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XIV.-Class III.

In the Third Class, eó or ú becomes ea in the imperfect; in the second person &c. u: the part. past

has o.

First pers. pres.

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(3) G. rieche, roch, ge-rochen ; schiesse, schoss, &c.

Ceósan to choose, makes third pers. pres. cýst; imperf. ceás chose, second pers. cure, plur. curon; p. past coren(1).

Seóđan to seethe, has third pers. sýđ; imperf. seađ, sode, &c.; p. past soden sodden.() Thus also others

2 in -san and -đan.

Fleóge is contracted to fleó, plur. fleód, fleó; infin. fleógan, fleón; thus likewise teógan, teón to draw, tug: wreón to cover, and þeón to thrive, have only the contracted forms.

Seón to see, makes imperf. seah or séh, sáwe or sége, &c. imper. seóh or sýh; part. present seónde ; part. past (ge-)sewen, or segen.

Ge-feón (-feán) to rejoice, has imperf. ge-feah or -féh, ge-fage or -fege; part. past ge-fagen, -fægen. Beón to be, is defective : Indic. pres. 1. beó(3)

Subj. pres. beó 2. býst

plur. beon 3. by Imper. beó

plur. Sbeód

plur. Sheód


beó. Infin. beón. Ger. tó beónne. Part. pres. beónde.

XV.-Anomalous Verbs.

The following verbs are Anomalous, having for their present an old imperfect of the Complex Order, and for their imperfect one formed since after the Simple Order. (') G. kiese, kor, ge-koren.

(2) G. siede, sott, ge-sotten. (3) G, bin, bist.

Pres. 1.3. A’h, 2. áge, pl. ágon (owe); imperf. áhte (ought); infin. ágan; p. past. ágen: own, possess. Likewise combined with ne; náh, náhte, &c.

An, 2. unne, pl. unnon; imperf. úde; inf. unnan; p. past (ge-)unnen: grant.

Can(*) (can); 2. cunne or canst, pl.cunnon; imp. cúđe (could); inf. cunnan; p. past (ge-)cúd: know, ken, be able.

Deáh, duge, dugon; imp. dóhte; inf. dúgan: be good, brave, worth.

Dear, dearst, durron; subj. durre: imp. dorste (durst); inf. dearan: dare.

Ge-man(*), ge-manst, ge-munon:; inf.

ge-munan : remember. Mæg(*), miht, magon (may); subj. mæge (mage); imp. mihte (meahte) (might); inf. magan: be able.

Mót(5), móst, móton; subj. móte; imp. móste: may, might, must.

Sceal(6) (shall), scealt (shalt), sceolon (sculon); subj. scyle; imp. sceolde (should); inf. sculan: owe.

Wát() (wot), wást, witon; imp. wiste (wisse) (wist); subj. wíte; imper. wíte, wítađ; inf. witan; ger. to wítanne (to wit); p. pres. wítende; p. past witen: know. Thus also nýtan to know not.

(*) Comp. L. novi I know ; G.kenne, kann, kannte, konnte, &c.
(*) Comp. L. defective me-min-i I remember.
(*) G. mag, möge, mögte, &c.
() G. muss, musste, &c.
(6) G. soll, sollte, &c.

(°) Comp. oida I know ; G. weiss, wusste, wissen ; L. scio; as distin. guished from c a n (cn á we) yivwokw, L. povi.



pearf('), pearft or þurfe, þurfon; subj. þurfe; imp. þorfte; inf. þearfan: need,


XVI.- Auxiliaries, &c. The A. S. has no future tense, the present serving for both : wille and sceal, like G. will and soll, imply will, duty, and the like, and are not used like will and shall, to form a simple future; the present of beón has commonly a future power. The perfect and pluperfect are formed as in English, German, &c. by means of the verb to have ; as, ic hæbbe (ge-)lufod I have loved.(?) The participle past being as in the above-named tongues the only true passive form, the passive tenses are formed throughout by the help of the auxiliaries wesan, weordan, and beon to be; as, present ic eom, or weorđe lufod(3) I am loved ; imperf. ic wæs, or weară lufod; perf. ic eom lufod worden I have been loved ; pluperf. ic was lufod worden I had been loved ; future, ic beó lufod I shall be loved.

Impersonal verbs are like those of other languages; as, hit rind it rains; hit ge limpå it happens. Some have a passive sense; as, a-lýfđ it is allowed, lawful (L. licet); ge-wyrd it is agreed, seems good (L. convenit).

(') G. darf, durfte.
(?) The imperfect is often used for the pluperfect.

(3) Comp. G. ich habe, hatte, werde, wurde, ge-liebt; ich bin, war, geliebt worden.


I.-Formation of Words. Prefixes. As in Greek, Latin, German, &c. this branch of the language must be strictly attended to, if we would learn the origin, gender, and inflection of words: it consists of Derivation, and Composition, in both which the A. S. closely resembles the German Derivation either inodifies the meaning of a word by putting before it a prefix, or changes its part of speech, and inflection, by adding a termination. Composition forms new words by joining one or more together.

The following are the chief prefixes:

un- (on-) (L. in-; E. and G. un-): un-scyldig (G. un-schuldig) in-nocent ; un-tigian to un-tie.

n-(ne not; L. ne) : n-yllan (for newillan; L. n-olle for ne velle) to will not, nill; n-án none.

mis- (E. mis- ; G. miss-, misse-): mis-truwian (G. mis-trauen) to mis-trust; mis-dad (G. misse-that) misdeed.

2-(*) (wana wanting): wan-hál unhealthy. to-(5) (L. dis; G.zer-): to-brecan (L. dis-rumpere,

G. zer-brechen) to break in pieces ; to-drífan (L. dispellere, G. zer-treiben) to scatter, drive away.


(*) Hence 0. wan-hope (D. wan-hoop) despair ; wan-trust (D. wantrouw) mis-trust.

(5) Hence O. to-broken, to-torn &c. The prefix to- must be carefully distinguished from the prepusition tó.

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