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position which they should have in emitting the French u. Ex. urne, urn; lune, moon; but, aim; tribu, tribe ; tribut, tribute ;

élu, elected. 12. û is the u with a prolonged sound. Ex. mûre, mulberry ; dú,

due; crû, growth ; brûler, to burn. 13. y. See 29, y, page 20.

4. (6)

EXERCISE 1. 1. (a) Table, table ; fable, fable ; chat, cat; éclat, splendor; arbre,

tree; tard, late ; balle, ball. 2. (a) âme, soul ; blâme, blame ; bâtir, to build: pâte, paste ; âge,

age; mât, mast. 3. (e) me, me; de, of; que, that; elle, she; malle, mail; parle,

speak; fourche, fork; salle, hall.
pré, meadow; allé, gone ; donné, given ; passé, passée, past;

élevé, raised ; armée, army. 5. (e) très, very; après, after ; achète, buy ; mère, mother; espère,

hope ; lève, raise ; chère, fare; chèvre, goat. 6. (e) même, same; carême, Lent; arrêt, arrest; tempête, tempest;

tête, head; bête, beast. 7. (i) lit, bed ; dit, said ; dire, to say ; lire, to read; lime, file ; cire,

wax; rite, rite. 8. (î) dîner, to dine ; île, isle; dîme, tithe; abîme, abyss; épître,

epistle; gîte, lodging.. 9. (o) mot, word; cachot, dungeon ; repos, rest; trot, trot; globe,

globe ; carrosse, coach. 10. (0) tôt, soon; plutôt, rather ; rôti, roast meat; dépôt, deposit,

prévột, provost. 11. (u) bu, drank; cru, believed ; du, of the; élu, elected; menu,

minute; prévu, foreseen ; écu, crown. 12. (ů) chûte, fall; brûlot, fireship; mûr, ripe; dûment, duly; il

fût, he might be ; nous fûmes, we were.


14. A vowel surmounted by a diæresis (-) cannot form a dipli

thong with another vowel; it is pronounced separately. Ex., haïr-Exception : ë at the end of a few words, such as cigue,

hemlock, is silent, the u being pronounced like û. 15. E accented (é) and followed by a vowel, is pronounced separ

ately. Ex. obéir, to obey ; géant, giant. 16. ai, ei, preceding a liquid 1 (see Consonants, 13) do not form a

diphthong; a is then pronounced as in mat, and e as ai in pair. The i seems merely to indicate the liquid sound of the

1. Ex. paille, straw ; oreille, ear. 17, ai is like a in fate. Ex. j'ai, I have; je ferai, I will make; baie,

bay ; mai, May ; balai, broom.
When the diphthong ai is followed by a final s, d, or t, it
assumes a broader sound, resembling the French è, or e in the
English word met. Ex. j'avais, I had; je ferais, I should

make; lait, milk ; laid, ugly. 18. au nearly like oh/ in English. Ex. taux, rate; chaud, warm.

E preceding au is blended with that diphthong without changing its sound. Ex. beau, handsome; château, castle ; tableau,

picture ; eau, water. 19. ei nearly like a in fate. Ex. beige, serge; neige, snow; seigle,

rye; reine, queen ; peigne, comb. 20. eu approaches the sound of u in muff. Ex. jeu, play; lieu, place;

peu, little ; peur, fear ; chaleur, heat. Exceptions, in eu, had; j'eus, &c., I had; j'eusse, etc., I might have ; eu is pronounced

like u alone. 21. ia nearly like ia in medial. Ex. il lia, he bound ; il cria, he cried ;

dialogue, dialogue. 22. ie like ee in bee. Ex. il lie, he binds ; il étudie, he studies; harpie,

harpy; mie, the soft part of bread. 23. oi nearly like wa in was. Ex. croix, cross; il boit, he drinks ;

con, king. 24. ou like oo in cool. Ex. doux, soft; coup, blow; nous, we ; vous, you ; cou, neck.

Il salua, he saluted ; il remua, he moved ; il con

tribua, he contributed. 26. ue Il salue, he salutes ; il remue,

he moves; il con tribue, he contributes. 27. ui

produit, produce; conduite, conduct; lui, him;

bruit, noise ; il réduit, he reduces. 28. uo

duo, duet. 29. y when initial, when coming between two consonants, or when

forming a syllable of itself, has the sound of the French i. Ex. style, style ; type, type; yeux, eyes ; Ypres, Ypres; y, there. Between two vowels y has the power of two e's, one of which forms a diphthong with the preceding, and the other with the following vowel; the syllabic division taking place between the i's. Ex. moyen, means; essayer, to try; nettoyer, to clean ; citoyen, citizen ; abbaye, abbey; these words are pronounced

25. ua

have no corresponding

sound in English.

Examples of the French


as if they were written moi-ien, essai-ier, nettoi-ier, citoi-ien, abbai-ie. The words, pays, country; paysage, landscape; paysan, peasant, are pronounced pe-is, -isage, -isan.


17. (ai) je donnai, I gave ; je parlerai, I will speak ; j'allai, I went ;

je cherchai, I sought ; je menai, I led ; j'ırai, I will go. (ais) je donnais, I was giving ; je parlerais, I would speak; j'allais,

I was going ; je cherchais, I was seeking; je menais, I was

leading ; j'irais, I would go. 18. (au, eau) maux, evils ; chameau, camel; chevaux, horses; beau,

handsome ; nouveau, new; troupeau, flock. 19. (ei) neige, snow; veine, vein; reine, queen ; Seine, Seine; je

peigne, I comb; sein, bosom. 20. (eu) peu, little ; peur, fear; leur, their ; il meurt, he dies ; seur,

sister ; cuf, egg ; lueur, light. (eu) like u. J'eus, I hud; tu eus, thou hudst; il eut, he had;

eu, had.

21. (ia) liant, binding; il lia, he bound; partial, partial; il cria, he

cried ; il nia, he denied; il pria, he prayed. 22. (ie) garantie, guarantee ; il prie, he prays; il lie, he binds ; il rie,

he may laugh ; il nie, he denies. 23. (oi) loi, law; moi, me; il voit, he sees; il boit, he drinks; roi,

king ; droit, right; il croit, he believes. 24. (ou) bout, end ; il coud, he sews; il moud, he grinds; coupe, cup;

loup, wolf ; coup, blow; croute, crust. 25. (ua) nuage, cloud ; nuance, shade; il salua, he saluted; il remua,

he moved ; il contribua, he contributed. 26. (ue) nue, cloud; lue, f. read; reçue, f. received ; il salue, he salutes ; il remue,

he 27. (ui) lui, him ; luisant, shining ; cuire, to bake ; cuit, baked; nuire,

to injure; produire, to produce. 29. (y) thyrse, thyrsus ; type, type ; style, style ; yeux, eyes ; Yvetot,

Yvetot; payer, to pay; envoyer, to send; abbaye, abbey ; essayer, to try; pays, country; paysage, landscape; paysan, peasant.




The combination of the vowels with the consonant m or 18 produces what the French call le son nasal, the nasal sound. When the consonant m or n is doubled, or is immediately fol


Sing, wrung.






lowed by a vowel," the nasal sound does not take place. Ex, innocent, innocent; immobile, immovable ; inutile, useless ; inoui, unheard of. The syllables in and im in the words in- . nocent and immobile, are pronounced nearly as in English; the syllabic division” of i-nu-ti-le and i-nou-i, will explain the reason of the absence of the nasal sound in those words.

ample, ample; chambre, chamber; lampe, 32. am

lamp. pronounced an, year; banc, bench; dans, in; mannearly

teau, cloak. like an in

membre, limb; emporter, to carry away ; pant, want.

trembler, to tremble. en, in; dent, tooth; prendre, to take ;

rendre, to render. 33. en final is sometimes pronounced like en in then. Ex. Eden, Eden. 34. en in the third person plural of verbs is silent. Ex. ils lisent,

ils portent, ils donnent; pronounce ils liz, ils port, ils donn. 35. en after i at the end of a word, is pronounced nearly like an in

sank, crank. Ex, bien, well; lien, tie; rien, nothing. 36. im somewhat timbre, stamp; impossible, impossible; im

portant, important. in

lin, flax ; pin, pine; crin, horse-hair; vin, sank.

wine. pronounced

tombe, tomb; comble, height; sombre, dark; nearly like

tomber, to fall. on in song,

mon, my; ton, thy; son, his; bond, bound; wrong. pont, bridge. nearly like

humble, humble; parfum, perfume. un in hunt

un, one; chacun, each one; importun, im


EXERCISE 3. 31. Innocent, innocent; inutile, useless ; dîner, dinner; immortel,

immortal; une, one ; hune, moon; dunes, downs. 32. am ambre, amber; chambre, chamber ; Adam, Adam; ramper, to

creep; ample, ample ; lampe, lamp. an tante, aunt; manteau, cloak; plan, plan; plancher, floor ;

rang, rank; sang, blood; enfant, child. 1 The words ennui, ennuyer, emmener, enivrer, enorgueillir, form exceptions to this rule. The first syllable of ennui, ennuyer, emmener, is nasal; enivrer, enorgueillir are pronounced en-nivrer, en-orgueillir.

* For the division of words into syllables, see Reading Lessons, page 474,

like an in


37. om


38. um


em remplir, to fill; temple, temple; temps, weather; assemblée,

assembly; trembler, to tremble ; membre, limb. en sentir, to feel; tente, tent; pente, declivity ; je rends, I ren

der; je prends, I take ; je sens, I feel. 33. en amen, amen; specimen, specimen. 34. en ils donnent, they give ; ils parlent, they speak; ils écrivent

they write; ils cherchent, they seek. 35. ien le mien, mine ; le tien, thine ; le sien, his. 36. im simple, simple ; timbre, stamp; daim, deer; faim, hunger;

imposteur, impostor ; important, important. in fin, fine; pain, bread; demain, to morrow; crin, horse-hair;

vin, wine ; bain, bath ; teindre, to dye ; peindre, to paint. 37. om sombre, dark; nom, name; ombre, shadow; tombe, tomb;

nombre, number; comble, height. on pont, bridge; honte, shame ; montre, watch; raison, reason ;

maison, house ; fondre, to melt ; non, no. 38. um humble, humble ; parfum, perfume; humblement, humbly. un lundi, Monday; brun, brown ; alun, alum; emprunter, to

borrow; importun, importunate ; un, one.




1. At the beginning of words or syllables, most consonants are

sounded as in English. 2. A final consonant is generally silent. The letters c, f, l, r,

however, when final, are generally pronounced. 3. The final consonant of a word is generally carried to the next

word, when that word begins with a vowel or an h mute.

(See 10, h.) 4. For illustrations and exceptions, see the several letters. 5. B initial is pronounced as in English. In the middle of words,

and at the end of proper names, b is sounded. Ex. abdiquer, to abdicate, Job, Caleb, &c. B is also pronounced in radoub, refitting of a vessel, and rumb, (pronounced romb,) point of the compass. It is silent in plomb, lead; aplomb, perpendicularity. When b is doubled, only one of these letters is pronounced.

Ex. abbé, abbot ; sabbat. 6. C has its proper sound (k) before a, o, u, 1,

Ex. cabane, cottage; cou, neck ; écu, crown ; enclin, inclined; Cnéius,

Cneius ; croire, to believe. c before e and i, and with the cedilla (9) before a, 0, or u, has

n, r.

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