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3. Que is used idiomatically in a number of sentences. In the following it gives greater force to the expression.

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serves; Donn-er, 1. to give, look; Écossais, e, Scotch;


Who are the gentlemen who speak to
Mr. L.?

They are my cousins, who have just

Of what country are those merchants? They are Poles, they have just arrived.

They are not Poles, they are Russians.

They are not Poles, they are Russians.

What is Touraine?

It is the garden of France.

Does not your window look on the

No, it looks on the yard.
I believe so; I believe not.


Bris-er, 1. to break;

Étranger, e, foreign; Charron, m. wheel-wright;Fenêtre, f. window; Confitures, f. p. pre- Lyon, Lyons;

Soieries, f. p. silks,
Sucre, m. sugar;
Suisse, Swiss;

Mouchoir, m. handker- Surprend-re, 4. ir. to
catch, surprise;
Roue, f. wheel;
Vol-er, 1. to steal.

1. Connaissez-vous ces étrangers? 2. Oui, monsieur; ce sont les frères de notre voisin. 3. Ne sont-ils pas écossais? 4. Non, monsieur; ils sont suisses. 5. Ne sont-ce point des Écossais qui vous ont fait présent de cette casquette? 6. Non, monsieur; ce sont des Suisses. 7. N'est-ce pas votre domestique qui vous a volé du vin ? 8. Ce n'est pas lui, c'est son frère. 9. N'est-ce pas lui qui a pris vos confitures? 10. Ce n'est pas lui, ce sont ses enfants. 11. Ne sont-ce pas là les enfants que vous avez surpris à voler votre sucre? 12. Ce sont leurs frères. 13. Ne sont-ils pas cousins? 14. Ils ne sont pas cousins, ils sont frères. 15. Qu'est-ce que ces soieries ? 16. Ce sont des marchandises qu'on vient de nous envoyer. 17. N'est-ce pas une belle ville que Lyon? 18. C'est une grande et belle ville. 19. N'est-ce pas là le mouchoir que vous avez perdu? 20. Je crois que oui. 21. N'est-ce pas sur le jardin que donnent vos fenêtres ? 22. Oui, monsieur; c'est sur le jardin qu'elles donnent. 23. N'est-ce

pas notre charron qui a fait cette roue? 24. Ce n'est pas lui qui l'a faite. 25. Ce sont nos amis qui l'ont brisée, et c'est le menuisier qui l'a faite.


1. Is that lady your friend's sister? 2. No, sir; she is a stranger. 3. Who are the two gentlemen who are speaking to your sister? 4. They are Swiss gentlemen. 5. Are those the gentlemen whom you have invited? 6. It is they (eux). 7. Do you not know that man? 8. I know him very well; he is the man who has stolen my wine. 9. What is Italy? 10. It is the garden of Europe. 11. Is not that the letter which you intended to carry to the post-office? 12. No, sir; it is another. 13. Is the city of Havre fine? 14. Yes, sir; Havre is truly a large and beautiful city. 15. Is not that the man whom you have caught stealing your fruit? 16. It is not, it is another. 17. Is not this the cap that you have bought? 18. Yes, sir; I believe so. 19. Do not the windows of your room look on the street? 20. No, madam; they look on the garden. 21. Do not the windows of your dining-room look on the yard (cour)? 22. No, sir; they look on the lake (lac). 23. Is it that little child who has taken your preserves? 24. It is his brother or his sister. 25. What are those engravings? 26. They are engravings which I bought in Germany. 27. Are these gentlemen Scotch? 28. They are not Scotch; they are Italian. 29. Are those ladies Scotch? 30. No; they are the Italian ladies who came yesterday. 31. What is Marseille ? 32. It is one of the finest cities in (de) France. 33. Is it not your tailor who made that coat? 34. It is not he, it is an English tailor who made it. 35. It is your friend who broke my watch.




1. In French, as in other languages, when a verb has two subjects in the singular, it is generally put in the plural [§ 114, (2)].

L'oncle et la tante sont arrivés.

The uncle and aunt have arrived.

2. When a verb has two or more subjects of different persons, it is put in the plural, and assumes the termination of the first person rather than that of the second or third, and the termination of the

second in preference to that of the third. A pronoun recapitulating1 the others, is placed immediately before the verb.

You and I will go hunting to-morrow.

Vous et moi nous irons demain à la chasse.

Vous et lui vous irez demain à l'école. Sa mère et moi nous avons écrit cette lettre.

3. The above examples will show, that, when a verb has several subjects, all of them pronouns, or partly pronouns and partly nouns, the words moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of je, tu, il, ils [§ 33, (10.) (11.)]

4. For further rules on this subject, see § 114 and 115, and also the next lesson.

5. Gêner corresponds in signification to the English to trouble, to incommode, to disturb, to be in the way, and to hurt (in speaking of shoes and garments). Se gêner means to constrain, or trouble one's self. Am I in your way?

Est-ce-que je vous gêne?


Où irez-vous, votre frère et vous?

Lui et moi, nous irons en Angleterre. Vous, elle et lui, vous achèterez du blé.

Eux et moi, nous nous sommes fait mal à la tête.

Vous et lui, vous devriez vous prêter aux circonstances.

Lui et moi, nous vous gênerons sans doute.

You and he will go to school to-morrow. His mother and I have written that letter.

Ma cousine et moi, nous craignons de vous gêner.

Je ne me gêne jamais chez mes amis.

Ne vous gênez pas; mettez-vous à votre aise.

Nous n'aimons pas à gêner les au


Nous n'aimons pas à nous gêuer.

Where will you go, your brother and

He and I will go to England.
You, she and he will buy wheat.

They and I have hurt our heads.

You and he should adapt yourselves

to circumstances.

He and I will without doubt incommode you.

My cousin and I fear to be in your way.

I am never under constraint with my friends.

Be under no constraint; place yourself comfortably.

We do not like to incommode others.

We do not like to incommode our.. selves.


A perte, at a loss; Nullement, by no means; Se prêter, 1. ref. to adapt
A profit, with a profit; Pardon, excuse me ; one's self.
Bras, arm;
Persist-er, 1. to persist; Société, f. company, so-
Dérang-er, 1. to disturb; Place, f. room;
Économe, economical; Prodigue,prodigal, lavish ;Tous deux, both.

1 This pronoun is sometimes omitted by the best French writers; see 2d Example, § 33, (10.)

1. Si nous restions plus longtemps ici, nous craindrions de vous gêner. 2. Vous ne nous gênez nullement; votre societé nous est très agréable. 3. N'avez-vous pas été trop prodigues, vous et votre frère? 4. Lui et moi au contraire, nous avons été très économes. 5. N'avez-vous pas tort de gêner ce monsieur? 6. Nous n'avons nullement envie de le gêner. 7. Est-ce que mon bras vous gêne, monsieur? 8. Non, monsieur; nous avons assez de place, vous ne me gênez pas. 9. Ne devriez-vous pas vous prêter aux circonstances? 10. Nous faisons, elle et moi, notre possible pour nous y prêter. 11. Ce jeune homme persiste-t-il dans sa résolution? 12. Nous y persistons, lui et moi. 13. Persistez-vous tous deux à rester ici? 14. Nous y persistons tous deux. 15. Cet homme est-il gêné dans ses affaires (uncomfortably situated, badly off)? 16. Il était gêné dans ses affaires, il y a un an. 17. Ne vous gênez pas, monsieur. 18. Je ne me gêne jamais, monsieur. 19. Est-ce-que mon frère vous dérange? 20. Non, monsieur? il ne me dérange pas. 21. Je ne voudrais pas vous déranger. 22. Pardon, si je vous dérange. 23. Vous et votre associé vous avez vendu vos marchandises à perte. 24. Vous et moi nous vendons toujours à profit. 25. Votre père, votre frère, et moi nous avons acheté des marchandises.


1. Do we incommode you, my brother and I? do not incommode us; we are very glad to see you. afraid to disturb your friend? 4. We are afraid to disturb him, he has much to do. 5. Is my foot in your way, sir? 6. No, sir; your foot is not in my way. 7. Will you and your brother go to Germany this year? 8. We intend to go there, he and I. 9. He, you and I should write our lessons. 10. Should you not, you and your friends, adapt yourselves to circumstances? 11. We should do so, if it were possible. 12. Do I not disturb you, sir? 13. You do not disturb me by any means. 14. Does not my little boy disturb you? 15. He does not disturb me. 16. He disturbs nobody. 17. Does not your partner sell his goods at a loss? 18. He never sells at a loss. 19. He and I always sell at a profit. 20. Do you persist in your resolution? 21. Your friend and I persist in our resolution. 22. I never feel under constraint at your house. 23. Be under no constraint (make yourself at home). 24. Are you not wrong to incommode them? 25. I do not intend to incommode them. 26. We do not like to incommode ourselves (to put ourselves out of the way). 27. My little boy and I will, perhaps, be in your way. 28. No, sir;

2. No, sir; you 3. Are you not

we are very glad of your company. 29. Do I disturb you? 30. No. sir; you do not disturb us. 31. Do I disturb your father? 32. No, sir; you disturb no one. 33. Excuse me, sir, if I disturb you. 34. Have you not been very lavish? 35. No, sir; I assure you that your son and I have been very economical.



1. When a verb is preceded by several nouns not connected, it agrees with the last only, provided the nouns are in some way synonymous, or the mind dwells more forcibly upon the last.

Son amour, sa tendresse pour ses enfants est connue de tout le monde.

Vos amis, vos parents, Dieu vous récompensera.


Charles ou George écrira à votre ami.

His love, his tenderness for his children, are known to every body.

2. When two or more nouns are united by the conjunction ou, the verb agrees with the last only.

Vous ou moi nous partirons demain.
Votre sœur ou vous vous irez à l'église.
Vous ou lui vous avez pu seuls com-
mettre cette action.

Your friends, your relatives, God will reward you.

Charles or George will write to your friend.

3. When a noun and a pronoun, or two or more pronouns (not being all in the third person), are joined by ou, the verb is put in the plural.

You or I will go to-morrow.
Your sister or you will go to church.
You or he alone have probably com-
mitted this act.

4. When two nouns are joined by ni repeated, or when ni l'un ni l'autre is used as nominative to a verb, the verb is put in the plural, if the two nouns, or the two persons represented by nil'un ni l'autre, perform or may perform the action together.

Ni l'un ni l'autre ne liront.

Neither the one nor the other will read.

5. When, however, only one at a time can perform the action, the verb is put in the singular.

Ni l'un ni l'autre ne sera nommé Neither the one nor the other will be appréfet de ce départment. pointed prefect of that department.

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