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Part. past.

CONJUGATION III. Examples—bind-an to bind, G. bind-en; dríf-an to drive, G. treib-en; clúfan to cleave, G. klieb-en.

Present, Imperfect.
bind-e band

(ge-)bunden Class I. bind


bound-en G. bind e band ge-bund-en


(ge-)drif-en Class II. drive


driv-en LG treib-e

trieb ge-trieb-en clúf-e cleaf

(ge-clof-en Class III. cleave clave

clov-en G. klieb-e klob


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dríf e

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111.-Simple Order, or Conjugation I.


Present. Sing. ic luf-ige (') hýr-e tell-e þú luf-ast

hýr-st tel-st he luf-ad hýr-đ teld Plur. we, ge, hí luf-iad hýr-ađ tell-ađ

luf-ige hýr-e tell-e

Imperfect. Sing.

ic luf.ode hýr-de teal-de þúluf-odest hýr-dest teal-dest

he luf-ode hýr-de Pl. we, ge, hí luf-odon

hýr-don teal-don (") Comp. love, lov-est, lov-eth; G. lieb-e, lieb-est, lieb-et, &c. L am-o,

-as, -at, &c.


Sing. luf-ige hýr-e tell-e
Plur. luf-ion

hýr-on tell on

Sing. luf-ode hýr-de teal-de
Plur. luf-odon hýr-don teal-don

Sing. luf-a


S luf-iad

Shýr-ad Stell-ad
luf-ige hýr-e tell-e


luf-ian hýr-an telluan Gerund. tó luf-igenne -hýr-enne -tell-anne

luf.igende hýr-ende tell-ende P. past (ge- luf-od (ge-) hýred (ge-) teal-d.


Part. pres.

The first form of the present indicative, and of the imperative plural, is used when the pronoun comes first, or is left out; as, we lufiad we love, hýrađ hear; the second when the pronoun follows close; as, telle ge tell ye? The subjunctive plural sometimes ends in an or -en; as, lufian, hýrden, and the like. The gerund, which is always preceded by tó, and seems to be a kind of dative of the infinitive, answers to our infinitive present, active and passive, and to the Latin supines, infinitive future, active and passive, &c.; as, Come þú ús tó for-spillanne ? camest thou to destroy us? L. nos perditum. Hwæđer is éđre tó cweđanne? whether is easier to say ? L. facilius dictu. Eart þú se-pe tó cumenne eart? art thou he that is (art) to come ?


L. qui venturus est. Heó býđ tó lufigenne (') she is (must be, or ought) to be loved, L. amanda est. The infinitive of the first Class is often formed in -igan, sometimes in -igean, for -ian, and g is put in or left out in

8 some other forms with little or no change of pronunciation. The Gerund of the third Class sometimes makes -enne for -anne. Ge- may be prefixed to any part of verbs in general, but is oftenest used with the imperfect, and especially with the participle past, though not, as in German, to be considered the sign of the latter.()

Part. past.

IV.- Class I. Like lufian are conjugated : Present.

Imperfect. hatige


(ge-)hatod hate losige losode

losod be lost clypige clypode clypod call,clepe fullige fullode

fullod baptize fúlige fúlode


rot cunnige cunnode

cunnod try wacige(3) wacode

wacod watch hangige(4) hangode hangod hang hýrige hýrode hýrod

hire hergige hergode hergod harry macige

macode macod make bletsige bletsode bletsod bless.

(?) Hence the phrases “ house to let,” “ he is to blame,” &c.
(?) Ge- is seldom used before another prefix.
(3) Neut. L. vigilare ; act. weccan.
(4) Neut. L. penděre; act. hanga n, hón.

Some verbs of this Class, especially those having e for their vowel, form their imperfect and part. past in -ede and ed, as well as -ode and od; as, herian to praise, seglian to sail, ge-fremian to profit, which make herede, (ge-)hered, or herode, herod; seglede, and the like: -ode and -od are sometimes changed into -ade and -ad. Swerian to swear, borrows some tenses from a complex form, making imperf. swerede or swór swore ; imp. subj. swóre; imper. swera or swere; part. past (ge-) sworen sworn. Folgian, fyligan, or fylian to follow, has imperf. folgode, fyligde, or fylide; imper. folga or fylig.

V.- Class II.

The second Class forms its imperfect and participle past in -de and -ed, or in-te and -t, according to its characteristic letter; the hard consonants, viz. t, p, c, x, requiring -te and -t; the soft, viz. d, d, f, g, w, l, m, n, r, s, taking -de and -ed; as,

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Part. past.

Present. méte lette dyppe tace lise lade sende cýđe ge-lyfe

Imperf. métte lette dypte tahte lixte ladde sende cade ge-lýfde

(ge-mét meet (met)

let, hinder

dip(-t) taht teach(taught) lixt

gleam(-ed) laded lead(led) send send cýded

make known ge-lyfed believe(-d)

Part. past.


Imperf. wrége wrégde wréged be-wray(-ed) be-lawe be-lawde be-lawed accuse(-d) fylle fylde fylled fill(-ed) týme týmde týmed teem(-ed) wéne wénde

wéned ween(-ed) lære laerde

lared teach rase ræsde


rush(-ed). Some verbs in -gan are contracted; as, þreagan, þreán to vex, reproach, tweógan, tweón to doubt: pres. þreage or þreá, þreást, þreád ; pl. þreagađ, þreađ, &c.; tweóge or tweó, tweóst, tweód, &c.; imperf. þreáde, tweóde; part. past þreád, tweód.

The second and third persons singular sometimes make -est, -eđ, especially when many consonants might otherwise meet; as, nemne (1) name, nemnest, nemneđ; imperf. nemde: some have both forms; as, lade, latst, laet, or ladest, lædeđ; part. past læded or læd. Verbs with s, d, and t form the third person in -t; as, rase, rast;'sende, sent; méte, mét: those with đ in đ, as cýđe, cýđ; imperf. cýđde or cýdde; p. past cýđed or cýd. Verbs in this and the following classes with a double characteristic, drop one letter and take -e in the imperative; as, dyppe, dype, and the like. To this class belong several transitives, derived from intransitives of the Complex Order; as, bærnan to burn (act.), from byrnan to burn (neut.); drencan (") to drench, from drincan to drink ; fyllan to fell, from

(") Comp. G. tränken, fällen, senken, setzen, from trinken, fallen, sinken, sitzen.

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