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1. Cette dame est-elle contente? 2. Non, monsieur ; cette dame n'est pas contente. 3. Votre fille est-elle vive? 4. Mon fils est très vif, et ma fille est paresseuse. 5. N'a-t-elle pas tort? 6. Elle n'a pas raison. 7. Votre cousine est-elle lieureuse ? 8. Oui, madame; elle est bonne, belle et heureuse. I. A-t-elle des amis? 10. Oui, monsieur; elle a des parents et des amis. 11. A-t-elle une robe neuve et de vieux souliers ? 12. Elle a de vieux souliers et une vieille robe. 13. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas un bel habit [R. 6.]? 14. Il a un bel habit et une bonne cravate. 15. Avez-vous de bonne viande, monsieur ? 16. J'ai de la viande excellente. 17. Cette viande-ci est-elle meilleure que celle-là ? 18. Celle-ci est meilleure que celle-là. 19. Votre ami a-t-il le bel encrier de porcelaine? 20. Son encrier est beau, mais il n'est pas de porcelaine. 21. Quelqu'un a-t-il faim? 22. Personne n'a faim. 23. Les généraux sont-ils ici ? 24. Les généraux et les maréchaux sont ici. 25. J'ai vos parasols et vos parapluies, et ceux de vos enfants.

EXERCISE 24. 1. Is your little sister pleased ? 2. Yes, madam; she is pleased. 3. Is that little girl handsome? 4. That little girl is not handsome, but she is good. 5. Have you good cloth and good silk? 6. My cloth and silk are here. 7. Is your sister happy? 8. My sister is good and happy. 9. Has that physician's sister friends? 10. No, madam; she has no friends. 11. Is your meat good ? 12. My meat is good, but my cheese is better. 13. Has the bookseller a handsome china inkstand ? 14. He has a fine silver inkstand and a pair of leather shoes, 15. Ilave you my silk parasols ? 16. I have your cotton umbrellas. 17. Is your brother's coat handsome ? 18. My brother has a handsome coat and an old silk cravat. 19. Have you relations and friends ? 20. I have no relations, but I have friends. 21. Is that handsome lady wrong? 22. That handsome lady is not wrong. 23. Have you handsome china? 24. Our china is handsome and good. 25. It is better than yours. 26. Is not that little girl hungry? 27. That handsome little girl is neither liungry nor thirsty. 28. What is the matter with her ? 29. She has neither relations nor friends. 30. Is this gold watch good ? 31. This one is good, but that one is better. 32. Have you it? 33. I have it, but I have not your sister's. 34. I liave neither yours nor mine, I have your mother's.

? The article, the possessive and the demonstrative adjective, and the prepositions à and de are repeated before every noun. Mon frère et ma soeur,

My brother and sister ;
À votre frère et au mien,

To your brother and (to) mine ;
De nos livres et des vôtres,

Of our books and (of) youts.



1. An adjective qualifying a plural noun, or two or more singular nouns of the same gender, assumes the gender of the noun or nouns and is put in the plural. ($ 18.] Les arbres et les fruits sont beaux. The trees and fruits are fine. Les fleurs et les plantes sont belles. The flowers and plants are fine. Vos jardins sont très beaux.

Your gardens are very fine. 2. An adjective qualifying two or more nouns of different genders, is put in the plural masculine. Mon frère et ma seur sont contents. My brother and sister are pleased. Le canif et la plume sont bons. The penknife and pen are good.

3. The plural of the feminine of adjectives is invariably formed by the addition of an s.

Vous avez de jolies maisons. You have pretty houses.
Ces demoiselles sont attentives. Those young ladies are attentive.

4. The plural of the masculine of adjectives is generally formed by the addition of an s.

Ces écoliers sont attentifs.

Those scholars are attentive. Vos bois sont magnifiques.

Your woods are magnificent. 5. The terminations s and x are not changed for the plural masculine. Nos fruits sont mauvais.

Our fruits are bad. Vos oiseaux sont hideux.

Your birds are hideous. 6. To the termination eau, x is added for the plural masculine. Vos champs sont très beaus. Your fields are very fine.

7. The termination al is generally changed into aux for the plural masculine ($ 17 (3.), Third E.cception). Les hommes sont égaux.

Men are equal. 8. For more explicit rules and for exceptions, see § 17, Second Part.


Negatively and Interrogatively.
Je ne suis pas,
I am not; Ne suis-je pas ?

Am I not?
Tu n'es pas,
Thou art not; N'es-tu pas ?

Art thou noi?
He is not;
N'est-il pas ?

Is he not?
Elle n'est pas
She is not; N'est-elle pas ?

Is she not? Nous ne sommes pas, We are not; Ne sommes-nous pas ? Are we not ? Vous n'êtes pas,

You are not ;

N’êtes-vous pas? Are you not? Ils ne sont pas, m. They are not; Ne sont-ils pas ? m. Are they not? Elles ne sont pas, f. They are not; Ne sont-elles pas ? f. Are they not?

Il n'est pas,

Avez-vous des écoliers attentifs ? Have you attentive scholars ?
Mes écoliers et mes écolières sont My scholars (male and female) are
très attentifs et très studieux.

very attentive and very studious
Ces demoiselles sont-elles studieuses? Are those young ladies studious ?
Elles ne sont pas très studieuses. They are not very studious.
Ces règles sont-elles générales ? Are those rules general ?
Ces principes sont généraux. Those principles are general.
Leurs habillements sont superbes.

Their clothes are superb.
Avez-vous peur de ces chevaux Are you afraid of those restive horses ?

rétifs ? Vos montres d'or sont excellentes. Your gold watches are excellent. Les miennes sont-elles meilleures Are mine better than yours?

que les vôtres ? Les vôtres sont meilleures.

Yours are better

Agréable, agreeable ; Mauvais, e, bad; Souvent, often;
Aîné, e, elder;
Mule, f. mule;

Travail, m. labor;
Allemande, f. German; Oisif, ve, idle;

Très, very; Jamais, never ;

Pantoufles, f. slippers; Utile, useful; Indulgent, e, indulgent; Personne, m. nobody ; Velours, m. velvet; Laine, f. wool, woollen; Rétif, ve, restive; Vif, ve, quick, lively. Maroquin, m, morocco;

1. Les chevaux de notre ami sont-ils rétifs ? 2. Ses chevaux ne sont pas rétifs, mais ses mules sont très rétives. 3. Les chevaux et les mules de votre frère sont excellents. 4. Vos coeurs sont-elles très vives? 5. Mes frères et mes spurs sont très vifs. 6. Sont-ils souvent oisifs ? 7. Non, monsieur; mes seurs ne sont jamais oisives. 8. Avez-vous peur de votre frère ? 9. Non, monsieur ; je n'ai peur de personne. 10. Ne sommes-nous pas indulgents ? 11. Vous êtes indulgents, et vous avez raison. 12. Ai-je vos livres ? 13. Vous ne les avez pas, vous avez ceux de mon frère aîné. 14. Ne les avezvous pas ? 15. Je ne les ai pas. 16. Avez-vous une bonne paire de bas de laine ? 17. J'ai une belle paire de bas de soie. 18. Avez-vous les bonnes maisons ou les mauvaises ? 19. Je n'ai ni les bonnes ni les mauvaises, j'ai celles de ma cousine. 20. Le travail est-il agréable ? 21. Le travail est utile et agréable. 22. Avez-vous mes beaux souliers de maroquin? 23. Je n'ai pas os beaux souliers de maroquin, j'ai vos belles pantoufles de velours. 24. Avez-vous les pantoufles de votre seur, ou les miennes ? 25. Je n'ai ni les vôtres ni celles de votre scur, j'ai celles de l'Allemande.

EXERCISE 26. 1. Are your brothers and sisters very (bien) quick? (Note, p. 54.) 2. My brothers are quick, but my sisters are not quick. 3. Have you

not two restive horses ?' 4. No, but I have a restive mule. 5. Have you not two good pairs of silk gloves ? 6. I have a good pair of cotton gloves, and two pairs of silk gloves. 7. Are you not afraid of your friends ? 8. No, sir; I am never afraid of my friends. 9. 1 am afraid of nobody. 10. Are you right or wrong? 11. I am right. 12. Have you my beautiful leather slippers, or my oid satin slippers? 13. I have your old leather shoes and your velvet slippers. 14. Are those ladies pleased ? 15. Those ladies are pleased, and they are right. 16. Has the German lady your father's shoes or mine ? 17. She has neither his nor yours, she has my sister's. 18. Has your elder brother good houses ? 19. His houses are better than yours and than mine. 20. Are his houses old ? 21. His houses are old, but they are good. 22. Have you them? 33. No, sir; I have them not, I have no houses. 24. Have you my brother's or my sister's ? 25. Your sister has hers and my mother's. 26. Are your scholars attentive? 27. My scholars are very attentive and very studious. 28. Are those German ladies studious ? 29. They are very studious and very attentive. 30. Are you often wrong? 31. Yes, sir; I am often wrong. 32. Is labor agreeable ? 33. Yes, sir; labor is agreeable and useful. 34. We have them, and you have them not.




1. The adjective, in French, follows the noun much more frequently than it precedes it. [$ 85, (1.)] Vous avez des amis fidèles.

You have faithful friends.
Ma sœur a des livres instructifs. My sister has instructive books.

2. Those adjectives which generally precede the nouns have been mentioned in Lesson 8, Rule 5., and will be also found § 85, (11.)

Nous avons de belles maisons. Te have beautiful houses.
Votre jolie petite fille est studieuse. Your pretty little girl is studious.

3. The adjectives which are placed after nouns are:-1st, All participles, present and past, used adjectively.

Nous avons une listoire intéressante. We have an interesting history.
Vous avez des enfants polis. You have polite chiidren.
* See Rule 5 of next Lesson.

Que meaning which and que conjunction are never understood in French, they must be repeated before every noun, pronoun, and verb. See L. 19, R. 1.


4. 2d, All such as express form, color, taste; such as relate to hearing and touching; such as denote the matter of which an object is composed; as also such as refer to nationality,' or to any defects of the body. [$ 85, (4.) (5.) (6.) (7.)] Nos parents ont des chapeaux noirs. Our relations have black hats. Vous avez des pommes douces. You have sweet apples. Voilà de la cire molle.

There is soft wax. Cette dame espagnole a un enfant That Spanish lady has a lame child.

boiteux. 5. 3d, Almost all adjectives ending in al, able, ible, ique and if Ces hommes libéraux sont aimés. Those liberal men are loved. Voilà un esprit raisonnable. That is a reasonable mind. Voilà un esclave fugitif.

That is a fugitive slave. 6. Some adjectives have a different meaning according to their position before or after the noun. [See list, § 86.]

Un brave homme, a worthy man; Un homme brave, a brave man.

7. En is used for the English words some or any, expressed or understood, but not followed by a noun; en has also the sense of of it, of them, thereof, generally understood in English sentences, particularly in answers to questions. ($ 39, (17.) § 104, $ 110, (2.)(3.)]

Avez-vous des souliers de cuiri Have you leather shoes ?
J'en ai.

I have some, I have (of them).
Votre fils en a-t-il ?

Has your son any ? 8. An adjective used substantively, and having a partitive signification (in a sentence containing the pronoun en), must be preceded by the preposition de, in the same manner as if the noun were expressed. [See R. 4, L. 8.]

Avez-vous de bonnes plumes ? Have you good pens?
Non, mais j'en ai de mauvaises. No, but I have bad ones.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Arez-vous de beaux jardins ? Have you fine gardens ? Oui, j'en ai de beaux. [R. 7.] Yes, I have fine ones. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas des souliers Has not your brother black shoes ?

noirs ? Il n'en a pas, mais ma soeur en a. He has none, but my sister has some. N'a-t-elle

robe Has she not also a white dress? blanche ? Oui, elle en a une.

Yes, she has one. Non, elle n'en a pas.

No, she has none. Qui en a une?

Who has one ? Qui n'en a pas ?

Who has none ?

pas aussi


· Such adjectives, in French, do not commence with a capital. See & 145.

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