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pas les choux de mon grand jardin ? 16. J'ai les légumes de votre petit jardin. 17. Votre fils, qu'a-t-il ? 18. Mon fils n'a rien. 19. Avez-vous deux morceaux de pain ? 20. Le meunier a un morceau de pain, et deux barils de farine. 21. L'épicier a-t-il du café, du thé, du chocolat, et du poivre ? 22. Il a du thé et du café, et le chocolat et le poivre de votre marchand. 23. Qui a de l'argent ? 24. Je n'ai pas d'argent, mais j'ai du papier. 25. Avez-vous de bon papier ? 26. J'ai de mauvais papier.

EXERCISE 29.

. 1. Have you my brother's horses? 2. I have not your brother's horses, I have your cousin's hats. 3. Have the blacksmiths good iron? 4. The blacksmith has two pieces of iron. 5. Have you two pairs of stockings ? 6. I have one pair of stockings, and two pairs of gloves. 7. Has your sister the gold jewels? 8. My sister has the gold jewels, and the paper playthings. 9. Have you the cabbages in your garden? 10. We have two cabbages in our garden. 11. Have you the silk hats ? 12. The generals have the silk hats. 13. Have you coffee or sugar ? 14. We have neither coffee nor sugar. 15. Is your brother ashamed? 16. My brother is neither ashamed nor afraid. 17. Who has two barrels of flour? 18. The miller has two barrels of flour. 19. Have the birds bread ? 20. The birds have no bread. 21. Has the merchant tea, chocolate, sugar and pepper ? 22. He has sugar and pepper, but he has neither tea nor chocolate. 23. What has your sister ? 24. She has nothing. 25. What is the matter with your brother ? 26. Nothing is the matter with him. 27. Is he not cold? 28. He is not cold, he is warm. 29. Is he wrong? 30. He is not wrong, he is right. 31. Have you two cloth coats ? 32. I have only one cloth coat, but I have two satin waistcoats. 33. Who has my brother's letter? 24. Your sister has it. 35. Your sister has it not.

LEÇON XII.

LESSON XII.

THE PLURAL, CONTINUED.

1. The plural form of the pronouns le, him or it; la, her or it, is les, them, for both genders. Its place is also before the verb. Vous les avez.

Les avez-vous ? You have them. Have you them? Nous ne les avons pas.

We have them not.

2. The plural of the article, preceded by the preposition de, of, or from, is des for both genders.

Des livres, des plumes, Of or from the books, of the pens ;
Des frères, des scurs,

Of or from the brothers, of the sisters. 3. The same form of the article is placed before plural nouns used in a partitive sense. [L. 6, R. 1.] J'ai des babits.

I have clothes.
Vous avez des maisons.

You have houses. 4. Rule 5, Lesson 7, and Rule 4, Lesson 8, apply also to plural nouns used partitively. See also note, page 38. Nous n'avons pas de livres.

We have no books.
Vous avez de bons crayons.

You have good pencils. 5. The plural form of the possessive adjectives, mon, ton, son, notre, votre, leur, is mes, my; tes, thy ; ses, his, her ; nos, our; vos, your ; leurs, their, for both genders. Mes frères, mes scurs,

My brothers, my sisters;
Nos livres, nos plumes,

Our books, our pens. 6. The possessive pronoums, le mien, la mienne, etc., [L. 9, R. 6,] form their plural as follows: Mas. Fem.

Mas, or Fem.
Les miens, Les miennes, mine;

Les nôtres, ours,
Des miens, Des miennes, of mine;

Des nôtres, of ours;
Les tiens, Les tiennes, thine;

Les vôtres, yours;
Des tiens, Des tiennes, of thine ;

Des vôtres, of yours ;
Les siens, Les siennes, his or hers; Les leurs, theirs ;

Des siens, Des siennes, of his or hers; Des leurs, of theirs ; Vos maisons et les miennes,

Your houses and mine; Vos champs et les siens,

Your fields and his ; Les siens, les vôtres et les nôtres, His, yours and ours; Des miens, des vôtres et des leurs, Of mine, of yours, and of theirs.

7. The demonstrative adjectives, ce, cet, cette, have ces for their plural. Ces hommes, ces femmes.

These men, these women. 8. The demonstrative pronoun, celui, m. this or that, makes ceux in the plural. The feminine form, celle, merely takes the s in the plural. Mes chandeliers (m.) et ceux de vos My candlesticks and those of your frères.

brothers. Vos chandelles (f.) et celles de nos Your candles and those of our neighvoisins.

bors.

"Aux miens, m., aux miennes, f. to mine, &c. See L. 25, R. 6.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES
Votre frère a-t-il mes chevaux ? Has your brother my horses ?
Il n'a ni les vôtres ni les siens. He has neither yours nor his.
A-t-il ceux de nos voisins ?

Has he those of our neighbors ?
Il ne les a pas

He has them not. Ma scur a-t-elle vos plumes, ou Has my sister your pens, or my couse celles de ma cousine ?

in's, f. ? (or those of my cousin). Elle n'a ni les miennes ni celles de She has neither mine, nor my cousin's,

ma cousine, elle a les siennes. she has her own. Avons-nous des marteaux ?

Have we hammers ?
Vous n'avez pas de marteaux. You have no hammers.
Vous avez de jolis crayons.

You have pretty pencils.
Avez-vous les habits des enfants ? Have you the children's clothes ?
Je n'ai pas les habits des enfants. I have not the children's clothes.
Vous avez les chapeaux des dames. You have the ladies' hats.
Avez vous ceux-ci, ou ceux-là ? Have you these or those ?

EXERCISE 21.
Acajou, m. mahogany; Chandelle, f. candle ; Fusil, m. ni
Aubergiste, m. innkeep- Cousine, f. cousin; Laine, f. wool ;
er ;

Crin, m. horse-hair; Marbre, m. marble ; Blanc -be, white; Ebéniste, m. cabinet- Matelas, m. mattress; Chaise, f. chair ;

maker ;

Meilleure, better ; Chandelier, m. curdle- Ferblanc, m. tin ; Ouvrier, m. workman ; stick;

Ferblantier, m. tinman; Voyageur, m. traveller. 1. Avez-vous les marteaux des maréchaux ? 2. Oui, monsieur; je les ai. 3. Ne les avez-vous pas ? 4. Non, monsieur ; nous ne les avons pas. 5. L'ouvrier les a. 6. L'aubergiste a-t-il vos chevaux ? 7. L'aubergiste n'a ni mes chevaux ni les vôtres, il a les siens. 8. Le médecin a-t-il des livres ? 9. Oui, monsieur ; il a de bons livres. 10. N'avez-vous pas mes meilleures plumes ? 11. Oui, monsieur; j'ai vos meilleures plumes, les miennes, et celles de votre cousine. 12. Le voyageur a-t-il de bons fusils ? 13. Il n'a pas de bons fusils, il a des fusils de fer. 14. Le matelot n'a-t-il pas mes matelas de crin? 15. Il ne les a pas. 16. Qu'a-t-il ? 17. Il a les matelas de laine de l'ébéniste. 18. L'ébéniste a-t-il des tables d'acajou ? 19. Oui, madame; il a des tables d'acajou et des tables de marbre blanc, 20. Avez-vous mes chaises ou les vôtres ? 21. Je n'ai ni les vôtres ni les miennes, j'ai celles de l'ébéniste. 22. N'avez-vous pas sommeil ? 23. Non, monsieur; je n'ai ni sommeil ni faim. 24. Le ferblantier a-t-il vos chandeliers de fer ? 25. Non, monsieur; il a ceux du maréchal.

EXERCISE 22. 1. Have you my tables or yours? 2. I have neither yours nor mine, I have the innkeeper's. 3. Have you them? 4. No, sir; I have them not. 5. Has your sister my horses? 6. Yes, sir; she has

your two horses, and your brother's. 7. Are you right or wrong? 8. I am right, I am not wrong. 9. Has the tinman my silver candlesticks or yours ? 10. He has neither your silver candlesticks.nor mine. 11. What has he? 12. He has the cabinet-maker's wooden tables. 13. Has he your mahogany chairs ? 14. No, sir; he has my white marble tables. 15. Have you these tables or those ? 16. I have neither these nor those, I have the cabinet-maker's. 17. Have you good pencil-cases? 18. No, sir; but I have good pencils. 19. Has the traveller iron guns? 20. Yes, sir; he has mine, yours, and his. 21. Has he not your brother's? 22. He has not my brother's. 23. Has the workman my iron hammers ? 24. Yes, sir; he has them. 25. Has my brother your pens or my cousin's ? 26. He has mine and yours. 27. Have you the children's clothes ? 28. Yes, madam; I have them. 29. Have you your sister's hat? 30. I have my cousin's. f. 31. Is any thing the matter with your brother? 32. He is cold and hungry. 33. Have you horses ? 34. Yes, sir; I have two horses. 35. I have two horse-hair mattresses and one wool mattress.

LEÇON XIII.

LESSON XIII.

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIV ES-FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES.

1. The adjective in French, whatever may be its place,' agrees in gender and number with the noun which it qualifies ($ 15, (1.)(2.)].

2. Adjectives ending with e mute, i. e., not accented, retain that termination for the feminine. Un garçon aimable,

An amiable boy ;
Une fille aimable,

An amiable girl.
3. Adjectives not ending in e mute, take e for the feminine.
Un garçon diligent,

A diligent boy;
Une fille diligente,

A diligent girl. 4. EXCEPTIONS. Adjectives ending in el, eil, en, et, on and as, double the last consonant and take e for the feminine. Mas. Fem.

Mas. Fem. Essentiel, essentielle, essential ;

Sujet, sujette, subject; Vermeil, vermeille, vermillion;

bonne, good ; Ancien, ancienne,

ancient ; Bas, basse, low. 5. Adjectives ending in f change the finto ve; those ending in :c change that letter into se for the feminine.

For the place of adjectives see L. 15, and Rule 5, L. 8.

Bon,

I am;

Tu es, Il est,

He is;
She is ;
We are ;

Are you

Un habit neuf,

Une robe neuve,
A new coat;

A new dress;
Un homme heureux,

Une femme heureuse
A happy man;

A happy woman. 6. The adjectives beau, handsome ; fou, foolish; mou, soft ; nouveau, new; vieux, old, hecome bel, fol, mol, nouvel, and vieil,' before a noun masculine commencing with a vowel or an h mute; the last consonant of the latter form is doubled, and e added for the feminine. Ex., belle, folle, nouvelle, vieille.

7. Additional rules and exceptions will be found, § 16 of the Second Part of this Grammar. 8. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF

ÊTRE, TO BE.
Affirmatively.

Interrogatively.
Je suis,

Suis-je ?

Am I?
Thou art;
Es-tu ?

Art thou?
Est-il ?

Is he?
Elle est,

Est-elle ?

Is she?
Nous sommes,

Sommes-nous ? Are we?
Vous êtes,
You are ;

Étes-vous ?
Ils sont, m. They are;

Sont-ils? m. Are they? Elles sont, f. They are;

Sont-elles ? f. Are they?

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Avez-vous un garçon diligent et une Tlave you a diligent boy and a dilifille diligente?

gent girl ? Mon garçon est diligent, mais ma My boy is diligent, but my daughter fille est paresseuse [R. 5.]

is idle. Cette coutume est-elle ancienne ? Is this custom ancient ? Cette coutume n'est pas ancienne, This custom is not ancient, it is new.

elle est nouvelle [R. 6.] Votre plume est-elle bonne ou mau Is your pen good or bad?

vaise ? Ma soeur est très vive [R. 5.] My sister is very lively. Votre maison est-elle meilleure que Is your house better than mine?

la mienne ? La maison de ma sour cst aussi My sister's house is as good as bonne que la vôtre.

yours.

EXERCISE 23. Beau, bel, belle, hand- Fille, f. daughter, girl; Parasol, m. parasol; some ;

Habit, m. coat; Parent, m, relation; Bon, good;

Heureux,-se, happy; Petit, e. small;
Content, e, pleased ; Ici, here;

Paresseux,-se, idle ;
Cravate, f. cravat; Meilleur, e, better ; Porcelaine, f. china;
Dame, f. lady;
Neuf, -ve, new;

Que, than;
Encrier, m. inkstand , Paire, f. pair ;

Vieux, vieille, oll; Excellent, e, excellent ; Parapluie, m. umbrella ; Vif, vive, quick, lively.

· Vieux is also used before a noun commencing with a vowel or & silent h.

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