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religion? 8. No, sir; I have not changed my religion. 9. Do you not change your place very often? 10. I change my place when I am tired. 11. Does not your sister change her mind every day? 12. She does not change her mind every day. 13. Was not your brother afraid, did not his countenance change? 14. His countenance changed, but he was not afraid. 15. Have you not changed rooms (chambre, f.)? 16. I have not changed rooms, my room is very good. 17. Do you not long to be in France ? 18. I long to be there. 19. Does not your mother tarry too long? 20. She is very long in coming. 21. Have you changed the forty franc piece? 22. I have not changed it yet. 23. Why have you not changed it? 24. Because your father has no change. 25. Have you the change for a guinea ? 26. No, sir; I have only twelve shillings. 27. How many cents are there in a dollar ? 28. There are one hundred. 29. Has that gentleman exchanged that house ? 30. Yes, sir; he has exchanged it for a warehouse. 31. Will you exchange your hat for mine ? 32. No, sir; your hat is too small for me. 33. With whom have you exchanged your horse ? 34. I have exchanged it with my brother. 35. I have exchanged it for a white one.




1. We have given in Lesson 11, rules for forming the plural of nouns, but have in accordance with our plan of not presenting too many difficulties at once, deferred until the present Lesson, the rules for the formation of the plural of compound nouns.

2. When a noun is composed of two substantives, or of a substantive and an adjective, both take the form of the plural: un chef-lieu, des chefs-lieux, a chief place, chief places ; un gentilhomme, des gentilshommes, a nobleman, noblemen [$ 9, (1.) (3.)).

3. When, however, two nouns are connected by a preposition, the first only becomes plural: Un chef-d'oeuvre, des chefs-d'oeuvre, a master-piece, master-pieces [$ 9, (2.)].

4. In words composed of a noun and a verb, preposition or adverb, the noun only becomes plural; passe-port, passe-ports, passport, passports [$ 9, (6.)]. 5. Words composed of two verbs, or of a verb, an adverb, and a

preposition, are invariable: un passe-partout, des passe-partout, master-key, master-keys (8 9, (8.)].

6. We have seen [L. 5, R. 4.] that the name of the material always follows the name of the object, and that both are united by the preposition de. The name of the profession or occupation, also follows the noun representing the individual, and the same preposition de connects the two: un maître d'armes, a fencing-master; un maître de dessin, a drawing master; un marchand de farine, a dealer in flour § 76, (12.) $ 81, (4.)}

7. The name of a vehicle, boat, mill, etc., always precedes the noun describing the power by which it is impelled, or the purpose to which it is adapted; the name of an apartment, that of the use to which it is appropriated. The connecting preposition is à: un moulin à vapeur, a steam mill; un bateau à vapeur, a steamboat; un moulin à eau, a water mill; la salle à manger, the dining-room [$ 76, (13.) (14.) $ 81, (4.) (5.)).



RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Lille et Arras sont les chefs-lieux Lisl, and Arras are the chief places

des départements du Nord et du of the departments of the Vorth and Pas-de-Calais.

of the Pas-de-Calais. Les chemins de fer et les bateaux Railroads and steamboats are very à vapeur sont très nombreux en

numerous in America. Amérique. Cette maison contient un salon, une That house contains a drawing-room,

salle à manger, une cuisine, et plu a dining-room, a kitchen, and seven sieurs chambres à coucher.

ral bed-rooms. Les moulins à vent sont plus com Windmills

common in muns en France que les moulins France than water or steam-mills. à eau ou à vapeur.

EXERCISE 115. Armes, f. p. fencing ; Département, m. depart- Se munir, 1. ref. to pro Bât-ir, 2. to build ; ment;

vide one's self with ; Bouteille, f. bottle ; Dessin, m. drawing ; Ordinaire, usual; Cabriolet, m. gig; Engag-er, 1. to engage; Roue, f. wheel; Chat-buant, m. owl ; Faire , bât-ir, 2. to have Voyag-er, 1. to travel; Chauve-souris, f. bat; buil;

Voile, f. sail

. Italie, f. Italy; 1. Faut-il avoir un passe-port pour voyager en France ? 2. Il faut en avoir un. 3. Les Anglais se munissent-ils de passe-ports pour voyager en Angleterre ? 4. On n'a pas besoin de passe-port en Angleterre. 5. Aimez-vous à voyager sur les chemins de fer? 6. J'aime mieux voyager sur les chemins de fer que sur les chemins ordinaires. 7. Avez-vous apporté vos passe-partout? 8. Je n'ai point de passe-partout, je n'ai que des clefs ordinaires. 9. Votre

frère est-il venu dans un bâteau à vapeur ? 10. Il est venu dans un bâteau à voiles. 11. Avez-vous une voiture à quatre chevaux ? 12. Non, monsieur ; nous n'avons qu'un cabriolet à un cheval. 13. Votre frère a-t-il bâti un moulin à vapeur ? 14. Il a fait bâtir deux moulins, l'un à vent et l'autre à eau.

15. Votre compagnon a-t-il engagé un maître d'armes? 16. Non, monsieur; il a déjà un maître de dessin, et un maître de danse. 17. Combien de chambres à coucher avez-vous ? 18. Nous en avons deux. 19. Avez-vous une bouteille de vin ? 20. Non, monsieur; mais j'ai une bouteille à vin (wine-bottle) [$ 81.]. 21. Voyez-vous les chats-huants ? 22. Non, mais je vois les chauves-souris. 23. J'ai une voiture à quatre


EXERCISE 116. 1. Is your father in England ? 2. No, sir; he is in France with my brother. 3. Have they taken passports ? 4. Yes, sir; they have taken two. 5. Is it necessary to have a passport to travel in America? 6. No, sir; but it is necessary to have one to travel in Italy. 7. Is there a steamboat from Calais to Dover (Douvres)? 8. There are several. 9. Is there a railroad from Paris to Brussels (Bruxelles)? 10. There is one from Paris to Brussels, and one from Paris to Tours. 11. Has your brother bought a wind-mill? 12. No, sir; but he has built a steam-mill. 13. Are there many wind-mills in America ? 14. No, sir; but there are many water and steam-mills. 15. Have your sisters a dancing-master? 16. They have a dancing-master, and a music master. 17. Does your cousin learn drawing? 18. He does not learn it, he cannot find a drawing-master. 19. Is the fencingmaster in the dining-room? 20. No, sir; he is in the drawing-room. 21. Is your cousin in his bed-room? 22. No, sir; he is out (sorti). 23. How many rooms are there in your house. 24. Five; a kitchen, a dining-room, a drawing-room, and two bed-rooms. 25. Are there owls here? 26. Yes, sir; and bats too. 27. Have you seen those master-pieces ? 28. Yes, sir ; I have seen them. 29. Have


sent them to the chief place of the department ? 30. I have sent them there. 31. Have you a two-horse gig? 32. I have a four-horse

33. Has your brother a two-wheel carriage ? 34. He has a two-seat carriage (à deux sièges).



LESSON LX. THE TWO FUTURES, SIMPLE, AND ANTERIOR. (8 124.] 1. The future of every verb, in the French language, ends with rai, ras, ra, rons, rez, ront.

2. This tense, in all the regular verbs, as also in the irregular verbs not mentioned in the next lesson, may be formed from the present of the infinitive by changing the r of the first and second conjugations, and the oir and re of the third and fourth, into the terminations already given, and here again repeated.


3. CONJUGATION OF THE FUTURE SIMPLE OF THE REGULAR VERBS, Je chante -rai fini -rai recev -rai rend -rai will sing will finish will receive

will render Tu parle -ras chéri -ras apercev -ras vend ras Thou wilt specik wilt cherish wilt perceine

uilt sell Il donne -ra

fourni -ra



tend Пе shall give

will furnish
will gather

will tend Nous cherche-rons puni -rons concev -rons entend rons We will seek shall punish

will conceire

will hear Vous porte -rez saisi -rez dev

-rez perd -rez You will carry will seize will owe

will lose Ils aime -ront

uni -ront décey -ront mord -ront They will love

will unite
will deceive

will bite

4. The future anterior is merely the past participle of the verb, conjugated with the future of one of the auxiliaries avoir and être : J'aurai fini; je me serai flatté. I shall have done ; I shall have flattered

myself. 5. The student, when rendering English into French, should be careful to distinguish will, taken as an auxiliary, from the same word employed as a separate verb. In this latter case, it is always equivalent to the verb, to wish, or to be willing, and should not be rendered by the future of the verb, but by the present of vouloir : Ne lui écrirez-vous pas ?

Will you not write to him? (are you

not going to write to him ?) Ne voulez-vous pas lui écrire ? Will you not (are you not willing) to

write to him? In the first example will is used as an auxiliary to write; in the second it is used as a separate verb.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Quand parlerez-vous à ce monsieur? When will you speak to that gentle

man ? Vous fournira-t-il des provisions ? Will he furnish you provisions ? Ils ne recevront pas leurs revenus. They will not receive their income.

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Ne vendrez-vous pas vos propriétés? Will you not sell your property ?
Que voulez-vous avoir ?

What do you wish to have ?
Que veut lire votre frère ?

What will your brother read Apporterez-vous des pommes ? Will you bring apples ? Nous amènerons nos enfants. We will bring our children. Vous apporterez des légumes. You will bring vegetables.

EXERCISE 117. Abreuvoir, m. watering Champ, m. field; Men-er, 1. (S 49, (6.)] to place;

Château, m. villa ; take, to lead; Appel-er, 1. [S 49, (4.)] Colporteur, m. pedlar, Se promen-er, 1. ref. to call; hawker ;

[$ 49, (6.)] to walk or Après-midi

, f. afternoon; Donner à manger, to feed; ride for pleasure, or Avoine, f. oats; Écurie, f. stable;

health ; Blé, m. wheat ; Foin, m. hay;

Récolt-er, 1. to harvest ; Cachet-er, 1. (S 49, (4.)] Geler, 1. (S 49, (5.)] to Sem-er, 1. [S 49, (6.)] to to seal;

freeze; 1. Mènerez-vous vos enfants à l'école ? 2. Je les mènerai à l'école et à l'église. 3. Le jardinier apportera-t-il des légumes au marché? 4. Il y en apportera. 5. Où mènerez-vous ce cheval ? 6. Je le mènerai à l'écurie. 7. Lui donnerez-vous à manger ? 8. Je lui donnerai du foin et de l'avoine. 9. Lui donnerez-vous de l'eau? 10. Je le mènerai à l'abreuvoir. 11. Paierez-[$ 49, (2.)] vous ce que vous devez? 12. Ne voulez-vous pas vous promener? 13. Je me promènerai cette après-midi. 14. Vous promènerez-vous à pied, ou à cheval ? 15. Je me promènerai à cheval, et ma soeur se promènera en voiture. 16. Marcherez-vous beaucoup, dans votre voyage à Paris ? 17. Nous ne marcherons pas du tout. 18. N'appellerez[$ 49, (4.)] vous pas le colporteur ? 19. Je ne l'appellerai pas. 20. N'achèterez- [$ 49, (5.)] vous pas ce château ? 21. Nous l'achèterous si nous pouvons. 22. Ne gèlera-t-il pas [$ 49, (5.)] cette nuit ? 23. Je ne le crois pas, il fait trop chaud. 24. Ne sèmerez[$ 49, (6.)] vous pas tout le blé que vous récolterez? 25. Je n'en sèmerai qu'une partie, je vendrai le reste. 26. Je cachetterai mes lettres, et je les porterai à la poste.


1. Will not the gentleman call his children? 2. He will call his children and his sister's. 3. Will you not bring your children ? 4. I cannot bring them. 5. Will you not take a ride this afternoon ? .6. We will ride in a carriage to-morrow. 7. Will you not buy my father's horses? 8. I shall not buy them, I have no money. 9. Will you not call the pedlar? 10. I do not wish to call him, I do not wish to buy any thing. 11. Will you pay the tailor? 12. I will pay him for my coai 13. Will it not freeze to-morrow. 14. It will

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