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ability according actual amount association assumed average capital causes cent chapter column computed concerned conclusions contingency cost curve département dependent determined deviations differential direction distribution doctrine economic effect efficiency employed employees employment equation establishments factors facts figures France given gives hypothesis important increase of wages individual industry interests Italy labor organizations laborer's less limits machine-power material mean measure method nature observed obtained origin outcome of strikes particular percentage percentage deviations possible present principle probability problem product per laborer Professor proposition question rate of wages ratio reasoning receive refer regarded relation relative representative rules Salaire share skilled social standard Standard Population statistical Succeeded successful supply Table theory theory of wages tion trade trend union unskilled laborers variables variation varies wages of unskilled women
Page 11 - ... first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and, fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Page 169 - Womit wir es hier zu tun haben, ist eine kommunistische Gesellschaft, nicht wie sie sich auf ihrer eigenen Grundlage entwickelt hat, sondern umgekehrt, wie sie eben aus der kapitalistischen Gesellschaft hervorgeht; die also in jeder Beziehung, ökonomisch, sittlich, geistig, noch behaftet ist mit den Muttermalen der alten Gesellschaft, aus deren Schoß sie herkommt").
Page 24 - The natural price of labour, therefore, depends on the price of the food necessaries, and conveniences required for the support of the labourer and his family.
Page 181 - The doctrine that the earnings of a worker tend to be equal to the net product of his work, has by itself no real meaning; since in order to estimate net product, we have to take for granted all the expenses of production of the commodity on which he works, other than his own wages. But though this objection is valid against a claim that it contains a theory of wages; it is not valid against a claim that the doctrine throws into clear light the action of one of the causes that govern wages.
Page 175 - The friends of humanity cannot but wish that in all countries the labouring classes should have a taste for comforts and enjoyments, and that they should be stimulated by all legal means in their exertions to procure them.
Page 173 - Marshall, made the forecast that "the progress of political economy in the future will depend in great part upon the investigation of empirical laws, derived from statistics, which will then be compared with known theoretical laws, or will suggest derivation from them of new laws.
Page 72 - Putting aside for the present the faculties of artistic perception and artistic creation, we may say that what makes one occupation higher than another, what makes the workers of one town or country more efficient than those of another, is chiefly a superiority in general sagacity and energy which is not specialized to any one trade.
Page 72 - Effifimcyearnings; that is, earnings measured, not as time-earnings"* are with reference to the time spent in earning them ; and not as piece-work earnings are with reference to the amount of output resulting from the work by which they are earned ; but with reference to the exertion of ability and efficiency required of the worker.