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Ces vieillards sont respectés.

Those old men are respected.

Ces enfants sont aimés de tout le Those children are loved by everymonde.

body.

3. The genius of the French language seems to prefer the active to the passive voice. Many expressions, which are in the passive in English, are accordingly rendered into French by the active or reflective [§ 128, (5.) § 113, (1.)].

Cette maison est à louer ou à vendre.
Ma soeur est à plaindre.
Cet homme est à craindre.
Cet homme s'appelle H. [L. 36, R. 2.]
Cet homme se trompe. [L. 38, R. 2.]]
On dit que cela est ainsi. [L. 35, R. 2.]
On nous a dit cela. [L. 35, R. 2.]

Ces enfants sont-ils aimés?

Ils ne le sont pas.

Ces demoiselles sont-elles sœurs?
Elles ne le sont pas.

4. In answer to a question [see L. 24, R. 12], the pronoun le corresponds in signification with the English word so, or it, expressed or understood. Le refers then to a noun not determined (not preceded oy an article or a possessive adjective), to an adjective, to a verb or even to a whole sentence.

Êtes-vous la sœur de mon ami?
Je la suis.

That house is to be let or sold.
My sister is to be pitied.
That man is to be feared.
That man is called H.
That man is mistaken.
It is said that it is so.
We have been told that.

RÉSUMÉ OF

Leur conduite est-elle approuvée ?
Elle n'est approuvée de personne.
Cette dame est-elle estimée et res-
pectée ?

5. When le refers to a determined noun, it often corresponds in signification to the pronoun he, she, or they, which may or may not be expressed in the English sentence. Le must then assume the gender and number of the noun to which it refers.

Elle n'est ni estimée ni respectée.
Ces marchandises sont à vendre.
Ces enfants sont à plaindre.
A-t-on dit quelque chose à mon frère?
On ne lui a rien dit.
Savez-vous comment cela s'appelle?
Madame, êtes-vous maîtresse ici?
Je ne le suis pas, Monsieur.
Êtes-vous la maîtresse de la maison?
Je la suis.

Are those children loved?
They are not (so).

Are those young ladies sisters?
They are not.

Are you the sister of my friend?
I am (she).

EXAMPLES.

Is their conduct approved?
It is approved by nobody.
Is that lady esteemed and respected?

She is neither esteemed nor respected
Those goods are to be sold (for sale).
Those children are to be pitied.
Has anything been said to my brother?
Nothing has been said to him.
Do you know how that is called?
Madame, are you mistress here?
I am not (so), sir.

Are you the mistress of the house?
I am (she).

1

EXERCISE 89.

S'appel-er, 1. pec. to be Croi-re, 4. ir. to believe;
called [$ 49, (4.)]; Écolier, m. scholar;
Auteur, m. author; Jardin, m. garden;
Blâm-er, 1. to blame; Lou-er, 1. to let, to praise;
Car, for;
Mère, f. mother;
Conduite, f. conduct; Paresseux, se, idle;

Pun-ir, 2. to punish;
Rarement, seldom ;
Relieur, m. bookbinder;
Souvent, often;
Us-er, 1. to wear out;
Vend-re, 4. to sell;

2. Elle est aimée de

1. Votre mère est-elle aimée de sa sœur? son frère et de sa sœur. 3. Les Italiens sont-ils aimés des Français ? 4. Vos écoliers ne sont-ils pas blâmés? 5. Ils sont blâmés quelquefois. 6. Sont-ils souvent punis? 7. Ils sont rarement punis. 8. Par qui êtes-vous puni, quand vous êtes paresseux? 9. Je ne suis jamais puni. 10. Sa conduite a-t-elle été approuvée ? 11. Elle a été approuvée de tout le monde. 12. Elle a été approuvée par1 ses amis. 13. Cet auteur est-il estimé ? 14. Il est estimé de tout le monde. 15. Le jardin du relieur est-il à vendre ou à louer? 16. On dit qu'il est à louer. 17. Le menuisier a-t-il fait faire un habit? 18. Il en a fait faire deux. 19. Les habits que vous avez achetés sont-ils usés (worn out)? 20. Ils sont usés, j'en ai fait faire d'autres. 21. Diton que nos amis sont aimés de tout le monde ? 22. On ne le dit pas, car on ne le croit pas. 23. Les dames que nous avons vues à l'église hier au soir, sont-elles sœurs ? 24. Elles ne le sont pas, on dit qu'elles sont cousines. 25. On dit que l'officier que vient d'arriver s'appelle S.

EXERCISE 90.

1. Are you blamed or praised? 2. I am neither blamed nor praised. 3. Is not your cousin esteemed by every body? 4. She is esteemed by nobody. 5. What has been said of my brother? 6. Nothing has been said of him. 7. Do you know if your brother's house is to be let? 8. I have been told (on m'a dit) that it is to be sold. 9. Is not an idle person to be pitied? 10. The idle man is to be pitied. 11. Is your son sometimes punished at school? 12. He is always punished when he is idle. 13. Are your scholars praised, when they are diligent (diligent)? 14. They are praised, when they are diligent, and they are blamed when they are idle. 15. Is that lady esteemed and respected? 16. She is loved, esteemed, and respected by every body. 17. What has been told you? 18. We have been told that your brother is respected by every body. 19. Madam, are you Mr. S.'s sister? 20. No, sir; I am not. 21. Madam, are

1 The prepositions de and par are used indifferently after many passive

verbs.

you pleased with your son's conduct? 22. No, sir; I am not, for he is blamed by every body. 23. How is that large (gros) man called? 24. It is said that he is called H. 25. What is your brother's name? 26. He is called James. 27. Have you been told that my brother has arrived? 28. We have been told so. 29. Are the goods which your brother has brought, for sale? 30. They are not for sale. 31. Has the bookbinder had a coat made? made. 33. Is his other coat worn out? bought last year is worn out.

32. He has had a coat

34. The coat which he

LEÇON XLVII.

LESSON XLVII.

S'EN ALLER, ÊTRE, ETC.

1. In the compound tenses of the verb s'en aller, to go away, [L. 40. 1, 2], the pronoun en will of course keep its general place, after the other pronouns and before the auxiliary. It must never come between the auxiliary and the participle.

Je m'en suis allé,

I went away;

Tu t'en es allé,

Thou didst go

Il s'en est allé,

away;
He went away;

Les dames s'en sont allées.

Les messieurs s'en sont allés.

Nous nous en

sommes allés,
Vous vous en êtes
allés,
Ils s'en sont allés,

We went away;

You went away;

They went away.

The ladies have gone away.
The gentlemen have gone away.

A qui est cette maison?
Elle est à mon cousin.

2. The verb aller when referring to articles of dress answers to the English, to fit, to sit.

Mon habit va bien.

My coat fits or sits well.

3. Seoir, [3. ir. see table § 62.] answers to the English, to suit, to become.

Ce chapeau ne vous sied point.

That hat does not become you.

4. Essayer, (§ 49.) corresponds in signification to the English, to try on.

J'ai essayé mon gilet, il ne me va I have tried my waiscoat, it does not pas bien. fit me well.

5. Être is often used in French for appartenir, to belong, [§ 106, (3.)]

To whom does that house belong?

Whose house is that?

It is my cousin's.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

A quelle heure vous en êtes-vous allé ?

Je m'en suis allé à neuf heures. Vous en êtes-vous allées trop tôt, mesdames?

Nous nous en sommes allées trop tard.

Cette robe vous va-t-elle bien ?
Elle ne me va pas bien.
Cet habit vous sied-il fort bien?
Je l'ai essayé, mais il ne me va pas
bien.

Il va bien à mon frère.

Il me gêne, il me serre trop.
Cette robe ne lui va pas bien.
Ces livres sont-ils à vous, ou à moi?
Ils ne sont ni à moi ni à vous.
A qui sont-ils donc ?
Les livres de qui avez-vous apportés?
J'ai apporté ceux de mon frère.

At what hour did you go away?

I went away at nine o'clock.
Did you go away too soon, ladies?

We went away too late.

Does that dress fit you well?
It does not fit me well.
Does that coat become you very well?
I have tried it on, but it does not fit
me well.

It fits my brother well.

It hurts me, it presses me too much.
That dress does not fit her well.
Are those books yours, or mine ?
They belong neither to me nor to you.
Whose are they then?

Whose books have you brought?
I have brought my brother's.

EXERCISE 91.

Beau-frère, m. brother- Étroit, e, narrow, tight;

in-law; Botte, f. boot; Clair, e, light;

Foncé, e, dark;
Gên-er, 1. to hurt,
press;

Gilet, m. waistcoat;
Grand, e, large;

Couleur, f. color;
Court, e, short;
Compagne, f. companion; Large, wide;

to

Lire, 4. ir. to read;
Mieux, better;
Neuf, ve, new;
Où, where;
Serr-er, 1. to press;
Ten-ir, 2. ir. to hold;
Vers, towards, about.

1. Vos bottes ne vont-elles pas bien? 2. Elles ne me vont pas bien, elles me serrent trop. 3. Sont-elles trop étroites? 4. Elles sont trop étroites et trop courtes, elles me gênent. 5. Le cordonnier s'en est-il allé? 6. Il ne s'en est pas encore allé. 7. A quelle heure les compagnes de votre sœur s'en sont-elles allées? 8. Elles s'en sont allées vers six heures de l'après-midi. 9. L'habit que vous tenez, est-il à vous ou à votre frère? 10. Il n'est ni à lui ni à moi, il est à mon beau-frère. 11. Lui va-t-il bien? 12. Il lui va fort bien, et il lui sied bien. 13. Où l'a-t-il fait faire ? 14. Il l'a fait faire en France ou en Allemagne. 15. A qui sont les livres que lit mademoiselle votre sœur ? 16. Ils sont à moi. 17. Votre gilet va-t-il mieux que celui de votre beau-frère? 18. Il me va beaucoup mieux. 19. Votre habit ne vous gêne-t-il pas ? 20. Il ne saurait (cannot) me gêner, il est de beaucoup trop large. 21. Avez-vous essayé votre habit neuf? 22. Je l'ai essayé, mais la couleur ne me sied pas. 23. Est-elle trop claire? 24. Elle est trop foncée. 25. Les couleurs foncées ne me siéent jamais.

EXERCISE 92.

1. Have your friends gone away? 2. They have not gone away, they are still here. 3. At what hour did your mother go away? 4. She went away early this morning. 5. Did your little sister go away late? 6. She went away too soon. 7. Does your sister's new dress become her? 8. It does not become her. 9. Why does it not become her? 10. Dark colors never become her. 11. Do light colors become your brother's wife? 12. They become her very well. 13. Are your new boots too narrow, or too wide? 14. They are neither too narrow nor too wide, they fit very well. 15. Does your brother's waistcoat fit him? 16. It fits him, but it does not become him. 17. Light colors never become him. 18. Does your coat press you? 19. It does not press me, it is by far too wide. 20. Whose house is that? 21. It is my father's and brother's. 22. Whose books have you brought this morning? 23. I have brought my brother's and sister's. 24. Whose dresses are those? 25. They are my mother's, my sister's, and my cousin's. 26. Are not those German books yours? 27. They are not mine, they are my friend's. 28. Are those pens yours or mine? 29. They are neither yours nor mine, they are my brother's. 30. Does this hat fit you well? 31. Yes, sir; it fits me well, but it does not become me. 32. Is your hat too small? 33. It is too large. 34. Are your gloves too large? 25. They are too small, I cannot put them on.

LEÇON XLVIII.

LESSON XLVIII.

Il me faut écrire un thême.
Où nous faut-il aller?

FALLOIR, TO BE NECESSARY, ETC.

1. The verb falloir [3. ir.], to be necessary, is always conjugated unipersonally. See table, § 62, page 364.

Il faut, il a fallu.

It is necessary, it was or has been no

Il faut étudier tous les jours.

2. As falloir has always a unipersonal pronoun for its nominative or subject, a pronoun in the indirect regimen (dative—me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur,) placed before the verb, will be equivalent to the pronoun used as nominative to the English verbs must, to be obliged, etc.

cessary.

It is necessary to study every day.

I must write an exercise.
Where must we go?

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