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nounced like gz. Ex. mylon, cotton-plant; Xavier, Xénophon, Xante, Xantippe.

Xerxès is pronounced gzercess. x following an initial e, and preceding a vowel or an h, is also

sounded like gz. Ex. exil, exile ; examiner, to examine ; ex

hiber, to exhibit. s not following an initial e, but coming between two vowels,

sounds like ks. Ex. axe, axis ; luxe, lurury; Alexandre,

Alexander; maxime, maxim ; sexe, sex.
x sounds like ss in the following words : six, six ; dix, ten ;

soixante, sixty ; Bruxelles, Brussels ; Auxonne, Auxerre, Aix-
In sixième, dixième, deuxième, dix-sept, disc-huit, dix-neuf,

it is pronounced like z in zone.
x final is generally silent. Ex. prix, price; crois, cross; voix,

Exceptions : x is sounded like ks at the end of names of
Greek and Latin origin. Ex. Ajax, Styx, etc. In Aix-la-
Chapelle it has the same sound.
The x of deux, six, dix, coming before a consonant is silent,
except in the cases mentioned above; i. e., in dix-sept, dix-

huit, dix-neuf.

x when carried to the next word, sounds like z. 23. Z sounds as in the English words zinc, zone. Ex. zèle, zeal ;

zénith, zenith. z final is generally silent. Ex. nez, nose; chez, with, &c.,

allez, go.

Exceptions : gaz, gas. In Metz, Suez, &c., it sounds like ss. z final is generally carried to the next word when that word commences with a vowel, or an h mute.

EXERCISE 4, 5. (b) baume, balsam; blessure, wound ; brun, brown ; absolution,

absolution ; abstrait, abstract; abbaye, abbey ; Jacob, Jacob. 6. (c) cacher, to conceal; coin, corner; décuple, decuple; cire,

wax; cinq, five; chercher, to seek ; je cache, I conceal; patriarche, patriarch; patriarchat, patriarchate; chambre, chamber, arche, arch; changer, to change; orchestre, orchestra ; charbon, coal ; sac, bag; suc, juice; clerc, clerk; banc, bench ; flanc, flank; second, second ; fécond, fruitful;

façon, fashion ; reçu, received. 7. (d) daim, deer ; don, gift; admirer, to admire; bord, border;

nord, north ; sud, south ; Obed, Obed ; Talmud, Talmud; grand âge, advanced age; rend-il, does he render ? prend-il,

does he take? 8. (f) foin, hay; faim, hunger; froid, cold; bref, short; soif, thirst;

suif, tallow; clef, key; chef, chief; chef-d'oeuvre, masterpiece; wuf, egg ; @ufs, eggs; cuf frais, fresh egg ; boeuf, ox, beef ; bæufs, oxen ; neuf maisons, nine houses ; neuf chevaux,

nine horses ; neuf amis, nine friends. 9. (g) gager, to bet ; gosier, throat; gibier, game; guide, guide ;

ligue, league ; il ligua, he leagued ; nous liguons, we league ; aiguille, needle ; aiguillon, goad; ciguë, hemlock ; digne, worthy; règne, reign; Espagne, Spain ; Pologne, Poland; brugnon, nectarine; soignant, taking care; joignant, joining;

stagnant, stugnant; rang honorable, honorable rank. 10. (h) hâte, haste; honte, shame; haut, high; herbe, herbage :

almanach, almanac. 11. (j) jujube, jujube; jeune, young ; juger, to judge ; jurer, to

swear; jonc, rush; joindre, to join ; déjeûner, to breakfast;

Juif, Jew; jeu, play. 12. (1) lame, blade ; loi, law; illégal, illegal; illicite, unlawful;

paille, straw; soleil, sun ; pareil, similar ; bail, lease ; railler, to rail; souiller, to soil; caille, quail ; canaille, rabble; ville, town ; village, village ; mille, mile, thousand; péril, peril ; pointilleux, punctilious; baril, barrel; fusil, gun; gentilhomme, nobleman; gentilshommes, noblemen ; bouteille,

bottle. 13.(m n) mon, my; marge, margin; nom, name; champ, field;

moine, monk; prompt, quick; condamner, to condemn; faim, hunger ; son argent, his money ; bon appétit, good

appetite ; lien étroit, close connection. 15. (p) partir, to go away; coup, blow; temps, weather ; drap,

cloth ; sept, seven ; baptême, baptism; cap, cape; Alep,

Aleppo. 16. (q) quérir, to fetch ; quitter, to leave; musique, music; logique,

logic; quarante, forty ; quoi, what; aquatique, aquatic;

Quintilien, Quintilian ; cinq, five ; cinq livres, five books. 17. (r) ranger, to arrange; errer, to err; arriver, to arrive ; verser,

to pour ; je courrai, I will run ; je courais, I was running ; jouir, to enjoy ; car, for ; plaisir, pleasure; amer, bitter ; parler, to speak; changer, to change ; fer, iron; hiver,

winter. 18. (8) silence, silence; soin, care : sans, without ; base, base ; rose,

rose; chose, thing; observer, to observe ; rasoir, razor ; parasol, parasol ; science, science ; schisme, schism; scie, saw; scheme, scheme ; gras, fat; pas, step; lambris, wainscot ; Barras, Barras ; Romulus, Samos; vous avez, you

have ; nous aimons, we lode. 19. (t) tiers, third ; tiare, tiara; tort, wrong ; portion, portion ;

sanction, sunction; essential, essential ; partialité, partiality; section, section ; question, question ; bastion, bastion ; observation, observation ; minutie, minutia ; démocratie, demo cracy; amitié, friendship; initiation, initiation ; mot, word: lot, lot; sept, seven ; sept livres, seven books ; et, and; vingt

livres, twenty books. 20. (v) voir, to see ; va, go ; lèvc, raise; lever, to raise; visage, face;

vive, f. lively. 21. (w) Westphalie, Weimar, Wurms, Wurtemberg. 22. (x) xylon, cotton plant; Xénophon; exiler, to exile ; excuser, to

excuse; luxe, luxury; Alexandre, Alexander ; maxime, maxim; soixantième, sixtieth ; six, six, sixième, sixth , six livres, sic books; Bruxelles, Brussels, Aix-la-Chapelle; dix, ten ; Phénix; Ajax; deux hommes, two men ; dix amis,

ten friends. 23. (2) zèle, zeal; zone, zone ; zoologie, zoology ; vous lisez, you

read; nez, nose ; Metz; allez-y, go there; venez ici, come here.

For the division of words into syllables, see READING LESSONS, page 474.




1. In French the article [§ 13, (2.)] has, in the singular, a distinct form for each gender. Le fils, the son ;

La fille, the daughter, the girl;
Le frère, the brother ; La suur, the sister.

2. Before a word commencing with a vowel or an h mute, [L. 3, 10,] the article is the same for both genders. [§ 13, (7.)} Ex.

L'aïeul, the grandfather ; L'aïeule, the grandmother;
L'hôte, the landlord;

L'hôtesse, the landlady.

3. There are in French only two genders, the masculine and the feminire. [§ 4.} Every noun, whether denoting an animate or an inanimate object, belongs to one of these two genders.

MASC. L'homme, the man;

Le lion, the lion ;
Le livre, the book ;

Le papier, the paper;
L'arbre, the tree;

Le bois, the wood
FEM. La femme, the woman ;

La lionne, the lioness;
La table, the table;

La feuille, the leaf;
La plume, the pen;

La porte, the door.


I have;
Ai-je ?

Have I?
Thou hast; As-tu ?
Tu , (S 33.(1.) (2.)]

Hast thou? Il a

He has;
A-t-il ?

Has he ?
She has; A-t-elle ?

Has she? Nous avons,

We have;

Avons-nous ? Ilave we?
You have ;
Avez-vous ?

Have you? Ils ont, m.

They have;

Ont-ils? m. Have they? Elles ont, f.

They have; Ont-elles ? f. Have they?

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Vous avez,

5. The e of the pronoun je is elided, when that pronoun comes before a vowel or an h mute. 1$ 146.)

6. In interrogative sentences, when the third person singular of a verb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pronoun, a t, called euphonic, must be placed between the verb and the pronoun. A-t-il ? Has he?


Has she 3

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Le père a la viande, vous avez le The father has the meat, you have the café, et j'ai l'eau.

coffee, and I have the water. L'homme a le pam, l'enfant a le sel, The man has the bread, the child has et nous avons lo poivre.

the salt, and we have the perper.

EXERCISE 5. Avcine, î. oats;

Frère, m. brother; Plume, f. pen; Blé, m. wheat ;

Livre, m. book ; Qui, who ; Boucher, m. butcher; Madame, madam; Sel, m. salt; Boulanger, m. baker ; Mademoiselle, miss;

Seulement, only ;
Cheval, m. horse; Meunier, m. miller ; Table, f. table;
Eau, f. water;

Monsieur, Mr., sir. Thé, m. tea;
Et, and;
Non, no;

Viande, f. meat ;
Farine, f. flour ;

Vin, m. wine ; Fille, f. girl, daughter ; Pain, m. bread; Vinaigre, m. vinegar.

1. Qui a le pain? 2. Le boulanger a le pain. 3. A-t-il la farine ? 4. Oui, nonsieur; il a la farine. 5. Avons-nous la viande ? 6. Oui, monsieur;

Oui, yes;

vous avez la viande et le pain. 7. Le meunier a la farine. 8. Le boulanger a la farine et le blé. 9. Arons-nous le livre et la plume ? 10. Oui, mademoiselle ; vous avez le livre et la plume. 11. Le boucher a la viande. 12. Le meunier a la viande, et j'ai le café. 13. Avezvous l'eau et le sel ? 14. Oui, monsieur; nous avons l'eau, le sel, et l'avoine. 15. Avons-nous le thé? 16. Non, monsieur; la fille a le thé, le vinaigre et le sel. 17. Ai-je le vin ? 18. Non, madame; vous avez seulement le vinaigre et la viande. 19. Avez-vous la table? 20. Oui, madame; j'ai la table.

EXERCISE 6. 1. Have

you the wheat? 2. Yes, sir; I have the wheat. 3. Who has the meat? 4. The butcher has the meat and the salt. 5. Has he the oats? 6. No, madam; the horse has the oats. 7. Have we the wheat ? 8. You have the wheat and the flour. 9. Who has the salt? 10. I have the salt and the meat. 11. Have we the vinegar, the tea, and the coffee? 12. No, sir; the brother has the vinegar. 13. Who has the horse ? 14. The baker has the horse. 15. Have we the book and the pen? 16. No, miss; the girl has the pen, and the miller has the book. 17. Have you the table, sir ? 18. No, sir; I have only the book. 19. Who has the table? 20. We have the table, the pen, and the book.


LESSON V. CONTRACTION OF THE ARTICLE, &c. 1. The article le, with the preposition de preceding, must be contracted into du, when it comes before a word in the masculine singular, commencing with a consonant or an h aspirated. [L. 3, 10; 13, (8.) (9.)] Du frère, of the brother ;

Du château, of the castle ;
Du héros, of the hero;

Du chemin, of the way. 2. Before feminine words, and before masculine words commencing with a vowel, or an h mute, the article le is not blended with the preposition.

De la dame, f. of the lady ; De l'amie, f. of the female friend ;

De l'argent, m. of the money; De l'honneur, m. of the horor. 3. In French, the name of the possessor follows the name of the object possessed. (3 76, (10.)] La maison du médecin,

The physician's house ;
L'arbre du jardin,

The tree of the garden;
La lettre de la sour,

The sister's letter.

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