« PreviousContinue »
watch for any elephant that might per- camp that night, all of us disappointed chance be about. We had thus waited and crestfallen.” for about an hour when Barrakee leaped up and said he saw two elephants in the distance, so we got our The Abyssinians, Lord Mayo inguns and went off to stalk them. The
are the only black race elephants were walking towards the of Christians existing;” but, as south, following the main body of the regards the purity and rationality herd which had passed very early in
of their religious belief, we fear a the morning. Our object was to cut
favourable opinion cannot be enterthem off on their way, and Barrakee led us sometimes over the low hills,
tained. They are represented as
"great bigots, and the whole and sometimes round the sides of them, and we gradually approached country is very much at the prenearer the two elephants, who were sent time under the influence of moving along swinging their trunks the priests. The King himself is about, and sometimes stopping to pick very particular about his religious off a bit of a shrub which looked more
observances, and priests and monasdainty than the rest. At last there
teries are very often richly enwas only one little hill for us to go
dowed.” The version in vogue over, and to cross it would bring us right across the path of the two ele- among them concerning the “ Fall phants.
of Man" runs thus:were creeping along very quictly when, as we came to a few rocks, where, in the rainy season, a
· Adam and Eve, who lived in a torrent evidently poured down, Bar
beautiful garden, were happy and conrakee stopped suddenly and said, tented, till one day the serpent came * Ambasa!' which is Amharic for lion.
and said to Eve, Where is Adam ?' I snatched hold of my express, rushed
She answered, “He is in another part up and saw a fine male lion moving
of the garden. So the serpent sneerslowly away among the rocks. At the
ingly said, Oh, indeed, do you think moment I was going to fire, H. came
so ?' Eve rejoined, ' For what reason up and fired his heavy rifle close
do you sneer?' The serpent replied, behind me; both barrels went off at
“You think yourself the only woman in once, and I thought at first I was shot,
the world?' and she said, 'Yes, and a as nine drams of powder is rather a
most beautiful woman.' The serpent large charge to be let off close to one's
then said, Adam often stays away I missed the lion; so did H. I
from you, does he not, now? I will loaded again and ran after him and
show you another woman;' on which fired, and missed. The elephants, ,
he produced a looking-glass. Eve saw which were not more than forty and
her image reflected in it and immeditifty yards off, went off in another
ately became jealous. The serpent then direction, and the lion, passing through
said, “If you wish to secure Adam's some trees, ‘put up' a herd of large
love for ever and ever, you must eat deer, which went also in a different
of the fruit which I will point out to direction. It was a sight grand enough,
you.' but we had made a terrible mess of “ So came about the fall of man, acthe whole thing: we ought not to have
cording to Abyssinians. This is quite fired at the lion, and, as the servant consistent with Abyssinian character and said, 'If you had killed the elephants, ideas, as probably no people are more plenty of lions would have come to pick
vain or conceited than they : jealousy in the bones. I may tell my readers that all things is one of their chief failings." the lions in Abyssinia are not like the familiar picture that is everywhere to be seen of animals with enormous
Though this volume only pro
fesses to contain the notes of a manes, as the species in this country have no mane at all. We then walked sporting tour, still there is interback to the hill wliereon we were to spersed throughout a good deal of
instructing information concerning mind in a healthy state requires no the habits and customs of the stimulus from without to exertion. people, as well as about the country Its desire for knowledge and truth and its resources. It will be found needs only guidance and control. a very agreeable companion for a It may want the bit, but never the leisure hour, and, as such, we can spur. recommend it.
Mr. Pattison here writes more like a theorist than a practised teacher. He goes so far as to maintain that “nothing is truly
known which is learnt for a Essays on the Endowment of purpose. Science which is not Research. By various Writers. H. disinterested ceases to be science.” S. King & Co.-It might naturally in that case, we fear there is
— be expected that a volume of essays
not much science among us, or by Oxford Fellows on University ever likely to be. The number matters would contain much that is
of those who have at
once the worthy of attention at the present
power and the will to scale the time, and the expectation is amply heights of science and dive into fulfilled in the present case.
But the depths of learning-to “scorn the writers travel over a wider delights and live laborious days” in range of topics than the title of the the pursuit of knowledge for its book implies, treating rather of own sake--must always be very university management in general small. It is not every one who is than simply the endowment of gifted with Mr. Pattison's apperesearch.
tite for reading and power of diMr. Pattison, who was the first gesting what he reads. The to preach years ago the doctrine Jesuits, who, he tells us, first inthat the universities should be not troduced the prize system, evinced merely teaching and examining a true knowledge of human nature institutions, but also seats of learn- as it is, if not as it ought to be. ing, commences the volume with Undoubtedly it would be better an interesting “Review of the if knowledge were sought simply Situation,” in which he sketches on its own account; but it is of the past history and present
little use to indulge in Utopian position of the universities in re- dreams and aspirations as to what lation to the legislature and the might be done if men were what country.
they ought to be. We must take As to what future changes should them and deal with them as they be made, he is rather sparing of In this practical country and remark, partly, perhaps, because he material age education would be at has treated that subject at length a much lower ebb if it were not in a former work, and partly be- fostered by rewards and bounties cause he does not feel called upon in some shape or other; though to commit himself to specific de- Mr. Pattison says the absence of tails just now.
He does, however, external stimulus to study is "the unhesitatingly condemn the system only true foundation on which a of holding out prizes in the shape university can be placed," and deof fellowships, scholarships, and ex- nounces“ idle fellowships" as "the hibitions as inducements to the prizes by which we attract numbers pursuit of learning and science. who have no vocation for either He holds that a youthful intelligent science or letters to pretend to study
science and classics till they are plead not only expediency, but the twenty-two." He does not openly original intention of founders of advocate their abolition; nor will colleges and long usage. There they be converted to professor- can be no doubt that the chief ships or appropriated to the en- purpose for which colleges were dowment of research without strong founded, and endowments instiopposition and careful deliberation. tuted, was that the fellows and Mr. Cotton rightly observes :
scholars might be enabled to devote
their whole life to study; and for ""Sinecure fellows and college many years this purpose was faithtutors may be both alike historical
fully fulfilled. Consequently, those abuses and economical blunders,
who ask for the endowment of rebut they may yet have their place search are merely seeking to effect in a country which can afford to
a restoration, not a revolution-a indulge its taste for anomalies.
restoration, too, which all acknow. Higher education in England has ledge to be desirable. It would been moulded according to the
seem, therefore, that the issue candemands of the academical curri.
not be doubtful. culum, and has been stimulated
But in addition to the opposition into its present efficiency by the
which will certainly be made to the hopes engendered by university abolition of the “ idle fellowships,” premiums. Much yet needs to be
there is the difficulty of devising done before its condition can be
any feasible scheme for endowing regarded with entire satisfaction.
research likely to meet with general It would be mischievous to with
acceptance, and work well. Mr. draw the stimulus at a time when
Pattison, who has pondered the the minor endowed schools are still
subject perhaps longer and more struggling in the pangs of a second
carefully than any one else, shrinks birth, or before the claims of phy
from proposing any definite plan. sical science have won adequate re- "What," he says, "precisely this cognition.”
higher function which we now deAs to the desirableness of some mand of a university is, and how permanent provision for the encour- a university is to be organized agement of original research in
for its performance, are matters on science and literature, there cannot which even the most advanced be two opinions, though it is not thinkers may well at present not very easy to see the essential dif
see their way.” ference, so far as the worker is The other writers who touch upon concerned, between giving money the subject show similar caution. for intellectual work already done, The late Professor Covington, how. and paying beforehand for work to ever, in his evidence to the Com. be done hereafter. Of course the mission of 1852, which is here rework of the discoverer in science printed in an appendix, entered and the original investigator in with some hesitation into more literature is of a higher character, explicit detail; and the appendix though of less marketable value, containing his remarks, together than that of the mere learner ; still, with that consisting of an extract in both cases pecuniary resources from Professor Max Müller's “ Chips are necessary, and may surely be from a German Workshop,” forms sought and accepted without de- a more important contribution to stroying the value of the work done. the practical discussion of the
The advocates of endowments for proper subject of the volume than the encouragement of research may can be found elsewhere in it. He
proposed that two-thirds of the partially employed in tuition or fellowship revenues should continue required to give his whole time to to be employed as prizes for the study. Mr. Sorby, guided by his encouragement of education, the own fortunate experience, is strongly remaining third being devoted to of opinion that the endowment the foundation of pensions, tenable ought to be ample enough to preby resident students willing to de- clude the necessity of any other vote themselves to the prosecution occupation, and completely free the of some special branch of study in mind from all disturbing cares. literature or science, and found But that discovery can be combined competent, by examination, to do with professorial duties is abunso with advantage.
dantly proved by the case of Fara.
day, not to mention living pro. “It would be necessary, too, that fessors, both in this country and in they should be subjected periodically, Germany, who have contributed to at least during the earlier part of their
the advance of science. It is plain literary career, to some kind of additional examination in order to ascer
that the problem to be solved is by tain the use which they might be
no means easy of solution. making of their opportunities, facili
We have no room to touch upon ties being provided for the removal of the various other university matters such as should be judged unworthy of discussed in this volume, and must their position. Probably something in content ourselves with observing the shape of a yearly dissertation that it merits the attention of all would be the least objectionable duty who are interested in the advance. to impose, nor would there be any
ment of learning and science among reason why such occasional publications should not assist rather than hinder the course of study."
It may be questioned whether many so highly gifted as to be On Fermentation. By P. Schütqualified, for making important zenberger. With twenty-eight illusadditions to existing knowledge in trations. H. S. King and Co.literature or science would be The value of scientific knowledge is willing to submit to such condi- now generally admitted. Natural tions. The idea of subjecting them science forms an essential part of to examination seems impractic- the regular course of education in able ; for they are supposed to be our universities and public schools; studying in advance of all others and special scholarships, exbibiin their special department. And tions, and prizes are offered as init appears absurdly unreasonable ducements to pursue this study. to call upon a man to make some As a necessary consequence, there scientific discovery, or produce is a demand for text-books adapted some new manuscript, inscription, to the present advanced state of reading, or interpretation, some knowledge, and giving information fresh edition of an ancient author, with regard to the latest discoveries. some fresh light from the com- This demand is intended to be supparison of languages every year, on plied by “ The International Scienpain of losing his pension. Then, tific Series,” of which this is the again, it is a question whether the twentieth volume. It is a great reencouragement of research should commendation of the series, that it be in the form of a permanent is not composed exclusively of the pension or a temporary grant, and works of English authors, or those whether the investigator should be of any single nation. The area of
It breathes, transforms and modifies its proximate principles in a continuous manner, and certainly in the same way as other cells ; like these, it can be multiplied by buds and spores. The only important and decidedly distinctive character which seems to render it a form of life absolutely apart from other forms in creation, was removed from it by M. Lechartier and M. Bellamy, when these chemists succeeded in establishing that the cells of fruits, seeds, and leaves, and even animal cells, are capable of changing sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide."
choice being thus extended, greater excellence may be reasonably anticipated; when, as sometimes happens, foreign philosophers have made a particular branch of science their special study, it is desirable to receive an account of their researches and discoveries directly from them, and those who cannot read their language should at least have as much assistance as can be afforded them by means of translations. This is what is offered in the volume before us, which reads more like an original work than a translation.
M. Schützenberger's high official position as Director of the Chemical Laboratary at the Sorbonne,in Paris, is in itself an ample guarantee that he is not only thoroughly master of the difficult subjects he has undertaken to expound, but well skilled in the art of communicating the knowledge he has acquired. The student will here find as explicit and complete an account of fermentation, both direct and indirect, as he can desire.
M. Schützenberger follows Pasteur and others in describing fermentation as the vegetation of a species of fungus, to which, with Rees, he gives the name of Saccharomyces cerevisia, and which he speaks of as not merely living, but breathing
It is only within a comparatively few years that this doctrine has been generally received, if it is even now. Liebig attributed fermentation to molecular motion communi. cated by a decomposing body to other matter in contact with it, “Yeast,” he said, “and in general all animal and vegetable matters in a state of putrefaction, will commu. nicate to other bodies the condition of decomposition in which they are themselves placed ; the motion which is given to their own elements by the disturbance of equilibrium, is also communicated to the elements of the bodies which come into contact with them." As late as 1870 he published a treatise in which he endeavoured to show that Pasteur's experiments were not conclusive. That the action of yeast on blood closely resembles, if it is not identical with, that of ani. mal respiration, seems scarcely disputable from what follows:
The behaviour of the yeast with reference to blood may be explained in the following manner : The cells of Saccharomyces diffused in the liquid breathe at the expense of the oxygen physically dissolved in the plasm or serum in the midst of which swim the red globules of blood. In proportion as the plasmic liquid grows less rich in oxygen, a portion of this body, feebly combined with hæmaglobin, is separated, and enters into physical dissolution, by a dissociation comparable to that presented by potassium bicarbon
“ Yeast is a living organism belonging to the family of fungi, genus Saccharomyces, destitute of mycelium, capable of reproduction, like all the elementary fungi, by buds and spores ; its composition, as we have just seen, singularly resembles that of other vegetable tissues, and especially of the plants of the same family. The examination of its biological functions, studied more particularly in their chemical aspect, shows us clearly that this elementary form of life does not differ in essentials from other elementary cells, unprovided with chlorophyll, whether isolated or in groups, and belonging to the more complex organs.