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answered slowly, and looked at her deux Mondes, is 'troubled with no with moist eyes.

doubts as to the course which ought No, not you—it was I who loved

to be pursued. He has faith enough another, it stands; and who was that other?'

in his own opinions to remove "God bless you—it was I!' and he

mountains; and if self-confidence drew her down on his lap.

the only thing needed to ensure success, all uneasiness on

this perplexing subject might be The character of Elizabeth, the safely dismissed. He knows a sovewife, is at once lovely and life-like. reign remedy, not only for the Pure, faithful, and ardent in her serious loss and inconvenience occaaffection for her husband from first sioned by the fall of silver at the to last, she shows a noble heroism present time, but for all disorders in the patient endurance of his connected with the currency at any jealous misconstruction of her con- time in any part of the world. duct; his outburst of anger, and The only thing necessary to ensure general ill-usage both of her and exemption from such financial disthe children. She constitutes the asters is to declare by law that a redeeming feature of the work,

certain weight of gold of specified which would otherwise be wanting fineness shall be held to be equivain attraction, though worthy of all

lent in value to 15 times the same praise for its healthy tone and its weight of silver of the same finefaithful adherence to the simplicity

ness. of patnre.

“We ask for nothing more than permission for all to have three silver coins struck :

"1. In Germany the four-mark

piece, weighing a thaler and a M. Michel Chevalier et Le Bi- third ; métallisme. Par Henri Cernuschi. “2. In England the four-shilling Paris : De Guillaumin, Rue Riche- piece, containing as much fine metal lieu. 1876.—The heavy fall in the as 62 gold shillings ; value of silver-which, it is esti- "3. In the United States the silver mated, will cause loss of dollar, weighing 151 gold dollars, £2,800,000 to the Indian Govern- or 399.90 grains nine-tenths fine. ment during the current year-not “The general rehabilitation of sil. unnaturally led to the appointment ver would allow France to resume of a Committee of the House of the manufacture of her silver crowns, Commons to investigate the sub- the whole loss in the value of silver ject. Though furnished with abun

in Europe and India would immedant evidence as to the facts of the diately be recovered, equilibrium case, and presided over by so able a between the debit and credit of chairman as Mr. Goschen, the Com- nations and individuals would be mittee were unable in their report re-established, business would be to speak with any confidence as to revived, justice would be done, and the future, and refrained from sug. benefit conferred.” gesting what steps it would be What can be simpler, and what advisable to take with a view to more desirable ? If one could but remedy or alleviate the evil.

share in M. Cernuschi's firm faith M. Cernuschi, the author of the and glowing enthusiasm, how depresent brochure on an article of lightful human life would be. UnM. Chevalier's in the Revue des fortunately, the stern stepmother,

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experience, tells a very different tale, which alone its value depends; in and makes one look with suspicion other words, because law can decide on a proposal which has been care- what coins shall be struck, of what fully considered and emphatically metals, weight, and fineness they condemned by the highest autho. shall be, it can fix the relative values rities both in France and in this of the metals for ever in spite of all country.

disturbing causes. M. Cernuschi has extraordinary M. Cernuschi refers to other views as to the power of Govern. publications of his for the full ment, which he seems to think development and establishment of capable of giving any value it his views. Unless they contain pleases to gold, silver, and even more convincing arguments than paper. It has only to declare by are to be found in this work, his law that gold shall be worth 15$ confident expectation that his doctimes as much as silver, and the trines will ere long be universally two metals will preserve this ratio adopted is not likely to be fulfilled. to each other, no matter how much The whole tendency of recent the supply of each may vary. events and modern legislation is

If Government can for ever deter- towards the establishment of only mine how much silver shall be one metal as the legal tender, and given for a certain quantity of gold, that gold, not to the recognition of it can with equal certainty deter- both gold and silver, as M. Cermine how much corn, cloth, or any nuschi desires. His attempt to other article shall be given for it, counteract this tendency with such which M. Cernuschi will not find feeble efforts reminds one of Mrs. it easy to make many people be- Partington pushing back the Atlan lieve.

tic with her mop The idea of regulating prices by legislative enactment has surely been completely exploded long ago. It is marvellous that any one pro. Logical Praxis : comprising a fessing to know anything of political Summary of the Principles of Logieconomy or history should at this cal Science and Copious Exercises time of day appear to favour so for Practical Application. By H. palpable an absurdity.

N. Day. Sampson, Low, and Co. It is a strange fallacy to suppose London, 1876. The volume before that, because Government can de- us is intended to serve as a first termine weights and measures, it book for students of logic. As the can also determine prices. The title implies, it combines theory and value of a thing is simply what practice, containing an exposition buyers are willing to give for it, of principles, with rules and exand this depends upon the strength amples for exercise in the applicaof their desire to possess it, and tion of them. According to the the difficulty of obtaining it, which preface, it " is constructed on the are circumstances beyond the con- exactest principles of logical method, trol of any government.

being itself designed to exemplify An equally fallacious argument of these principles in the definitions M. Cernuschi's is founded upon the and the scientific evolution of all fact that the Greek word for money the generic laws and forms of is derived from a word meaning thought from its own nature." law, whence he infers that money This is taking higher ground than is the arbitrary creation of law, on is quite safe. The author challenges criticism on what most people will in the form of such matter. Or, feel to be the weak points of his more briefly, the concept is a deribook. It undoubtedly contains vation of a logical term from the wuch useful matter, but does not matter of a judgment or judgexcel in its arrangement or defini- ments." A definition should at any tions. Mr. Day divides logic into rate be definite and clear, which is “ two parts—the first treating of more than can be predicated of this. the elements of thought; the second As far as we can gather from its of the method of thought. The hazy language, it conveys a very elements of thought, further, are different notion of concept, from either its essential properties, in

Sir W. Hamilton's or Archbishop this use of them called laws; or Thomson's. the different kinds or forms in We object to the autbor's definiwhich thought appears.". The tion of copula also, which is stated forms of thought are stated to be thus: “The essence of the judging the judgment, the concept, and act lies in the uniting of the sub“the reasoning," the treatment of ject and the predicate, and the which occupies the first half of the recognizing of them as the same. volume. In the second half, devoted This element in a judgment is to method-or “ the conditions of called the copula. We may accordperfect thought in order to its end, ingly define the copula to be that which is truth, science, or perfect element of a judgment in which the knowledge"—these three topics are terms are identified or differenced, again discussed, which occasions or recognized as the same or differfrequent repetition of what was ent. The copula, it should be said before.

noticed, is not always expressed by We do not see the necessity or the so-called substantive verb is, is advantage of first explaining the not." process of judgment, and then in a We have always been given to subsequent part of the work dis- understand that the copula is part cussing the conditions necessary to of a proposition, or judgment exits correct performance. A similar pressed in words, and therefore remark applies to the other two consists of a word or words; but subjects. Again, in the early parts Mr. Day here speaks of it as an act of the book there are brief defini. of the mind, which, though called tions of generalization and deter- “ element in a judgment,” is, in mination, and towards the end fuller fact, the whole of it, for what else accounts of the same processes. is there in such an act than the We have noticed other instances of comparison of the subject with the repetition, for which we can predicate and recognition of their no sufficient reason. A method of agreement or difference ? arrangement which leads to such Mr. Day says, “ The copula is results is not to be commended, sometimes expressed by such words however exact may be the princi- as contains, comprehends, consists of, ples on which it is founded.

involves, and the like;" but all Mr. Day's definitions are even these words contain part of the less to be admired than his arrange- predicate as well as the copula, ment. As one instance the follow. which is usually and better coning may be quoted : “ The concept sidered to consist simply of the subis that derived form of thought stantive verb, with or without a which springs directly from the negative particle. matter of a judgment, and appears Mr. Day is not so accurate in the

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Baines. The etchings by Wilhelmina Baines. Sampson, Low, and Co. London, 1876.—This is not 80 much a work of literature as of art. The text, consisting of verses on each of the months is in or. namental (but not very legible) writing, with beadings and borders of flowers and leaves.

We regret it is not in our power to speak highly of either department of the work. The verses have little freshness or beauty, and the illustrations, though tasteful in design, are imperfect in execution. On the month of June there are the following lines :

* June! the month of Roses bright, Untold charms now greet the sight; Nook, and glade, and glowing noon, Ev'rything proclaims 'tis June."

use of language as might be de sired. He says,

· Inasmuch as thought is in its very nature discursive, discriminating in every object of knowledge in every datum to thought, subject, and attribute which it yet recognizes as one and the same, and so ever identifies, everything that can be known or thought by us must be accepted as admitting in its nature this discrimination and this identification."

It is not easy to understand how the subject and the attribute can be discriminated or distinguished from each other as different, and yet be recognized “as one and the same."

But passing over this apparent contradiction, we wish to call atten. tion to the confusion and inaccuracy of saying that thought, which is simply an act of the mind, discriminates and recognizes, i.e., performs acts of mind. Of course what Mr. Day means is that the mind itself discriminates and recognizes but that is not what he says.

Mr. Day is guilty of self-contradiction as well as loose language. In one place he says, thought, whether primitive or derivative, is necessarily true, for thought cannot contradict itself.” Elsewhere, on the contrary, we are told, “ It should be remarked, however, that the fallible mind of man is liable to thought.”

We cannot accept the novelties of principle or language which Mr. Day has introduced, still less his etymological explanations of words. His work will not bear comparison with those already extant in clearness and precision of statement, scientific and convenient arrangement, and general practical utility.

Both on this page and throughout the work the etching far surpasses the writing.

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Bluebeard's Widow and her Sister Anne; their History erolved from Mendacious Chronicles. By Sabilla Novello. With illustrations by the authoress. Ward, Lock, and Tyler. 1876.--The authoress of this book for young people having previously published "The History of Bluebeard's Wives,” here continues her efforts to amuse that class of readers. She writes in so sprightly and charming a strain, that there can be little doubt this object will be effectually accomplished. The interest is well sustained throughout, and the pages are rendered the more piquant by the pleasantry with which they are interspersed. Some of the jokes, however, are rather above the comprehension of little folks. Many of them consist of ab. surd blunders in the use of words, such as are ascribed to Mrs. Mala

Poems of the Months. By M. A.

a

prop. Unfortunately the words "3. The World of Mind. are often far beyond the range of “ 4. The Social World. a child's knowledge, so that very 5. Things arbitrarily distinmuch of the fun must be missed.

guished, constructed or Except in these instances, the lan

produced. guage is so simple and racy as to “6. Persons." be easily understood and highly It is evident that his divisions are enjoyed. The illustrations are not mutually exclusive, and the tolerably good as the work of an same thing might belong to several amateur, but show an insufficient classes. This fault vitiates all his training in figure drawing. It is subordinate classification, and runs highly desirable that children's through the whole book, leading to story books, if illustrated at all, utter confusion. should contain none but correct drawings. From the earliest years the eye should be accustomed to truthful delineation of natural forms.

The Errors of Homeopathy. By Dr. Barr Meadows. London: G.

Hill, 1876. — This is the third A Classified English Vocabulary. edition of a little work designed to Being an attempt to faciliate a know- expose the fallacies of the Homeoledge of words and their mean- pathic systein. That the principles, ings by an arrangement of ideas or more correctly speaking the sup according to their scientific connec- positions, on which that system is tions. London: Provost and Co. based should ever have seriously 1976.-We are at a loss to discover engaged the attention-let alone in what way this book is intended received the approbation-of men to be used, or what practical advan- of intelligence and education, only tage can be gained from its use. serves to illustrate to what extremes Bare lists of words, arranged under human credulity and delirium can be certain headings, are neither in- carried, when men of active minds teresting nor instructive reading. allow imagination and not reason Nor are they suitable for learning to guide and control their invesby heart, except as spelling lessons, tigations. In such cases ridicufor which they are not intended or lous and fanciful hypotheses take adapted. They have been drawn up, the place of scientific truth, and we are told, “ to facilitate a know. reason is altogether lost sight of. ledge of words and their meanings." Like almost any kind of human Yet, strange to say, not a single folly, however, the absurdities of word has a meaning attached to it. homeopathy have been the inThe object of the author seems to direct cause of good. The persisbe to form habits of comparing and tency with which these absurdities classifying, but unfortunately he have been proclaimed, and their himself has no idea of logical divi. adoption and advocacy by some sion and arrangement. He arranges medical men, have promoted scienhis materials under the following tific inquiry for the purposes of heads.

refutation, and such inguiry can “1. Existences in General ; their never be searchingly conducted in

forms, and conditions of a proper spirit without advantage manifestations.

to the cause of trutb. “ 2. The Material World.

In one respect particularly 80

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