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4. The verbs entendre, to hear ; faire, to cause, to make ; laisser, to let, etc., followed by another verb completing their meaning, are not in French separated from that verb. In the corresponding sentences in English, the two verbs are usually separated by other words.

J'ai laissé tomber mon couteau. I have let my knife fall (dropped).
J'ai entendu dire cela.

I have heard that said.

rait pas.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Je connais des personnes, dormant I know persons sleeping (who sleep) d'un sommeil si profond, que le so profoundly, that the noise of bruit de la foudre ne les réveille. thunder would not awake them.

BESCHER. Les eaux dormantes sont meilleures Sleeping (still) waters are better for

pour les chevaux que les eaux horses than living waters.
vives.

BUFFON.
Nous avons trouvé cette femme We found that woman dying.

mourante. Cette femme, mourant dans la crainte That woman, dying in the fear of

de Dieu, ne craignait point la God, did not fear death.

mort. On est heureux en se contentant de One is happy in contenting one's self peu.

with little.
Avez-vous laissé passer ce voleur ? Have you let that thief pass ?
Je l'ai laissé passer.

I let him pass.
Pourquoi avez-vous fait faire un Why have you had a coat made

habit ?
Je n'ai pas fait faire d'habit.

I have had no coat made.
J'ai laissé tomber quelque chose. I let something fall.
Lui avez-vous entendu dire cela ? Have you heard him say that?
Je le lui ai entendu dire.

I heard him say it.
Je l'ai entendu dire.

I heard it said.
Je l'ai entendu dire à ma soeur. I heard my sister say it.

EXERCISE 191. S'appliqu-er, 1. ref. t. Essayer, 1. to try; Pleuv-oir, 3. ir. to rain; apply;

Se hât-er, 1. ref. to Prévenant, e, obliging ; Besoin, m. want;

hasten ;

Preven-ir, 2. ir. to anticiChangement, m. altera- Lecture, f. reading ; pate; tion;

Obligeant, e, obliging; Répét-er, 1. to repeat; Difficulté, f. difficulty ; Plai-re, 4. ir. to please; Suivant, e, following ; Émouss-er, 1. to blunt; Plume, f. pen; Suiv-re, 4. ir. to follow ; Empêcher, 1. to prevent; Pointe, f. point; Voyant, e, bright, showy

1. Ma cousine est-elle aussi obligeante que la vôtre ? 2. Elle est aussi obligeante, et bien plus charmante que la mienne. 3. Vos enfants sont-ils prévénants ? 4. Mes enfants, prévénant tous mes besoins ne me laissent rien à désirer. 5. Lisez bien attentivement les pages suivantes. 6. Ces demoiselles, suivant l'exemple de leur mère, s'appliquent à la lecture. 7. Les couleurs voyantes ne me plaisent point. 8. Mes soeurs, voyant qu'il allait pleuvoir, se hâtèrent de re

venir. 9. Qu'avez-vous laissé tomber? 10. J'ai laissé tomber ma plume; la pointe en est émoussée. 11. Les avez-vous fait parler ? 12. Je les ai fait parler, mais avec difficulté. 13. Avez-vous fait faire des changements dans votre maison ? 14. J'y en ai fait faire. 15. A quoi en avez-vous fait faire ? 16. J'en ai fait faire à la salle à m ger et au salon. 17. Avez-vous laissé passer cet homme ? 18. Je n'ai pas essayé de l'en empêcher. 19. A qui (whom) avez-vous entendu dire cela ? 20. Je l'ai entendu dire à mon père. 21. Je le lui ai entendu repéter. 22. Il vous l'a entendu dire. 23. Il vous a vu faire cela, 24. Il vous l'a vu faire. 25. Je l'ai vu passer.

EXERCISE 192. 1. Are still waters good for horses ? 2. Buffon says that they are better for horses than living waters. 3. Are your sisters cautious ? 4. They are not very cautious. 5. My sisters, foreseeing that it was going to rain, brought their umbrellas. 6. What have you let fall ? 7. I have let my knife and book fall. 8. Do very bright colors please your brother? 9. Very bright colors do not please him. 10. Have you read the following pages ? 11. Have you seen the dying woman? 12. Your sister, dying in the fear of God, was very happy. 13. Your sister, following your example, applied herself to study. 14. Have you made them read ? 15. I made them read and write. 16. I made my brother write. 17. I have had a book bound (relier). 18. Has your father had alterations made in his house? 19. He has had some made in it. 20. In which room has he had some made ? 21. He has had some made in my brother's room. 22. Whom have you heard

say
that ? 23. I heard my sister say it.

24. Have you heard him say that ? 25. I have not heard him say it. 26. Have you seen my father pass ? 27. I have not seen him pass. 28. I have heard him speak. 29. Make him speak. 30. Let it fall. 31. Do not let it fall. 32. What has your brother dropped ? 33. He has dropped nothing. 34. Whom have you heard say that? 35. I heard your brother say it. 36. I have heard you repeat it. 37. We have seen

you do that.

LEÇON XCVIII.

LESSON XCVIII. PRACTICAL RÉSUMÉ OF THE RULES ON THE PAST PAR

TICIPLE.-I. The participle past is VARIABLE under any of the following conditions:

1. When employed as an adjective; in which case it agrees in gender and number with the noun which it qualifies.

Des livres imprimés.
Ces femmes paraissent bien abat-

Printed books.
Those women appear very dejected.

tues.

2. When used in the formation of the tenses of passive verbs; when it always agrees with the subject of the proposition. Elles sont bien reçues de tout l3 They are well received by every monde.

body. 3. When employed in forming the compound tenses of neuter verbs having être as an auxiliary; in which place, as in the preceding case, it agrees with the subject or nominative.

Votre seur est partie ce matin. Your sister went away this morning.

4. When employed in forming the tenses of active verbs having avoir as an auxiliary; in which connection it agrees not with the subject, but with the direct object or regimen, provided that object precedes it. Les maisons que nous avons ache The houses which we have bought.

tées. 5. When used along with être in the formation of the compound tenses of reflective verbs, wherein the reflective pronoun is the direct object; in which position it agrees with that pronoun or direct object. Ces dames se sont flattées.

Those ladies have flattered themselves. 6. When used along with être (as in Rule 5.) in the formation of the compound tenses of those reflective verbs, in which the reflective pronoun is not the direct, but the indirect object of the proposition; in which event it agrees with the direct object, provided (as in Rule 4.) that object precedes it. Les histoires qu'elles se sont racon The stories which they related to each tées.

other. 7. When forming part of a compound tense of a verb governing a succeeding infinitive, it is at the saine time preceded by a direct ob ject, which is represented as performing the action denoted by the infinitive; in which condition it agrees with that direct object. Les dames que j'ai entendues chan. The ladies whom I heard sing (singo ter.

ing). 8. When, in a sentence containing the pronoun en, the participle is preceded by another object or regimen which is direct ; in which case it agrees with that direct object. Je les en ai avertis.

I have warned them of it. Vous les en avez informés.

You have informed them of it

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RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Vous avez des livres bien reliés. You have well bound books.
Vos filles sont estimées.

Your daughters are esteemed.
Ces terres sont bien labourées. Those lands are well ploughed.
Mes voisines sont tombées d'ac- My neighbours have come to an un
cord.

derstanding.
Elles sont venues nous trouver, They came to us.
La victoire que nous avons rem The victory which we have gained.

portée. Les champs que vous avez labourés. The fields which you have ploughed. Vous vous êtes repentis de votre You have repented (you) of your faute.

fault. Elle s'est souvenue de sa promesse.

She remembered her promise. Les soldats que j'ai vus passer.

The soldiers whom I saw passing. Les musiciennes que j'ai entendues The musical ladies whom I heard jouer.

playing L'indiscrétion que nous nous sommes The indiscretion with which we rereprochée.

proached one another. Les evenéments qu'elles se sont The events which they related to one racontés.

another. Les fruits que j'en ai reçus.

The fruits which I received from it. Les nouvelles que j'en ai apportées. The news which I brought from it.

EXERCISE 193.
A l'ordinaire, as usual ; Fleur, f. flower; Se reproch-er, l. ref. to
Avert-ir, 2. to warn;

Malade, sick person; reproach one's self;
Boue, f. mud;

Merveille (à), wonder- Sérieux, se, serious ; Coutume, (de), usually, fully, perfectly; Souri-re, 4. ir. to smile; usual ;

Parven-ir, 2. ir. to suc- Suivant, according to; Cueill-ir, 2. to gather ; ceed;

Tomb-er, 1. to fall; Déchiffr-er, 1. to deci- Se port-er, 1. to be, to Tomb-er d'accord, to come pher ;

to an understanding ; Décourag-er, 1. to dis. Plus tôt, sooner, earlier ; Trouv-er, 1. to find; courage;

Ri-re, 4. ir. to laugh ; Vol-er, 1. to steal.

do ;

1. Cette demoiselle ne se trouve-t-elle pas bien fatiguée? 2. Elle est fatiguée et découragée. 3. Votre sour est-elle allée à l'église suivant sa coutume ? 4. Ma mère et ma soeur y sont allées. 5. Votre soeur est-elle revenue plus tôt que de coutume ? 6. Elle est revenue plus tard qu'à l'ordinaire. 7. Cette pauvre malade est-elle tombée? 8. Elle est tombée dans la boue. 9. Ma mère est-elle parvenue à déchiffrer ma lettre ? 10. Elle n'y est pas parvenue. 11. Quelles fleurs avez-vous cueillies ? 12. Les fleurs que j'ai trouvées sont plus belles que celles que vous m'avez envoyées. 13. Votre cousine ne s'est-elle pas bien portée ? 14. Elle s'est portée à merveille. 15. De quel livre vous êtes-vous servie, mademoiselle ? 16. Je me suis servie du vôtre. 17. Nous nous sommes servies des nôtres. 18. Quelles fautes votre fils s'est-il reprochées ? 19. Les fautes qu'il s'est reprochées ne sont pas sérieuses. 20. Les avez-vous vus

rire ? 21. Je les ai vus sourire. 22. Les avez-vous vus voler des fruits ? 23. Je les ai vus voler des pommes. 24. Les avez-vous avertis de leurs fautes ? 25. Je les en ai avertis. 26. Je ne les en ai pas avertis.

EXERCISE 194. 1. Are your books well bound? 2. They are well bound, and well printed. 3. Did not your little girl find herself discouraged ? 4. She found herself tired, but not discouraged. 5. Have your sisters come to an understanding ? 6. They have not come to an understanding. 7. My brothers have come to an understanding, 8. Who came to you? 9. Your friends came to us. 10. Has not your sister

gone to church? 11. My sister has gone to church as usual. 12. Did your sister return sooner than usual? 13. My sister returned later than usual. 14. Are the fields which you have ploughed, large? 15. The fields which I have bought are very large. 16. Where are the gentlemen whom you saw pass? 17. The ladies whom I heard sing are in their room. 18. Did your poor sister fall ? 19. Did that poor sick woman fall in the mud ? 20. Did your sister succeed in reading that book? 21. She succeeded in reading it. 22. Have you warned your sisters of their danger? 23. I have warned them of it. 24. I have not warned them of it. 25. What pen has your

mother used ? 26. She has used mine. 27. Have not those young ladies used my book ? 28. They have not used it. 29. Has your mother been well ? 30. She has been perfectly well. 31. Has she remembered her promise ? 32. She has remembered it. 33. Have you seen those boys laugh? 34. I have seen them smile 35. Have you seen them play? 36. I have heard them play.

LEÇOY XCIX.

LESSON XCIX.

PRACTICAL RÉSUMÉ OF THE RULES ON THE PAST PAR

TICIPLE.—II.

The participle past is INVARIABLE :

1. In active verbs, when the direct regimen follows the participle Mes nièces ont étudié leurs leçons. My nieces have studied their lessons Elles ont négligé leurs études. They have neglected their studies.

2. In neuter verbs conjugated with avoir. Mes cousines ont disparu.

My cousins have disappeared. Les cinq heures qu'elles ont dormi. The five hours which they have slept

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