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two miles an hour. We may hence calculate the effect | ploy, is an element that may be entirely neglected, would | or fly-wheel, to limit or equalize the motion, the pheno produced by any greater amount of power :

then become the principal retarding force. We need 30,000lb. are moved at 2 miles an hour by a power of 100lb. scarcely add, that the question of time or velocity, rightly analagous to those supposed by the hypothesis of the Scotch

menon may be put to the test, under circumstances very at 4 miles by

2001b. considered, involves every thing connected with the mer. theorist. A small wheel carriage may easily be constructat 6 miles by

300lb. cantile advantage of different modes of communication. at 8 miles

400lb. We have here considered the subject in a purely theore- ed, to be impelled forwards by clock-work. Such a carat 12 miles by 600lb. tical light, leaving it to the engineer to find the means of riage may be made to revolve in a small circle; and, Or conversely:

giving effect to the truths we have stated. We shall enter indeed, we have seen a model of the kind in operation. A power of 100 pounds moves 30,000lb. at 2 miles per hour. into various details in a future paper, and touch upon some Now, if this machine were placed under the receiver of as

or 15,000lb. at 4
or 10,000lb. at 6

it right to say, that the conclusions we have announced perfect an air-pump as can be constructed, and put into or 7,500lb. at 8

are strictly conformable to experiments carefully made by motion; if the theory under investigation be correct, a or 5,000lb. at 12

Vince and Coulomb,—but as there are anomalies in the visible acceleration in speed ought to take place. But Hence we see that, though a moving force of one hun doctrines regarding friction, and as the velocities employed we will wager a few pounds with our brother editor, that a canal as upon a railway at two miles an hour, this su- that are likely to occur in railway communications, we do no such result will occur; and if we win, we will expend velocity at six miles an hour, and at all greater velocities principles laid down as applicable to every possible ve. Library." periority of the water conveyance is lost, if we adopt a not take upon us to guarantee the literal accuracy of the the amount in books for our Apprentices and Mechanics' the same expenditure of power will produce a greater ef- locity. We certainly believe that the conclusions founded We cannot divest ourselves of the persuasion that bodies, fect upon a railway, than upon a canal, a river, or the sea. upon in our calculations, will hold true at all the veloci, moving

on an horizontal plane, even if there were no opfriction increases in the simple ratio of the velocity, Such the most profound mechanicians, Leslie, Playfair, Young, position from the atmosphere, do not follow the law of was the opinion of Ferguson, Mushenbroch, and some &c., but we thought it right to mention a circumstance bodies falling perpendicularly to the earth. Other writers; but the more recent and accurate experi- which some may consider as materially affecting their uni- A body falling, or gravitating to the earth, moves ments of Coulomb and Vince have overthrown this doc-versal application.

quicker as it approaches it :--the earth being the source of trine, and established conclusions extremely different, of which the following is an abstract:

attraction, acts more powerfully upon the body attracted 1. The friction of iron sliding on iron is 28 per cent. of


the nearer it approximates it. the weight, but is reduced to 25 per cent. after the body RAIL ROADS AND NEW MECHANICAL PARADOX.

If a magnet (and such the centre of the earth may be is in motion.

2. Friction increases in a ratio nearly the same with | -- In a late number of the Scotsman, an article appeared regarded, by way of illustration) be held at a distanco that of the pressure. If we increase the load of a sledge on the subject of rail-ways, which is of so extraordinary a from a steel ball, it will attract it in a ratio increasing as or carriage four times, the friction will be nearly, but not nature, that we shall appropriate the whole of it in the the squares of the distance decrease ;-the magnet being quite, four times greater.

scientific department of the Kaleidoscope, in the hope that the source of attraction, the ball must necessarily accele3. Friction is nearly the same whether the body moves some of our readers may be induced to investigate certain rate in speed, until the two bodies come into contact. But upon a small or a greater surface; but it is rather less when paradoxical positions therein laid down, which we suspect it appears to us that a locomotive machine, moving on a the surface is small.

(6) It is with this last law only that we have to do at pre- to be erroneous. The phenomenon, to which we especially plain, even if the air were annihilated, is altogether under sent; and it is remarkable that the extraordinary results, to allude, and which merits the appellation of the second different circumstances. There is no goal before it, to hich it leads, have been, so far as we know, entirely over. “ Mechanical Paradox,” we shall here notice in the words which it is drawn by attraction or gravitation. There looked by writers on roads and railways. These results, in. of the Northern journalist ; to which we shall subjoin a is simply a machine of a limited power; and until we

deed, have an appearance so paradoxical, that they will shock tew remarks of our own, suggested by a cursory reading can believe that indefinite and similar effects can result lo che faith of practical men, though the principle from which they flow is admitted without question by all scientific

The principal part of the article consists of calculations from definite and dissimilar causes, we cannot believe the mechanicians.

respecting the respective resistance of bodies moving on proposition, that the velocity of a locomotive machine, (6) First, It follows from this law that, abstracting the ordinary roads, in a fluid, and on rail-roads.

under the presumed circumstances, would increase “ beresistance of the air, if a car were set in motion on a level railway, with a constant force greater in any degree than the opinions of eminent mathematicians, are stated, one On the subject of friction, certain results, deduced from yond any assignable limit.”

• As we have always professed ourselves inimical to gamwith a motion continually accelerated, like a falling body of which (4) is, that "the friction of rolling and sliding bling in any shape, our only excuse, on the present

occasion, scted upon by the force of gravitation; and however smaií bodies follows nearly, but not precisely, the same law as must be the purpose to which we should apply the winnings, the original velocity might be, it would in time increase to velocity; and that law is, that the friction is the same if they should happen to fall to our share. beyond any assignable limit. It is only the resistance of for all velocities.” the air, increasing as the square of the velocity, that presents this indefinite acceleration, and ultimately renders [Here follow the three paragraphs to which we have

Miscellanies. the motion uniform.

affixed the letters (a) (b) (c).] (C) Secondly, Setting aside, again, the resistance of the air The Mercury, in reference to these three paragraphs, the effects of which we shall estimate by and by) the very then proceeds as follows :

Two of our living poets were conversing on the actors ame amount of constant force which impels a car on a ailway at treo miles an hour, would impel il at ten or

Well might the writer in the Scotsman assert, that these Your admiration of Mrs. Siddons is so high," said Renty miles an hour, if an extra force were employed facts (if such they be) will shock the faith of practical her." ' To that magnificent and appalling creature! I

first to overcome the inertia of the car, and generate men. He might have added, and of theoretical men also. should have as soon thought of making love to the Archa le required velocity. Startling as this proposition may For our own parts, while we avow our own disbeliet of the bishop of Canterbury.ppear, it is an indisputable and necessary consequence theory, we do it with all the diffidence befitting persons The Prices.--Four gentlemen of the name of Price, all

the laws of friction. In fact, assuming that the sistance of the air were withdrawn, if we suppose a

whose knowledge of such subjects has been superseded by of very different dimensions, are members of a literary orizontal railway made round the globe, and the mach other and more urgent speculations ; and if we are mis-society, and are thus distinguished by the other meinbers': sine (supplied with a power exactly equivalent to the taken in the view we take of the matter, our consolation Price, the fat one, Full Price, and the thin one Half ietion) to be placed on the railway, and launched by must be, that we err in common with many others with Price. impulse with any determinate velocity, it would revolve whom we have conversed on the subject, who all view it or ever with the velocity so imparted, and be in truth a in the light in which it presented itself to us at first sight. After he had suffered amputation with the greatest courage,

Latour Maubourg lost his leg at the battle of Leipsic. ort of secondary planet to our globe.

Now, it would be at all times easy (as we shall afterwards If we understand aright the position which we venture he saw his servant crying, or pretending to cry, in one thos) to convert this accelerated motion into a uniform to question, it is, that a locomotive machine, set in motion corner of the room. * None of your hypocritical tears, nation of any determinate velocity; and from the nature on a level railway, with a constant force greater in any glad, for now you will have only one boot to clean insteart

you idle dog," said his master; " you know you are very f the resistance, a high velocity would cost almost as degree than is required to overcome the friction, would ittle, and may be as easily obtained as a low one.

of two." 1 velocities, therefore, above four or five miles an hour, proceed with a motion continually accelerated, like a fall.

At the theatre one evening, whilst Munden and Fawcett ailways will afford facilities for communication prodi ing body acted upon by the force of gravitation, and how. were dressing, the latter observing the former screwing up iously superior to canals or arms of the sea. Indeed, ever small the original velocity might be, would in time his face before a looking-glass, asked him " if he had here is scarcely any limit to the rapidity of movement increase “ beyond any assignable limit," provided the bottled his eyes ?" "Yes," returned Munden, "and I am hese iron pathways will enable us to command; and we annot give a better idea of the astonishing power they put pressure of the air did not act as a check to limit and now going to cork my eye-brows." ato our hands, than by referring to the remark of Dr.) equalize the rate.

A gentleman who had neither voice nor skill, opce at Young, quoted in our last. What he states is strictly Now, if this phenomenon should happen, were the ato tempting to sing in company, when he had come to a con. cities and powers of traction we now commonly em- would be observable in a less degree under ordinary cir- plain, explain.”—“ Why,” rejoined the wit," a devilish Tue, that the resistance of the air, which, with the velo-mosphere abstracted, it seems natural to conclude, that it clusion, Bannister said, "Your song, sir, is like the

cumstances; in which case, so singular a fact could scarcely good thing when it is over.” Leslie's Elements, p. 188, &c.; Playfair's Outlines, I. 88, &c. Journal de Physique, 1785; Philosophical Transactiouss, have escaped the observation of practical men, who have

During the riots in 1780, a magistrate being asked why 1785. Dr. Brewster has given the results of Coulomb's ex- for years witnessed the operation of locomotive machines. he had not called upon the posse comitatus, replied, "thas periments in a tabular form, in the article Mechanics, in his Erexopedaia

If, however, the atmosphere act as a kind of regulator he would have done so, bui knew not his address."

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The weary is at peace! her mortal woes

At length are ended; and she sleeps the sleep Where the long-suffering from their ills repose,

Where care finds rest and mourners cease to weep;
And shall we thoughtlessly lament the close

Of her sad pilgrimage? or vainly steep
In fruitless tears the welcome grace that Heaven
In mercy to her griefs has early given.
Oh! rather weep we o'er her agony

When for the stranger's land her parting sail
Swell'd with unwelcome winds; and her dim eye

Grew to the fading shore from which that gale Bore her for ever; then the bitterest sigh

Broke from her heart; and her pale cheek, more pale
Became, as in the wildness of despair
She thought of him who rov'd an outlaw there.
Uncertain of his fate, from day to day,

In all the tortures of suspense, how past
Her lonely hours ? how did she chide their stay,

Then, trembling, think the moments filed too fast,
Deeming in terror as they roll'd away,

Each, as it glided on, might be the last
On earth allowed him, and e'en then might gloom
O'er his dark scaffold, or his bloody tomb.
Weep for her feelings in that dreadful hour

When the dire tidings reach'd her to that strife
The pangs of death are light, and have no power :

Oh! mourn the anguish of the widowed wife,
Sinking beneath the blow, like some crushed flower,

Whose leaves the north wind withers; so her life
Faded with silent grief to slow decay,
Dissolving like pale snow in tears away.
Far from her own fair land and southern skies

The earthly relics of the wanderer rest;
Nor recks it now to her that her cold eyes

Were clos'd by strangers ; for the spirit drest
In angel splendours, freed from sorrow, flies

To seek the eternal mansions of the blest;
There in unclouded joy to meet again
Him whom on earth she lov'd and mourn'd in vain.
Reydon, near Southwold.

A. S.

The Belfast News Letter published the following Porn said to be from the pen of the Author of the Ode on & John Moore :

If I had thought thou couldst have died,

I might not weep for thee;
But I forgot, when by thy side,

That thou couldst mortal be;
It never through my mind had pass'd,

That time would e'er be o'er,
When I on thee should look my last,

And thou should'st smile no more.
And still upon that face I look,

And think 'twill smile again ;
And still the thought I will not brook,

That I must look in vain ;
But when I speak thou dost not say

What thou ne'er left'st unsaid;
And now, I feel—as well I may,

Sweet Mary, thou art dead.
If thou would'st stay, ev'n as thou art,

All cold and all serene,
1 still might press thy silent heart,

And where thy smile has been ;
While ev'n thy chill bleak corse I have,

Thou seemest still mine own,
But there, I lay thee in the grave,

And now-I am alone.
I do not think, where'er thou art,

Thou hast forgotten me;
And I perhaps may soothe this heart

In thinking still of thee!
Yet there was round thee such a dawn

Of light ne'er seen before,
As Fancy never could have drawn,

And never can restore.



Fare, fare thee well, thou dying Year!

Thy parting knell is rung,
And the tear-drop glistens on thy bier,

With cypress boughs o'erhung.
Thy birth with smiles was ushered in,

And feast, and festal rout;
And merry bells, with joyous din,

From spire and tow'r rung out.
And mirth and music blest the hour,

And many a legend wild
Bade grief resign her wonted power,

While love exulting smil'd.
And meeting hands, and sparkling eyes,

Made glad thy natal day;
And withering care, and mourning sighs,

Were banished far away!
Now at thy close, how changed the scene !

The festal rout is o'er,
And the merry bells, with joyous din,

Peal forth, alas, no more!
And the lov'd and lover both are gone,

And the mourner weeps alone;
And the green grass waves o'er many a one,

That joyous, hailed thy dawn! And the hoary head by youth is laid,

And the smiling babe at rest, Sleeps the last sleep, ere woe might fade,

Or rend its sinless breast ! And blessed they thus early ta'en,

The infant cherub blest, Betime snatched from a life of pain,

And borne to endless rest!
Yet still will pitying Nature weep

Beside the daisied sod;
But blest, thrice blest are they who sleep

In the bosom of their God!
Thou dying Year! thy sunny days,

But few and brief have been;
And Memory turns her tearful gaze,

On many a fitful scene!
And blighted hopes, and broken faith,

A sad and dismal train;
All, all that fate inflicts in wrath,

Revive to wound again!
And, oh! amid remembrance drear,

Scarce blooms one little flower;--
One brightening ray the heart to cheer

In retrospection's hour!
Thou dying Year, now past away,

With time before the flood !
Thy mourning rites, and festal gay,

Thy evil, and thy good!
Thou dying year, my farewell take!

'T may be, perchance, my last; And stranger hands the lyre may wake,

That consecrates the past. And if decreed the coming year,

Death's messenger must be; I will not shed one coward tear,

To die is to be free! Liverpool.

Que te sert de chercher les tempêtes de Mars,
Pour mourir tout en vie au milieu des harsardi,

Ou la gloire te mene?
Cette mort qui promet un si digne loyer,
N'est toujours que la mort qu'avec moins de peine

L'on trouve en son foyer.
Que sert à ces héros ce pompeux appareil
Dont ils vont dans la lice eblouir le soleil

Dęs tresors du Poctole?
La gloire qui les suit après tant de travaux
Se passe en moins de temps que la poudre qui vole

Du pied de leurs chevaux. + Perhaps some of our correspondents would favour wel translation of these clever lines.

TO T. L.

FOR THE YEARS 1824 of 1825.

Farewell, farewell; to a distant land

The waves of the ocean shall bear thee, And far away to a foreign strand,

From all that's dear shall tear thee. We've tasted together the cup of joy,

And drank deep the wormwood of sorrow; And we've learnt that the world's a glittering toy,

That dazzles—to fade on the morrow. Thy course is bound to a distant cllme,

Where no loved form is near thee; Where heavily flag the moments of time,

With no voice of affection to cheer thee. When sinking beneath that sultry sun,

No such lov'd form shall caress thee;
And then should thy youtful race be run,

No parent's voice will bless thee.
Time has not furrow'd our youthful brows,

But fast the moments are fleeting:
And Age may scatter his envious snows,

Ere our hands shall join in meeting.
Tho' the voice of thy destiny calls us to part,

Nought can chill the warm tide of affection,
And till life shall depart, in the depth of my heart,

Thou shalt dwell in each fond recollection. December 16, 1824.


GAZETTE; a Magazine entirely appropriated to ing

Subjects, published on the 1st of every Month, prie The Proprietors, on the approach of a new year, essa leave to call the public attention to the increasing cele of this popular Work, the forthcoming Number of which be published on the 1st of January) will begin a ner Faus

: and be embellished with Two capital Engravings, viz. 1. A fiue Plate of the Alpine Mastiff, by Landseer.

2. A beautiful Plate of Snipe Shooting, from a Draviti Fielding.

The general plan of this work is so well known to Sporting World, that it is only necessary for the to state that it will continue to be conducted on its presca liberal scale with respect to paper, print, and illustrator and that no pains or expense win be spared to render every way worthy of the public attention. The sixth lume, which is just completed, contaifis a variety of Orig. La Communications, from different parts of the Kingdom, a Hunting, Cocking,




Single Stick,

Sailing. Accompanied with the Racing Calendar, &c. The World complete, for the year 1824, forms Two Volumes, Price 1, each, handsomely half-bound.

The Embellishments to these Volumes comprise a fine et graved Porcrait, by Landseer, of a Cross between the [** and Fox, from a subject in the possession of Lord Cranty Five Fox-hounds, Portraits, of the Hattield Hunt; a beauti Engraving of Jerry, the

Winner of the Doncaster St. Lam from a Painting by Herring: a Perspective Elevation of Grand Stand at Doncaster; Plans and Surveys of Doncaster and other principal Race Courses; Portraits of the ATEL Fox, Scotch Terrier, &c.

London : Printed for Sherwood, Jones, and Co. Paternis ter-row,


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"That those who stand up after the country dance is alled, do take their place at the bottom, unless rank enitles them to precedence."

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ONDON NORTHERN RAIL-ROAD COMPANY, to connect BIRMINGHAM, DERBY, NOTINGHAM, HULL, and MANCHESTER with each other, ith the Parts adjacent, and with the METROPOLIS.




This day is published, by Hurst, Robinson, and Co. 90,
Cheaps'de, and 8, Pall Mall, London, and A. Constable and
Co. Edinburgh, handsomely boarded, with engraved orna-
mental Covers, and Gilt Leaves, price Twelve Shillings,


The following rules have been handed to us by a corspondent, who states that they are observed at the Lower THE LITERARY SOUVENIR, or CABINET of ssembly Bath. **That after a lady has called a dance, it being finished, place in the next dance is at the bottom. "It is deemed a point of good breeding, for ladies that ve gone down the dance, to continue in their places till he rest have done the same.

ames Evan Baillie, Esq. rands Baring, Esq.

don Evelyn, Esq. M.P. dard Ellice, Esq. M.P.



John Irving, Esq. M.P.
George W. Norman, Esq.
Frederick Pigon, Esq.
Thomas Richardson, Esq.
James Waire, Esq.

Robert Farquhar, Bart. harles David Gordon, Esq.



chard Hart Davis, Esq. M.P. Joseph Fry, Esq. on M'Gillivray, Esq. Edward Goldsmid, Esq. Mers. Smith, Payne, and Smiths, Mansion House-street; Junes Esdaile, Hammet, Grenfell, and Scott, Lombardta MSZTING held at the London Tavern on the 13th instant, Present, WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Esq. M.P. in the Chair, and many other Gentlemen, it was resolved


That a communication, by Rail-way, connecting London it Manchester and Birmingham, and also Hull with Manhester and London, would be an object of great public tility. That a Company be formed, with a capital consisting of Two Millions Five Hundred Thousand Pounds, for that These Resolutions having passed, the Meeting then adored to Monday, the 20th instant, when the abovenamed tlemen were appointed as the London Direction, and the lowing Resolution was passed unanimously:


That the Directors now appointed have power to select even Directors to be added to their number, from the disrict through which the proposed Rail-road will pass." The capital of £2,500,000 is to be divided into 25,000 es, of £100 each, of which a liberal proportion will be ved for those persons resident in the neighbourhood of

ne of the proposed Rail-road.
plications for Shares may be made previously to the 1st
NTARY, by letter, post paid, addressed to the Chairman,
left at the Old London Tavern, Bishopsgate-street.
(Signed) GEORGE HIBBERT, Chairman.

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Blackwood's Magazine.

This is, without exception, the most elegant and attractive little work we have seen issue from the press. The embellishments are really beautiful; but, beautiful as they are, they are only a secondary consideration. The literary department of the work is such as must secure it popularity.

Courier, Nov. 27.
A few Copies of the Work are printed in Post 8vo, with
Proofs of the Plates, on India Paper, price £1 48.
William Williams, Esq. M.P. MR. LEWIS (from the Royal Academy, London)

+ f

Political Economy.


EDITED BY ALARIC A. WATTS. Independently of a great Variety of splendid Illustrations, designed by Fielding, Brockedon, Nash, Corbould, and other eminent Artists, and engraved (all in the Line Manner, in This Volume contains about Seventy ORIGINAL Articles the most finished Style of the Art) by Heath, Finden, &c. &c. (Prose Tales and Poems) from the Pens of Sir Walter Scott,

Campbell, Montgomery, Mrs. Hemans, Maturin, Alaric A. Watts. Bowles, Hogg, Cunningham, L. E. L. Authoress of "The Improvisatrice," Croly, Wrangham, the author of "May you like it," Colton, Wiffen, Opie, Delta (of Blackwood's Magasine) the Rev. Thomas Dale, and many other Writers of equal Celebrity.

The Literary Souvenir is a very graceful and agreeable book, It will be unnecessary for me to enter into any lengthboth inside and outside, and does infinite credit both to ened discussion on the advantages derived from the home the Editor and Publishers. Some of our friends-Croly, trade.-Its advantages are, indeed, too obvious and striking Delta, and Davie Lyndsay, contribute some capital require to be pointed out. Each province or district of an extensive country has some particular mineral, vegetable, or animal production, or some peculiarity of soil or climate, which fits it for being appropriated in preference to certain species of industry. A district which abounds in coal, which has an easy access to the ocean, and the command of an extensive internal navigation, is the natural seat of manufactures. Wheat, and other kinds of grain, are the proper products of rich and fertile soils; and cattle, after being bred in mountainous districts, are most ad

the real Inventor of the in low and grounds. It is Writing, under the immediate and especial patronage of his evident that the inhabitants of these different districts, by Majesty and other branches of the Royal Family, and nearly confining themselves to the particular branches of industry, every person of distinction in the United Kingdom, presents for the prosecution of which they possess some peculiar his grateful acknowledgments to the worthy inhabitants of Liverpool and its vicinity, and begs to inform them, that in natural capability, must produce an infinitely greater quan. consequence of the very great encouragement he has ex-tity of commodities than they could possibly do were they perienced, during his short residence among them, and the to apply their labour indiscriminately to every employof many persons wish to avail themselves of his instruction, he will do himself the ment; and they must thus derive the same advantages honour of prolonging his stay in Liverpool beyond the period from this variety of natural qualifications and powers of he had fixed for his departure to town. Mr. Lewis will, there- production as are derived by each separate individual from fore, continue to receive those who apply BEFORE MONDAY, THE the division of labour. 17th JANUARY, BEYOND WHICH TIME HE MUST POSITIVELY DECLINE ADMITTING ANY NEW PUPIL. His system is equally But it is easy to see that foreign commerce, or the terriapplicable to persons of all ages and capacities; and, how-torial division of labour between different and independent ever incorrectly the Pupil may write, it will infallibly era countries, must contribute to increase the wealth of each dicate all bad habits, and communicate (in SIX SHORT and EASY LESSONS) a quick and beautiful style of Writing; in precisely the same manner that the home trade contriso free, elegant, and expeditious, as no other method of butes to increase the wealth of different provinces of the teaching ever yet discovered can possibly impart, and from same kingdom. Distant countries are endowed with still is impossible for him ever Terms for the whole Course, One Guinea. greater diversities of climate and soil, and peculiarities of Numerous Specimens may be seen by applying to Mr national character and political institutions than can posLewis, at his Lecture Rooms, No. 5, Paradise-street. sibly be enjoyed by the different provinces of the same SHORT HAND in Six LESSONS, for ONE country; and, consequently, the advantages resulting from the home trade must be produced by foreign comde-merce, on a still more extensive scale. It would evidently France or Spain in England, than to make Yorkshire. cost an infinitely greater expense to raise the wines of yield the same products as Devonshire. Indeed there area

the plan made use of by the Public Reporters, with their
mode of following a speaker by contractions, hitherto kept
a secret; and their infallible method of abbreviating and
ciphering, without burthening the memory.
N.B. Pupils are detained only one hour each Lesson, and
may attend any time that suits their own convenience.

port of one of Mr. M'Culloch's interesting lectures. For The following has been politely handed to us as a reany errors of statement which may be found in the report Mr. C. is not in any degree accountable; but we are of opinion it is substantially correct.

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time that our palates are feasted with fruits that rise between the tropics.

multitude of products, and some of them of the very sible of raw and manufactured goods, that they may be ported in different ages, and naturalized in our English pr greatest utility, which cannot possibly be raised except in enabled to procure for themselves the conveniences and dens; and that they would all degenerate and fall away in to particular situations. Were it not for commercial inter- luxuries of other climates; and the merchant, finding the the trash of our own country, if they were wholly nezletad course we should not be able to obtain the smallest supply wants and demands of his customers increase, will be en- by the planter, and left to the mercy of our sun and s of tea, sugar, raw cotton, raw silk, gold bullion, and a couraged to import a larger quantity of the products of Nor has traffic more enriched our vegetable world, than thousand other equally useful and valuable commodities. foreign countries. Thus, by gratifying the vanity and am- has improved the whole face of nature among us. Our ship Providence, by giving different soils, climates, and natural bition of his customers, he cherishes that taste for foreign are laden with the harvest of every climate. Our table productions, to different countries, has evidently provided commodities which some shallow moralists have been ig-stored with spices, and oils, and wines. Our rooms are for their mutual intercourse and civilization. By permit- norant enough to condemn, but which, nevertheless, con- with pyramids of China, and adorned with the wor ting the people of each to employ their capital and labour tribute more, perhaps, than any thing else, to advance the ship of Japan. Our morning's draught comes to us i in those departments in which their geographical situation, glory and prosperity of a nation. The acquired wants of the remotest corners of the earth. We repair our bodie the physical capacities of their soil, their national character a people are much more insatiable than their physical ne- the drugs of America, and repose ourselves under Indian and habits fit them to excel, foreign commerce has a won- cessities; and the passion for foreign luxuries and conve- nopies. The vineyards of France are our gardens; the spice derful effect in multiplying the productions of art and in-niences, when once generated, is perfectly uncontrolable. islands our hot-beds; the Persians our silk-weavers, and the dustry. When the freedom of commerce is not restricted, You have, then, only to place these articles within the Chinese our potters. Nature indeed furnishes us with the each country necessarily devotes itself to such employments reach of mankind, and you will infallibly banish the apa. bare necessaries of life, but traffic gives us a great variety d as are most beneficial to each. This pursuit of individual thy and languor of savage life, and substitute in their what is useful, and at the same time supplies us with every advantage is admirably connected with the good of the stead, a spirit of activity and industry. Whatever Mr. thing that is convenient and ornamental. Nor is it the least whole. By stimulating industry, by rewarding ingenuity, Locke and his followers may say to the contrary, you may part of this our happiness, that whilst we enjoy the remotest and by using most efficaciously the particular powers be- depend upon it that no country can ever become wealthy, products of the north and south, we are free trun these stowed by nature, commerce distributes labour most effec- or industrious, or civilized, or inventive, without comtremities of weather which give them birth; that our eyes tively and most economically; while, by increasing the merce to stimulate the exertions of its inhabitants. are refreshed with the green fields of Britain, at the mme general mass of necessary and useful products, it diffuses general opulence, and binds together the universal society of nations by the common and powerful ties of mutual interest and reciprocal obligation. Commerce has enabled each particular state to profit by the inventions and discoveries of every other state. It has given us new tastes and new appetites, and it has also given us the means of gratifying them. It has armed the patient hand of industry with zeal to undertake, and perseverance to accomplish, the most arduous and difficult tasks. Commerce has either entirely removed, or greatly weakened, a host of the most unworthy prejudices. It has united the whole world into regarded as the provinces; and the same beautiful train of one vast empire, the different kingdoms of which may be consequences which is produced in kingdoms by the operation of that territorial division of labour which has conferred incalculable benefits on the human race, is observable in the world at large. England, for example, from the quality of her wool, the abundance of her coals, the skill of her workmen, and the excellence of her machinery, is enabled to manufacture cloth much cheaper and better than can be done by Portugal; while the Portuguese, from the facilities which the mildness of their climate and the fertility of their soil afford to the growth and cultivation of the grape, are enabled to produce wine with infinitely less expense, and in much farger quantities, than can be done by the English. Thus, if England were to confine herself to the manufacture of cloth, for which she has natural advantages, and if Portugal were to employ herself exclusively in the cultivation of the grape, in which occupation the peculiar productive powers of the soil enable her to excel, each country would be able to obtain larger and better supplies of both cloth and wine than if they were to engage in occupations in with, of the advantages of commerce, is to be found in But, perhaps, the best summary any where to be met which the advantage was on the side of another. one of the early papers of the Spectator, written by Ad. But, perhaps, the indirect advantages of foreign com-dison, and which derives additional interest from the cirmerce, in rousing mankind from sloth and indolence, and cumstance of its being one of the first essays which in stimulating them to activity and industry, are even more appeared in support of the benefits resulting from trade. important than its direct advantages, and yet they are so Nothing can be better conceived, or better expressed, and often overlooked that I hope to be excused for dwelling on it is rather extraordinary that it has not attracted the at

Dr. Paley had a very clear perception of this doctrine. Flourishing cities," he says, "have been established through the manufacture of some single commodity, and populous towns have sprung into existence through the effects of commerce. A watch is a very unnecessary appendage to an agricultural labourer; but, if he is induced to till the ground in order that he may be enabled to procure one, the purposes of commerce are answered: and when the watchmaker is polishing the case, or filing the wheels of his ingenious machine, he is contributing to the production of corn, as efficaciously, though not quite so directly, as the husbandman himself. Tobacco is acknowledged to is induced to ply his nets, and the mariner to bring home be a useless article of consumption; but, if the fisherman rice from Carolina or Hindostan, in the hopes that, by doing so, they may be enabled to procure it, this article, which has apparently no other use than that of gratifying a vitiated palate, becomes the means of supplying mankind with two very useful articles of food." Deprive us of our foreign commerce, and reflect what a horror-striking diminution would be made from the sum total of our comforts and enjoyments. Instead of breakfasting on the produce of China and the West Indies, we should be obliged to content ourselves with the humble porridge of our ancestors. When our crops exceeded the quantity required for the consumption of the population, the redundancy would be useless; and, when they fell short of this quantity, we should be reduced to the extremity of famine. Our maritime greatness would fall with our commerce, and, from occupying the very highest place in the first rank of nations, we should fall to the lowest place in the fourth or fifth rank.


tention of any of our commercial writers.


That man is naturally inactive and indolent no one will "Nature (says Mr. Addison) seems to have taken a particular attempt to deny. The highest luxury of which savage life care to disseminate her blessings among the different reseems to be susceptible is, to have nothing to do. The mem-gions of the world, with an eye to mutual intercourse and bers of uncivilized communities confine their labour to traffic among mankind, that the natives of the several parts merely supplying themselves with the coarsest materials of of the globe might have a kind of dependence upon one anofood, and providing themselves with clumsy defences ther, and be united together by their common interest. against the inclemency of the weather. Their industry is most every degree produces something peculiar to it. The only in proportion to the extent of the necessities which food often grows in one country, and the sauce in another. prompt it, and those nations which experience the greatest The fruits of Portugal are corrected by the products of Bar. difficulty in supplying their necessities are in general the badoes, and the infusion of a China plant is sweetened with most industrious. Mr. Hume, Sir William Temple, and the pith of an Indian cane. The Phillipic islands give a flaother inquirers into the progress of society, have observed, vour to our European bowls. The single dress of a woman that the inhabitants of those countries which possess the of quality is often the product of an hundred climates. The greatest natural disadvantages are always the most active muff and the fan come together from the different ends of and industrious; and, in conformity to the principle now the earth. The scarf is sent from the torrid zone, and the laid down, we should expect this to be the case. But tippet from beneath the pole. The brocade petticoat rises out in civilized societies, when commerce begins to extend it of the mines of Peru, and the diamond necklace out of the self, however great may be the natural advantages of the bowels of Indostan. country, the inhabitants are never contented with the productions of their own soil and climate, but they eagerly grasp at those foreign commodities and luxuries which commerce brings within their reach. If an individual has obtained a sufficient quantity of corn, cloth, and beer, and if these are the only commodities which his industry can procure for him, he will cease to labour; but, when the productions of other countries are placed within his reach, he will increase his exertions that he may be enabled to obtain them. The agriculturist and manufacturer will endeavour to produce as great a quantity as pos

"If we consider our own country in its natural prospect, without any of the benefits and advantages of commerce, what a barren uncomfortable spot of earth falls to our share! Natural historians tell us, that no fruit grows originally among us, besides hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts, with other delicacies of the like nature; that our climate of itself, and without the assistance of art, can make no further ad. vances towards a plum than to a sloe, and carries an apple to no greater a perfection than a crab: that our melons, our peaches, our figs, our apricots and cherries [and Mr. Addison might have added, our potatoes) are strangers among us, im

"For these reasons there are not more useful members in a commonwealth than merchants. They knit mankind tog

ther in a mutual intercourse of good offices, distribute the gifts of nature, find work for the poor, add wealth to the verts the tin of his own country into gold, and exchange and magnificence to the great. Our English merchant Wool for rubies. The Mahometans are clothed in our with the fleeces of our sheep.

manufacture, and the inhabitants of the frozen zone and

"When I have been upon the 'Change, I have often finde

course of people with which that place is every day filed la one of our old kings standing in person where he is repe sented in effigy, and looking down upon the wealthy c this case, how would he be surprised to hear all the languag of Europe spoken in this little spot of his former domin and to see so many private men, who in his time would have been the vassals of some powerful baron, negociating princes for greater sums of money than were formerly to met with in the royal treasury! Trade, without enlarga the British territories, has given us a kind of additional empir It has multiplied the number of the rich, made our landet estates inanitely more valuable than they were formerly, and added to them an accession of other estates as valuabit as the lands themselves."

all the benefits which commerce bestows upon us. Com But, great as these advantages are, even they are not merce not only distributes the gifts of nature, as M Addison beautifully expresses it, but it also distributes the gifts of science and of art. It enables the inhabitant of each country to profit not only by the discoveries of t by Mr. Samuel Hicks, of the United States, for separat natives of its different provinces, but by those of the habitants of every other country. The machine inve cotton wool from the pod, is not less beneficial to us that and Arkwright, by reducing the cost of our manufactures to the Americans ;-and the beautiful machinery of Wa has been productive of as great advantages to our foreign

customers as to ourselves. The effect of comment

this respect is, indeed, surprising, inasmuch that a cess discovered in Calcutta, or New Orleans, will generally be found to be adopted, a few months afterwards, Rouen or Manchester.

like mistaken ideas of religion, have frequently
It must be confessed that mistaken views of comm
wars and bloodshed. But when the principles
merce come to be rightly understood, it will be a
no commercial war can ever attain its end. The sa
may, indeed, extend a dominion over a barren and dest
country, or over reluctant and rebellious subjects, but
Providence has declared that it is by industry alone d
individuals, and, consequently, nations can become weal
thy, powerful, or refined.

When Mr. Pitt, in 1786, laid before the House of Co mons the commercial treaty which he had entered i with France, for the purpose of removing the existing restrictions on the trade between the two countries, t delivered his sentiments in a speech as remarkable for t point and eloquence as for the sound, manly, and co stitutional principles which it enforced. In reply to argument inculcating constant jealousy of France, M Pitt inquired, whether, by the term " jealousy," wat meant that species of jealousy which was either mad blind,-which would either madly throw away the ad vantages within its reach, or blindly grasp at what could never obtain, and which, if obtained, would end in their total ruin? Was the necessity of a continued war with France so evident and pressing, or was a part intercourse with that country so odious, that we mu

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all the commercial advantages which would result friendly and amicable treaty? To say that two yuntries must, from their nature, for ever remain at inmity, was a libel on the constitution of nations, and supposed diabolical malice in the constitution of man.

modities of the North.




Bruges, in the Netherlands, where manufactures were | nal festal scenes. The neighbouring gentry not at all established and commerce carried on. Here the Lom- liking the appellation of "mutum et turpe pecus,” conbards brought the spices and delicacies of the East, and ceive that there may have been a conspiracy for any. exchanged them for the coarser but not less useful comthing they know against wit and learning; or it might Those nations which enjoyed the most extensive com- The commerce of England increased with the increase have been a question, whether philosophy and dancing merce have always been found to make the most rapid of the commerce of her neighbours. It is remarkable are consistent; or perhaps there exists in the minds gress in wealth and civilization. Dr. Smith has that there is a clause in Magna Charta which stipulates of some a fear lest something should be introduced rewdly remarked, that the learning and riches of ancient that foreign merchants shall have full liberty to come into the ball-room quite irrelevant to the customary gypt were owing to the facilities of commercial inter-into, and depart out of, the kingdom, and to buy and sell ourse between the different districts of the country, wherever they shall think proper. In the reign of Ed- rules of education; or that some encroachment might forded by the navigation of the Nile;-and the same ward III. a law was passed, abolishing the disgraceful be made upon their very language, and either Greek, eat authority has observed that the comparative civili- practice, which had formerly existed, of making one alien Latin, or French spouted instead of good old Engation of the nations bordering on the Red Sea and the liable for the debt of another. But the reign of Edward lish; this, however, is certain, though the secrets of Mediterranean was owing to their maritime situation. III. is chiefly memorable from its being the period of the the committee-room are not known, that where a gentleThe prophet Ezekiel has left a beautiful and splendid introduction of the woollen manufacture into England. escription of the wealth and commerce of the Tyrians. In 1331, Edward, taking advantage of the discontents man possesses, and at all times attends to the very essence his people took advantage of their situation at the east which prevailed amongst the Flemish, invited a number of Chesterfield's politeness, and, as Observator says, pays the Mediterranean to purchase from the Idumeans, of the inhabitants of Flanders to come over and settle in his subscription up, he is undoubtedly an acquisition to id the other nations inhabiting the shores of the Red Sea England. These people accepted Edward's invitation, and any ball-room, provided he can dance as well as philosoad the Persian Gulf, tea, raw coffee, raw silk, and other it was by them that the English were initiated in the art phize; but, mind you, let the "gall'd jade wince," if any ative productions, which they afterwards disposed of to of manufacturing wool. Since this period, the commerce he Greeks and Gauls, and the nations on the north and of England has advanced with rapid strides, accompanied, such scholar, philosopher, or dancer, finds an amiable rerest of the Mediterranean. This they were the more hand in hand, by wealth, civilization, and power. ception in the card-room, asily enabled to do from the circumstance of the Medi- Brief and imperfect as this sketch of the early history The Ashtonienses cannot but participate with the feelerranean and Red Seas having no tides, and consequently of commerce must necessarily be, I cannot close it without ing of the spes gregis on this occasion, for they are aware o waves except such as were caused by the influence of noticing the discovery of the mariner's compass,an that their brethren, the Ashtonians, are a stubborn race, le wind,-which, in times when the compass was un-event which has contributed more, perhaps, than any 10wn, and when navigators were unwilling to venture other to increase the comforts, conveniences, and luxuries having a good deal of the Gothic in their composifrom the land, must have facilitated their commerce of mankind. The Italians claim the merit of its discovery tion, and not so familiar as the spes gregis with the. a wonderful degree. for Flavia Gioio, a citizen of Amalphi, who, they say, Grecian and Roman graces; and we, the neighbouring But commerce not only diffused over Gaul and Italy a made the discovery somewhere about the middle of the Gentiles and scribes, agree perfectly with the spes grete for foreign commodities, but it dispelled, in a great fourteenth century. Dr. Robertson has adopted this view asure, the darkness and ignorance which had hitherto of the subject; but passages are to be found in French gis, in his exhibiting the "head and front of his eserved undisturbed the sovereignty of the dominion of writers, nearly two centuries before the above period, offending," considering the character of a gentleman ind in Europe. The Phenicians instructed the in- which speak of the polarity of the magnet in the most an interesting subject of discussion, disclaiming all party uctors of western Europe, and it is to them that we are unequivocal terms. But to whomsoever the merit may feeling. If the said spes gregis has attained the "ne lebted for the most valuable of all discoveries, the gift be due, it must be acknowledged that the era of the dis-plus ultra" of perfection in the fashionable, as well letters. Those nations which enjoyed an extensive covery of the compass is the most important period in the amerce were enabled to found colonies in different history of commerce and navigation. It has extended as the philosophic world, he is an object of the greatest nations, which added much to the importance and mag- the former to the most distant shores of the habitable commiseration if he is not allowed to show such warficence of their mother countries, insomuch that Car- globe, and has multiplied its operations to an extent which rantable qualifications in the ball room, at least if not age, the most powerful of these colonies, eclipsed even had never been contemplated by preceding ages. It has in the card-room, of these most select and accomplished yre in wealth and grandeur, and was enabled for nine- rendered the latter comparatively safe and expeditious, assemblies Ashtonian, however, will not forget that the in years to wage a bloody and doubtful war with Rome by enabling the navigator to launch boldly out into the old adage, "Amantium ira," &c. is in danger of being rself for the sovereignty of the world. deep, without fear of rocks or shoals. It was by its asWhen Tyre was destroyed by Alexander of Macedon, sistance, that, in 1887, the Portuguese, under Vasco de applicable in this case.-Yours, &c. traffe which she had carried on was transferred to Gama, were enabled to double the Cape of Good Hope Stayley Bridge, December 15, 1824. lexandria, which, from her situation on the shore of the and arrive at the East Indies, and that the persevering 17. Mediterranean, and near the head of the Red Sea, soon and enterprising spirit of Columbus was rewarded by the ecame the grand emporium for the interchange of Eu- discovery of a new world. It has united all mankind opean and Asiatic commodities. into one vast commercial commonwealth, and has enabled each separate state to profit by the discoveries and inventions of the whole. It has brought individuals together from the most distant corners of the world;-it has made mankind friends instead of enemies;-it has obliterated ancient prejudices, and has contributed to the advancement of wealth, literature, and refinement.


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At the period of the decline of the Roman Empire, ethen the different provinces of Italy became a prey to the cursions of the Goths and Vandals, commerce was most wholly suppresed. A number of individuals from malphi and the neighbouring districts, fleeing from the ranny and oppression of these barbarians, took refuge in cluster of small islands near the head of the Adriatic alf. It was here that Venice, rising from the surface the deep, beheld, undisturbed, for many centuries, the ise and fall of empires, the revolutions of states, the infal of tyrants, and the change of dynasties;-till,

length, this last surviving witness of antiquity, and the aly remaining link which connected ancient and modern urope, is herself experiencing the decline to which all ature is subject, and is fast sinking into the bosom of

waves whence she rose.

218 2

"Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvæ;
Arborei fœtus alibi, atque injussa virescunt
Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tinolus odores,
India mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabæi ?
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus
Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum?
Continuo bas leges æternaque fœdera certis
Imposuit natura locis."-George.


After the decline of commerce in the middle ages, the rit of commercial enterprise was first awakened in the see cities of Italy. During the twelfth and thirteenth enturies, the commerce of Europe was almost excluAvely in the hands of the Italians, better known by the Jame of Lombards. Numbers of them were established every country,-the greatest facilities were given to beir operations, and the ancient laws against foreigners were repealed with regard to them.


But the spirit of commercial industry, which was thus cindled in the south of Europe, was not long of commuicating itself to the north. In 1241, the free city of bec entered into a confederacy with the neighbouring SIR,-Your correspondent Observator, of Chorley, has dates for mutual protection against the pirates who in- not, in his notice of Ashtonian's letter, quite extricated fested the Baltic Sea. The advantage of this measure soon manifested itself, and other cities acceded to the the spem gregis of the Ashton assembly from the woful confederation, so that in a short time eighty of the most dilemma in which the Ashtonians and Ashtonienses have considerable cities, between the Baltic and Lyons-on-the- placed an elegant scholar and philosopher. However, as Rhone, joined in the famous Hanseatic League, which Gravissima est probi hominis iracundia” the Ashtonibecame so formidable that its alliance was courted, and its enmity dreaded, by the most powerful Princes in Eu-enses, “iram deponere," notwithstanding feel a little charope. Their commercial operations were regulated by grined that their brethren do not attempt “servare gregis,” la passed in a common assembly of that body; and cer- and collect together the "elegantes ciegantiorum" of the tain towns were fixed upon, the principal of which was town, to trip the light fantastic toe, and adorn their hiber


Jacob, the scourge of grammar, mark with awe,
Nor less revere him, blunderbuss of law.

Pope's Dunciad, b. 3, 150.
Cogite consilium et pacem laudate sedentes.



SIR,-If, after the last war, of nearly thirty years' con-' tinuance, it were required, for the good of mankind, to designate, in terms the least liable to objection, what formidable foe still stalks abroad; and, disregarding the decrees of monarchs, the recurrence of seasons, hurricanes, or earthquakes, with resistless operation, in these regions, renders human existence distressing in its course, and short in its duration;-it might be replied, catarrh, or common cold. Colds, certainly, are the heralds of innumerous diseases; and it is impossible to state the extent of their destructive effects; but I wish, at this period, to have it recorded, that the only, total, and exclusive cause of their having such effects, is, ignorance of the animal economy, and consequent exterior filth.

What medicine, forced into the stomach, would remove either one or the other of those causes, it is useless to inquire; but it is twenty-five years since I was in that manner afflicted; and the dreadful sufferings I underwent, during twenty years antecedent to that period, and the care and security, in those respects I have since experienced, are contrasts not to be regarded with indifference: desiring, therefore, to make myself amenable to the tribunal of public observation, I hereby declare and determine, that, though my avocations impose upon me close confinement to small rooms, and alternate exposure to every state and transition of the atmosphere, I will not, during the remainder of my existence, be troubled with catarrh or cold. I am, Sir,

Your humble servant, 14, Concert-street, Liverpool, 8th December, 1824.


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