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ma montre d'or? 21. Non, monsieur; personne ne l'a. 22. Qu'avezvous, monsieur? 23. Je n'ai rien. 24. Avez-vous le sofa d'acajou de mon menuisier ? 25. Non, monsieur; je ne l'ai pas. 26. J'ai son joli miroir et son bon crayon.

EXERCISE 16. 1. Have you the silver pencil case ? 2. No, sir; I have it not. 3. Have you my brother's plate ? 4. Yes, madam; I have it. 5. Has the butcher the good biscuit? 6. He has it not, he has the good beef, the good mutton, and the good veal. 7. Have you my knife and (my) fork ? 8. I have neither your knife nor your fork. 9. Who has the good sailor's biscuit? 10. The baker has it, and I have mine. 11. Have you mine also ? 12. I have neither yours nor his. 13. Are you hungry? 14. I am not hungry, I am thirsty and sleepy.

15. Are you not ashamed ? 16. No, sir; I am not ashamed, but I am cold. 17. Is your relation right or wrong? 18. My relation is right, sir. 19. Has he my china dish or my silver knife ? 20. He has neither your china dish nor your silver knife, he has your china plate. 21. Has any one my silver pencil-case? 22. No one has it, but your brother has your cloth coat.

23. Have you mine or his ? 24. I have yours. 25. Has the baker the mahogany chest of drawers ? 26. He has it not; he has the mahogany sofa. 27. Has the tinman my plate ? 28. He has not your plate; he has mine. 29. Which sofa have you? 30. I have my brother's sofa. 31. I have neither his nor yours; I have mine.

LEÇON X.

LESSON X.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.

1. The demonstrative adjectives ce, m. cette, f. this or that, are always placed before nouns; they agree in gender with these nouns. [$ 20, (1.))

Avez-vous ce parapluie ? m. Have you this or that umbrella ? Vous n'avez pas cette bouteille, f. You have not this or that bottle.

2. Before a word masculine singular, commencing with a vowel or an h mute, cet takes the place of ce. [§ 20, (1).]

| The possessive adjective must in French be repeated before every

[$ 21, (4.)]

noun

N'avez-vous pas cet argent ?
Vous avez eu cet honneur.

Have you not this or that money ?
You have had this or that honor

3. When it is deemed necessary to express, in French, the difference existing in English between the words this and that, the adverbs ci and may be placed after the nouns. ($ 20, (2.)]

Je n'ai pas ce parasol-ci; j'ai ce pa. I have not this parasol; I have that rasol-là,

parasol.

4. The demonstrative pronouns, celui, m. celle, f. this or that, are used to represent nouns, but are never joined with them like adjectives.

[$ 36, $ 37, (1.)]

J'ai mon parapluie et celui de votre I have my umbrella and your brother's, frère,

i. e., that of your brother. Vous avez ma robe et celle de ma You have my dress and my sister's, i. e., sceur,

that of my sister.

5. The pronouns celui, celle, with the addition of the words ci and , are used in the sense of this one, that one, the latter, the former. [$ 37, (4).] They agree in gender with the word which they represent.

Vous avez celui-ci, mais vous n'avez

You have this one (the latter), but you

have not that one (the former).

pas celui-là.

6. The pronouns ceci and cela, are used absolutely, that is, without a noun, in pointing out objects.

We have not this, we have that.

Nous n'avons pas ceci, nous avons

cela, Ceci ou cela,

This or that.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Avez-vous le livre de cet homme ? Have you that man's book ? Je n'ai pas son livre, j'ai le mien. I have not his book, I have mine. Le cuisinier a-t-il ce parapluie ? Has the cook that umbrella? Il n'a pas ce parapluie-ci, il a ce. He has not this umbrella, he has that parapluie-là, (R. 3.)

umbrella. Avez-vous celui de votre frère ? Have you your brother's ? that of

your brother, Je n'ai pas celui de mon frère; j'ai I have not my brother's; I have my celui de ma soeur: (R. 4.)

sister's; i. e., that of my brother,

that of my sister. Avez-vous celui-ci ou celui-là ? Have you this one or that one ? Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là.

I have neither the latter nor the former. Quelle robe avez-vous ? f.

Which dress have you?
J'ai celle-ci.

I have this (one.)
Avez-vous ceci ou cela ? (R. 6.) Have you this or that?

EXERCISE 17. Ardoise, f. slate ; Lettre, f. letter; Salière, f. salt stand; Balai, m. broom; Malle, f. trunk; Encrier, m. inkstand; Bois, m. wood;

Parasol, m. parisoi; Étranger, m. stranger, Bouteille, £ bottle ; Poulet, m. chicken ; foreigner ; Dame, f. lady;

Plomb, m. lead, Lait, m. milk; Fromage, m. cheese ; Ne-plus, no longer, not Parapluie, m. umbrella; Jardinier, m. gardener ; any more;

Volaille, f. poultry.

soeur.

1. Votre frère a-t-il son encrier d'argent ? 2. Il ne l'a plus, il a un encrier de plomb. 3. Avons-nous la lettre de l'étranger ? 4. Oui, monsieur; nous avons celle de l'étranger (R. 4.] 5. Votre soeur n'a pas son ardoise, mais elle a son chapeau de satin. 6. Le menuisier a-t-il votre bois ou le sien ? 7. Il n'a ni le mien ni le sien, il a celui du jardinier. 8. Avez-vous mon bon parapluie de soie ? 9. J'ai votre parapluie de soie et votre parasol de satin. 10. Avez-vous ma bouteille ? 11. Je n'ai pas votre bouteille, j'ai la malle de votre

12. Le domestique a-t-il cette salière ? 13. Il n'a pas cette salière-ci; il a celle-là. 14. Avez-vous le bon ou le mauvais poulet? 15. Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là. 16. Quel poulet avez-vous ? 17. J'ai celui du cuisinier. 18. Le boulanger a-t-il de la volaille ? (L. 6, R. 1.] 19. Le boulanger n'a pas de volaille, il a du lait (L. 7, R. 5.) 20. Arez-vous votre fromage ou le mien ? 21. Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le mien, j'ai celui du matelot. 22. Quelqu'un a-t-il faim ? 23. Personne n'a faim. 24. Avez-vous quelque chose ? 25. Non, inonsieur ; je n'ai rien.

EXERCISE 18. 1. Has

your brother that lady's umbrella ? 2. My brother has that lady's umbrella. 3. Have you this parasol or that one? 4. I have neither this (one) nor that (one). 5. Have you the stranger's gold watch ? 6. No, sir; I have the baker's. 7. Who has my slate ? 8. I have your slate and your brother's. 9. Has the cook a silver salt stand ? 10. The cook has a silver salt stand and a silver dish. 11. Has the cook this poultry or that ? 12. He has neither this nor that. 13. Has he this bread or that? 14. He has neither this nor that, he has the baker's good bread. 15. Have you my cotton parasol ? 16. I have not your cotton parasol, I have your silk parasol. 17. Has the gardener a leather trunk? 18. The gardener has a leather trunk. 19. Who has my good cheese? 20. Nobody has your cheese, but sume one has your brother's. 21. Have you mine or his ? 22. I have neither yours nor his, I have the stranger's. 23. Has the cook this bottle or that broom? 24. He has this bottle. 25. Have you a lead inkstand ? 26. No, sir; I have a china inkstand. 27. Has

the stranger poultry? 28. The stranger has no poultry, but he has money. 29. Your brother is hungry and thirsty, afraid and sleepy. 30. Is any one ashamed ? 31. No, sir; nobody is ashamed. 32. Is your brother right or wrong? 33. My brother is right, and yours is wrong. 34. Your sister has neither her satin hat nor her velvet hat.

LEÇON XI.

LESSON XI.

PLURAL OF NOUNS (S 8). 1. The plural in French, is generally formed, as in English, by the addition of s to the singular. Un homme, une femme,

A man, a woman;
Deux hommes, deux femmes,

Two men, two women.
The form le of the article becomes plural by the addition of s
and may be placed before plural nouns of either gender.
Les hommes, les femmes,

The men, the women. 2. Ist EXCEPTION TO RULE 1. Nouns ending in s, x, z remain unchanged for the plural. Le bas, les bas,

The stocking, the stockings ;
La voix, les voix,

The voice, the voices;
Le nez, les nez,

The nose, the noses. 3. 2d EXCEPTION. Nouns ending with au, and eu, take a for the plural. Le bâteau, les bâteaux,

The boat, the boats ;
Le lieu, les lieux,

The place, the places. 4. 3u EXCEPTION. The following nouns ending in ou, take a for the plural: bijou, jewel; caillcu, pebble; chou, cabbage; genou, lence, hibou, owl ; joujou, plaything. Les bijoux, les cailloux, les choux, The jewels, the pebbles, the cabbages ; Les hiboux, les genoux, les joujoux, The owls, the knees, the playthings.

5. 4th EXCEPTION. The following nouns ending in ail change that termination into aux for the plural: bail, lease ; corail, coral; émail. enamel; soupirail, air-hole ; sous-bail, under-lease; travail, labor. Les baux, les coraux, les émaux, The leases, the corals, the enamels; Les soupiraux, les travaux, les sous- The air-holes, the labors, the underbaux,

leases.

6. 5th EXCEPTION. Nouns ending in al form their plural in auc. Le cheval, les chevaux,

The horse, the horses; Le général, les généraux, The general, the generals. Bal, ball; carnaval, carnival ; chacal, jackal ; régal, treat, follow the general rule.

7. 6th EXCEPTION. Ciel, heaven; æil, eye; and aïeul, ancestor, form their plural irregularly.

Les cieux, les yeux, les aïeux, The heavens, the eyes, the ancestors. For further rules see § 8, § 9, and § 10 of the Second Part.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Les Anglais ont-ils les chevaux du Have the English the general's horses?

général ?
Les généraux n'ont pas les bijoux. The generals have not the jewels.
Les enfants ont-ils les cailloux ? Have the children the pebbles ?
Les yeux de l'enfant.

The child's eyes.
Les tableaux de cette église. The pictures of that church.
Avez-vous les oiseaux de ce bois ? Have you the birds of that wood ?
Avez-vous les encriers d'argent de Have you my sister's silver inkstands?

ma soeur ? J'ai les bijoux d'argent et d'or de I have the gold and silver jewels of the l'étranger.

foreigner. Les rois n'ont-ils pas les palais de Have not the kings the marble pal marbre ?

aces ?

EXERCISE 19. Baril, m. barrel ; Général, m. general ; Mauvais, bad; Bas, m. stocking; Gilet, m. waistcoat; Meunier, m. miller; Chocolat, m. chocolate; Grand, adj., large, great; Morceau, m. piece; Bijou, mn. jewel; Jardin, m. garden ; Oiseau, m. bird; Chou, m. cabbage ; Joujou, m. plaything ; Petit, small; Dans, in;

Légume, m. vegetable ; Paire, f. pair ; Enfant, m. child; Marchand, m. merchant; Poivre, m. pepper ; Fer, m. iron ;

Maréchal, m. blacksmith; Qu', que, what ; Fils, m. son ;

Marteau, m. hammer; Rien, nothing.

1. Avez-vous les marteaux du charpentier ? 2. Nous avons les marteaux du maréchal. 3. Les maréchaux ont-ils deux marteaux de bois ? 4. Ils ont deux marteaux de fer. 5. Les généraux ont-ils les chapeaux de soie de l'enfant ? 6. Ils ont les bijoux et les joujoux de l'enfant. 7. Les enfants ont-ils les oiseaux de votre bois ? 8. Ils n'ont pas les oiseaux de mon bois, mais ils ont les chevaux de mon général. 9. Le maréchal a-t-il une paire de bas de laine ? 10. Le maréchal a deux paires de bas de laine. 11. Monsieur; n'avez-vous pas froid ? 12. Non, monsieur; j'ai chaud. 13. Avez-vous du café ou du chocolat? 14. Je n'ai ni café ni chocolat. 15. N'avez-vous

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