant de tous. Your nephew is the most learned of all.

3. Encore is used in French in the sense of more, some more, any more, still, -used affirmatively and interrogatively, but not negatively.

Avez-vous encore du café ? Have you any more coffee ?
J'ai encore du café.

I have more (or some more) coffee.
J'en ai encore.

I have some more, or some left. 4. Ne-plus is used in the sense of not any more, and no more, or none left. Je n'ai plus de livres.

I have no more books.
Je n'ai plus de chocolat.

I have no chocolate left.
5. Ne-guère means but little, but few.
Je n'ai guère d'amis.

I have but few friends.
Je n'en ai guère.

I have but fewbut little. 6. The pronouns moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of the nominative pronouns je, tu, il, ils, after the que of a comparison, when the verb is understood.

Vous êtes plus heureux que moi. You are happier than I.
Vous avez plus de mérite que lui. You have more merit than he.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Votre marchand est bien obligeant. Your merchant is very obliging.
Voilà le meilleur de ces garçons.

That is the best of those boys.
Nous avons encore des amis.

We have some more (or still) friends. Vous avez encore du crédit.

You have still (or yet) credit.
Avez-vous encore une piastre? Have you a dollar left?
Le maçon a-t-il encore des briques? Has the mason more bricks ?
Il n'en a plus.

He has no more-he has none left. Il n'a plus de briques.

He has no more bricks. Il n'en a guère.

He has but few. Il n'en a plus guère.

He has but few left. Je n'ai guère de livres.

I have but few books. Avez-vous plus de courage que lui ? Have you more courage than he ? Il a moins de courage que moi. He has less courage than 1. Combien de piastres avez-vous en How many dollars have you still, or core?

have you left?

EXERCISE 31. Correct, e, correct; Dictionnaire, m. diction Savant, e, learned; Courage, m. courage ; ary ;

Sæur, f. sister; Crédit, m. credit; Neveu, m. nephew; Salade, f. salad; Beaucoup, much ; Nièce, f. niece;

Tante, f. aunt ;
Boyer, Boyer; Nouvelles, f. news ;

Tous, all;
Jardin, m. garden; Quel, which, which one; Ville, s. town, city.

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