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Tais familiar Miscellany, from which religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles: comprehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manne Amusement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annual Volume, with an Index and Title-page.—Its circulation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.-Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

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No. 234.-VOL. V.

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

Natural History.



La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne coure que des ruines. Paris: printed, 1824. {Prasedated expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French Work.] LETTER L CONTINUED. OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS.


ately, immense caverns, which became the recep-
tacles of the mass of waters above them, as soon as the
thin layer of earth, by which they were separated from
them, was broken by their weight. The level of the seas
being thus lowered by the efflux of their waters into these
caverns, which we may suppose as large as we please, the
tracts of land, which we now inhabit, were left dry. All
these continents have, as you see, been beds of the sea,
as well in the opinion of Buffon, as in that of most au-
thors, who have, before him, invented theories of the
earth. But his system does not imply, like that of Mail-
let, that the sea still continues progressively to decrease,
and that the whole surface of our planet will, at some
future period, be left dry.

I have quoted to you this passage, that I may be exused for having so far enlarged upon opinions merely hypothetical, in consideration of the importance attached to them by the illustrious author of the last theory of the earth which has met with any success in France. I shall conclude by laying before you his ideas on the

successive formation of the seas and continents.

The systematic ideas of Buffon are, as I have already told you, the last which have met with a favourable reception in France. As for those promulgated by living authors, without venturing to give you my own opinion of them, I shall content myself with transcribing for you the brief exposition of them made by a naturalist (M. Cuvier) who seems to have acquired, by the success of his enlightened and laborious researches, an indisputable claim to pre-eminence in every branch of science.

la the same manner were collected on the summits of all the most elevated mountains, lakes or large pools, which have since flowed down to the low lands. As the earth gradually cooled, the polar seas extended themselves over its surface, whilst the lakes of the mountains formed basins, and small inland seas, in those parts of the globe which the great seas of the two poles had not yet reached. The rain continued to fall with still increasing abundance, until the atmosphere was entirely purified, and finally, the seas, first formed round the poles, extended themselves to the countries near the equator, and covered the whole surfate of the globe to the height of 2,000 fathoms above the level of our present seas.

"Men of more liberal opinions have, in our days, also chosen to employ their talents upon this important subject. Some writers have re-modelled and considerably amplified the ideas of Maillet. They affirm that all substances were originally in a fluid state; that this fluid first engendered animals of the most simple organization, such as monads, and other infusorial and microscopical species. These different races of animals having, in the course of time, gradually acquired certain distinctive and peculiar properties, became more complicated and diversified in their nature, till they at length presented the infinite variety we now behold in them. They, by degrees, converted the water of the sea into calcareous earth; vegetable productions, of whose origin and progressive transformation we are left in total ignorance, converted water into clay, and these The whole earth was then under the dominion of the two earths, after they were deprived of the characteristic , except perhaps the summits of the primitive moun-qualities impressed on them by life, were finally resolved tains, which were only temporarily inundated, as the into flint; this is the reason why the most ancient mounwaters collected upon these heights, during the first period tains contain more silicious earth than any others. Conof their fall, flowed from them to occupy the low lands, sequently all the solid parts of the earth owe their origin as soon as the latter had become sufficiently cool to receive to life; and without life the globe would still be in an them, without converting them into vapour. The sum- entirely liquid state. mits of these mountains were the first places where organized nature was manifested, and it was there developed with great vigour. They were covered with large trees and plants, of every kind, which were soon afterwards precipitated into the waters, and carried away by thein. At the same period, all the seas were filled with inha-alive, even the most elementary molecules are endued with bitants, whose remains, together with those of the vegeta- an instinct and a will, and attract and repel each other by ble productions of the mountains, were buried at the bot- mutual antipathies and sympathies. Every sort of mineral tom of the seas, which have since become our continents. has the power of imparting to other bodies the properties You will, perhaps, ask me, Madam,. how these conti- peculiar to its own nature, as we convert our food into Tents have ever been freed from their superincumbent load flesh and blood. Mountains are the organs of respiration of water. The difficulties involved in this question are, of the globe, and schists are its organs of secretion: by According to Buffon, casily solved. The earth, in be- means of these it decomposes the water of the sea, so as to Coming cool, had undergone a change, to which all bodies are subject, when they pass from a very high tempeFature to one less considerable. Not only was its surface Varied by heights and hollows, but there existed immedi

Other writers have preferred adopting the ideas of Kepler. Like this great astronomer, they attribute vital faculties to the globe itself; they maintain that a fluid circulates within it, and that an assimilation takes place there as well as in animated bodies. All its parts are


The elevated temperature of the terrestrial globe, whilst it was in a fluid state, and even long after it became solid, did not permit the water contained in the atmosphere to fall to its surface, but in the course of ages the poles began to grow cold, and continual rains, occasioned by the decreased temperature of those regions, formed around them immense seas.

PRICE 340.

convert it into the substances thrown out in volcanic eruptions. Metallic veins are the carious parts, the abcesses of the mineral kingdom, and metals are the productions of decay and disease; this is the reason why most of them have so offensive a smell.*

It must, however, be acknowledged, that all geologists have not carried so far the boldness of their conceptions as those, whose systems have furnished us with the abovementioned examples of extravagant hypothesis; yet, how various and contradictory are the opinions even of those who have proceeded with the greatest caution, and who, in the prosecution of their inquiries, have confined themselves to the means afforded by a knowledge of natural philosophy and common chemistry.

One maintains, that all matter has been successively precipitated, and deposited nearly in the same order in which we now behold it, and that the waters of the ocean, which were once extended over the whole surface of the globe, have gradually diminished.+

Another is of opinion, that the masses which compose mountains, are incessantly and gradually carried away in the currents of rivers, and deposited in layers at the bot tom of the sea, that the heat occasioned to them by the enormous pressure to which they are thus subjected, will one day cause them violently to explode.‡

A third supposes the liquid to have been originally divided into a multitude of lakes placed in the form of an amphitheatre, one above another, which, having deposited the beds of shells observed in different parts of the earth, have successively overflowed their banks; and that their waters have been finally embodied in the ocean.§

A fourth imagines that the matter at the bottom of the sea has, in the course of time, been carried away by tides of 7 or 800 fathoms in depth, and that it has gradually formed mountains and hills among the valleys, and on the primitive plains of the continent. ||

A fifth builds his system upon the supposition that the different fragments of which the earth is composed have successively fallen from the sky in the form of meteoric stones, and that they have received their elementary principles from the unknown substances, of whose remains they have been composed.¶

A sixth places, in the central hollow of the globe, a nucleus of loadstone, which is periodically transported, by the attraction of comets, from one pole to the other, and, removing, by this change of its position, the centre of gravity, and, consequently, the mass of the ocean, alternately inundates the two hemispheres."


1801, and page 169 of the second volume of Tellismed.
See the Natural Philosophy of Prodies, page 106, Leipsic,
de Lamarck is toe author who has, in latter times, developed
Hydrogeology, and in his Geological Philosophy.
this system with most consistency and perspicuity in his

M. Patrin has supported this system with much ingenuity in several articles of the New Dictionary of Natural History.

↑ M. Delamétherie admits crystallization to be the primary cause, in his geology.

Hutton and Playfair. See Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth, &c. Dec. 1802.

§ Lamanon, in different parts of the Journal of Natural Philosophy.

Dolomieu. Ibid.
M. M. de Marschall; see Inquiries respecting the Origin and
Development of the present State of the World. Giesen, 1802.
**M. Bertrand. See Periodical Renewal of the Terrestrial
Continents. Hamburgh, 1779..

I shall here terminate, Madam, the task I have imposed | our holy religion, and more honourable to the human upon myself for to-day. Forgive me, if I have mis- race. How fainly would I leave a name to range with employed the leisure you are willing to devote to the pe- theirs; but, alas! though the field of exertion remains rusal of my letters, by laying before you a series of sys-wide, and there is much to do for those who are willing to tems so contradictory. It is true, that they may be con- labour, it more befits me to acknowledge their merits, sidered merely as fictions more or less ingenious; but and to recommend to public investigation a subject of so they may at least afford us the same sort of amusement as that we derive from reading a romance; and, perhaps, we may count among the number of gratifications thus procured us the self-satisfaction with which we console ourelves for our indolence, when we perceive how unavailing are the ambitious labours of the learned.

much interest.

[To be continued.]

The Philanthropist.


NO. I.


Literature, Criticism, &c.


"Unload his great artillery and shake,

SIR,-Although the subject of the "little discourse" I now offer to your notice has been in danger of growing "stale, flat, and unprofitable," I shall, with all due apologies, take the liberty of trespassing once more upon your Nay, pulverize the walls they think defend them." indulgence, since I really could not quit the lists altogeNo longer would he exercise the keenness of his ele On the fate of Henry Fauntleroy every tongue is elo- ther without again lifting up my voice in defence of quent, and every heart is touched with the awful severity learned quotations, and running another tilt (certainly not venerable tree, but would fain lay the axe of his ag quence in lopping away the superfluous branches of the of his punishment. Many, in the humbler walks of life, at the champion elect of affectation) against their trucu-mentation to the root! This is really improving upe whose offences have been far less aggravated, have suf- lent adversary, Anti-barbarus, junior, although that for the example of the fox, who, when accidentally deynl fered the same, unheeded, unknown; but the strong sen-midable personage has manifested symptoms of being in- of the honours of his brush, endeavoured to demonstrat sation which has been awakened on the present occasion, clined to carry the combat even à outrance. to his assembled brethren, in a luminous and energi will surely lead to a revision of that sanguinary code which But whatever may be the disposition of your correspon- harangue, the beauty, expediency, and necessity of d has lowered our country in the eyes of foreigners, and dent in this respect, I must, nevertheless, acknowledge my- tailless state. I presume that A. B. is in the same sita which assuredly is inconsistent with that civilization we self extremely indebted to him, for the unexpected excess tion, and has a somewhat similar object in view, what i pretend to. Our penal laws are on the system of intimi- of civility wherewith he has pointed out and amended seve- labours to convince his readers of the inutility of the way dation; death is inflicted more to deter others from offend-ral expressions of mine, which were weighed in the ba- of the classics. In pursuance of this desirable cos ing, than as the just penalty of the crime itself. Of the lance of his judgment, and found wanting. Now, al-mation, he preludes his grand attack, by observing, ut success of this plan, let experience speak; of its propriety, though the extraordinary kindness of his intentions has the station occupied by them of old," in chemistry, let Christianity decide. When men shall study the pre-induced me to make my grateful acknowledgments, I cepts of Him who taught his followers to say, tronomy, natural philosophy, &c. &c. was very much be forgive would by no means have him believe that I bow with re-neath the high degree of perfection that has been attained us our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass against spect to the peremptory dictates issued from his self-con- in those sciences by the brilliant efforts of the moderns us," they will learn to doubt the lawfulness of capital stituted tribunal, or salute him as "* a second Daniel come Having established these incontrovertible premises, be punishment in any case. It may be long before it is en- to judgment." At the same time I must express my re- leads us, by dint of a most absolute "therefore,” into the to take into consideration the utility of the study of a "lame and impotent conclusion," that it "behoves" us cient literature. Now, as for you and other men" Mr. Editor, I cannot answer, but " as for my single self," i of the Greek and Latin authors, to acquire from the most certainly never was my ultimate aim, in the perasal pages a knowledge of chemistry, astronomy, or any othe of the sciences he has so needlessly enumerated. Wh that actuate most men in this pursuit, it is not my my motives, and I believe they are the same as the tention here to explain, although, in the language of your correspondent, "I could say a great deal more,



"Stat magni nominis umbra."-Lucan.
"Lay on, Macduff, &c.—Shakspeare.

I first saw the essence of this accusation duly distinguished by its conspicuous italics, from the crowd of miner cumstances, I felt rather perturbed, (for to every denomi nation of this offence I entertain a most violent antipathy, and naturally waited with great anxiety to see what e dence he intended to bring forward in support of sudi a formidable charge. Finding, however, that it rested merely upon his ipse dixit, (as I do not "hold him reverently,") my consternation was immediately contr into surprise that he should have ventured to mainan. such a position; when he must be aware that it is mat more difficult to introduce an apt quotation, than to o pose, in our own language, a sentence to the same effect.

From the tenor of your correspondent's previous communications it was no more than I expected, when he last week assumed a more formidable position; and not contented with assailing the out-posts of ancient litera hold of its defenders, and threatened to ture, sounded the signal of assault upon the very strong


if such

Montesquieu, Montagu, Beccaria, and Roscoe, magnanimous advocates of a milder policy, though the latter alone remains in the land of the living, yet do they live alike in their works, and powerfully plead, the living and the dead, for a system of punishments more congenial to

tirely abolished, but that it will, in our days, be restricetd gret that I cannot reward his politeness by a similar kind-
to murder, I confidently hope. Its opponents are gradu-ness; inasmuch as I have more pleasure in examining
ally increasing, its impropriety is held established by the the arguments of my opponent, than in scrutinizing, with
society of Friends, and they have exhibited to the world the searching glance of criticism, the expressions wherein
a glorious example of penal legislation in the first seventy those arguments are conveyed.
years of Pennsylvanian history.

Let him who cannot dispense with "blood for blood," examine with how much of just detestation of crime is mingled a feeling of vindictive revenge, that would hurry the murderer after his victim without a moment's delay. Far be it from me to decry that indignation which follows the commission of an atrocious crime; it is a feeling honourable to man; but, how few stop to examine the incentives, the motives, the temptations, which lead to the

A. B. junior (I hope your correspondent will not be wroth at this mutilation of the honours of his title) has, in the last Kaleidoscope, adopted a strain of triumph, and observed, with exultation, that a positive assertion of mine stands in downright contradiction to an equally positive one advanced by my coadjutor Y. Z. and then he "jumps into the conclusion," that our arguments do not rest upon a very sure foundation. Now wherein this alleged contradiction consists, the most diligent perusal and collation

offence, and lie, as it were, at the root of the evil. Soli-
tary confinement, and hard yet useful labour, offer a legiti-
mate medium of punishment, and, moreover, an advan-
tageous one, which, in my humble judgment, would

of the passages in question have not enabled me to deter-
mine. It most certainly never was my intention to enu-
merate, amongst our inducements to quote, an admiration
of either the philosophy or morals of the ancients, neither

prove quite as efficacious in preventing crime, as the in- of which, when compared to those of the present day, do
fliction of death. It may be, the public is not prepared I profess to hold in excessive veneration. Neither was I
for this doctrine. In more barbarous times; in less civil- at all aware that any one could possibly imagine, that be-
ized countries, such as Turkey; wherever the gospel has cause the Greeks had treated, with the most scornful neg-
not penetrated to the heart; the less it is known and prac-ligence, the literary productions of their predecessors, they
tised, the lower has the value of human life been uni- should necessarily have looked upon all their other attain-
formly estimated. In such times and countries the pu- ments in the same contemptuous point of view. But I
nishment of death has been constant. Let us hope that conceive there is very little necessity to argue any farther
the time is approaching when the finger of scorn shall be on this point, since few of the defenders of quotations,
more fearful than the gallows, and the fear of shame however influenced they might be in general by the au
stronger than death, and the dread of disgrace shall tri- thority of antiquity, would seek to maintain their pro-
umph over the love of life: then may the strong arm of priety, on the ground of their having been fashionable
the law put down offenders and extinguish crime without some thousand years ago, when they might easily adduce
shedding blood.
numerous and brilliant instancss of their successful appli
cation from the works of the most eminent and popular
authors of their own day.

was my pleasure."

to have an opportunity of showing d. B. junior, a
"Sixthly, and to conclude." I am extremely happy
direct instance of my gratitude than could be afforded by
a mere acknowledgment of my obligations to hi
be the more inclined to follow, as it is founded pe
mean to offer him a little friendly advice, which
observation of mine, to the justice of which he has exp
sed a very ready assent. He perfectly agrees with me that
it is incumbent upon an author to polish and refire what
he publishes; now I would most earnestly recommend.
that, when he feels disposed to enliven the wilderness
his performance, by a touch of the facetious, he wo
be pleased to introduce wit of rather a more polistică a
refined description than that which graced the conclusion
of his epistle of November the 16th.-Yours, &c.
Dec. 5, 1824.




I was somewhat surprised when A. B. in the course of his observations, proceeded to accuse the supporters of SIR,-I beg to trouble you with the origin of the abor this unlucky practice of the sin of "sheer laziness." When mentioned custom, as your correspondent Anti-Suter,


orant of it.

from his round and bold assertion, seems to be totally ig. | say, that the authority of a man of talents and integrity should be rejected because his example may have been praise-worthy in almost every instance except just that under consideration ?" This is the very reason why we should have recourse to the authority of a great man; because, as it is very easy for such a man, for instance Dr. Johnson, to speak on a thousand different subjects, we may just as correctly suppose a person to quote one of those thousand praise-worthy examples, as one of the few which are not praise-worthy: and, in reality, the chance against his quoting a wrong opinion will thus be nearly as 1000 to 1.

**The custom of pledging healths, still preserved among Englishmen, is said to be owing to the Saxons' mutual egard for each others' safety, and as a caution against the reacherous inhospitality of the Danes, when they came to e in peace with the natives."-Wise's Observations on White Horse, and other Antiquities, published 1742, Oxford, cited in Brand's Popular Customs. Mr. Strutt says, "The old manner of pledging each her when they drank was thus: the person who was oing to drink asked any one of the company who sat ext him whether he would pledge him; on which, an- I shall not trouble you, Sir, any more at present; but #ering that he would, held up his knife or sword to guard I pledge myself to prove, in time for your next Kaleidoswhilst he drank." But the custom is here said to cope, that there are passages which cannot be translated ve first taken its rise from the death of young King from Latin to English correctly, without losing their force fward, called the martyr, who was, by the contrivance and dignity; and this is the extent of my assertion, though Elfrida, his step-mother, treacherously stabbed in the your correspondent, by raising up a phantom of his own, ack, as he was drinking. Strutt's authority is William of and attacking it sword in hand, has endeavoured to perfalmesbury, and he observes, from the delineation he suade you and your readers that he has run my protege ives us (and it must be noted, that his plates being copies through the body. The phantom to which I allude is, his F- ancient illuminated MSS. are of unquestionable au- hitherto undisputed assertion, that "there are no untransority) that it seems perfectly well to agree with the re-latable passages: but this, perhaps, does not stand so serted custom: the middle figure is addressing himself to cure as its author imagines.-Yours, &c. companion, who seems to tell him that he pledges Dec. 8, 1824.

Y. Z.

a, holding up his knife in token of his readiness to asand protect him.—Brand's Origin of Popular Cus


P. S. I would not have it understood from the above, that I consider the opinion of a great man on speculative Dr. Henry, in his History of England, has the follow-subjects as decisive and positive proof-not by any means; "If an Englishman presumed to drink in the pre- I go this far, when the opinion of a great man coincides ce of a Dane, without his express permission, it was with your own, it gives very great weight and authority to emed so great a mark of disrespect, that nothing but what you say, and in such cases it becomes one who is of insant death could expiate it. Nay, the English were a contrary opinion to well consider and argue his cause. ntimidated, that they would not venture to drink even But in matters of learning, and matters of fact, the testien they were invited, until the Danes had pledged their mony of a great and learned man is incontrovertible, unour for their safety, which introduced the custom of less it be opposed by authority equally great, or unless the dging each other in drinking, of which some vestiges falsity of his testimony be demonstrated. still remaining among the common people in the north England, where the Danes were most predominant." The first of these accounts, viz. that the custom of aging healths was occasioned by the treachery of the anes to the English, when the latter were drinking, is hat is given in the Encyclopædia Britannica, in that of ees, and in the Etymological Dictionary of Dr. Jamie-some articles on classical literature, you may perhaps judge the following worthy of a place in your pages.

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and in private classes; but I am inclined to think that this would not be the case in large establishments and our public schools. The author is somewhat heterodox, as appears from his dedication to Mr. Hamilton, whose new mode of teaching is making so much noise in the world, and with whom he is connected. His book, however, which consists partly of translations and partly of originals, is amusing, and show sthat the most familiar subjects, as tales, songs, &c. may be turned into elegant Latin verse. The following are some of the subjects: Witch, Death caused by the Prick of a Needle, Tobacco, Noah, Skaiting, Woollen Manufactures of England, Translation of Atterbury's Epigram on a Fan, The False Eye, Tavern Signs, Cudgel Playing, Description of a Sea Fight, Wolsey, Old Parr, Whittington, Country Squire, Vicar of Bray, &c.

From the nature of the work considerable tact was necessary to avoid extreme inelegance, which the author has, with few exceptions, effected. His Alcon, a pastoral, is his master-piece in this respect. It is I believe a translation, or rather an imitation, of an Italian poet of the 16th century; and, though the Latin is infinitely superior, yet, even in English, much of genuine poetry, according to Horace's definition of it, is manifest. Some pretty specimens in the epigrammatic style are to be found teward the end of the book. The author has given some exercises in Sapphic and Alcaic verse, preceded by a few concise but invaluable canons for those noble metres, the favourites of the inimitable Horace. About the year 1775, if I mistake not, Sir Wm. Browne, Knt. M. D. directed three gold medals to be given-the first to him who writes the best Greek ode in imitation of Sappho, the second for the best Latin ode in imitation of Horace, the third for the best Greek and Latin epigrams; the former after the manner of the Anthologia, and the later after the model of Martial. Since that period the epigrammatic style, and the composition of Sapphic and Alcaic verse, has been much attended to in the higher forms of our public schools; nor is this to be wondered at when we find many of the heads of the above and first classics among the list of successful candidates. It is to be wished that Mr. U. had given more examples in the lyrics; he will perhaps turn his attention to this suggestion before the publication of a second edition.


SIR,-Having perceived, in your excellent miscellany,

Most people must have heard the satirical "Nos Gérmani non cúramus quantitatem syllabarum." Whether the German classics ever merited, to the full extent, the implied severity, I cannot take upon me to determine; but certain it is, that the celebrated Heyne has justly incurred the censure of late critics, for not comprehending the important branch of versification in his classical courses. From what knowledge I have of the present state of classical literature in Germany, I can state that, at the present time, the Germans are not liable to the charge. We ourselves can now boast of a Bloomfield, a Monk, a Parr, a Butler, a Kidd, a Barker, a Burgess, a Russell, &c. Ali the above have shown, by their own example, that they esteem

The truth, then, of my assertion is evident from y of the above accounts, viz. that although the custom drinking or pledging healths, barbarous in its origin, jet now necessary, yet that it once was necessary. And, the assertion of your correspondent, that it was never testery at all, proves only his ignorance of the fact. I do not know, Sir, how your correspondent makes out that I thought the argument of "silently and adly bringing to our support the authority of a great Ame" a very grand one. I gave the sentence just as it and now between the commas, without calling it grand, Eat, or any thing of the kind. But what is the refutahe gives to the argument of authority? "That the atest man is liable to errors, and may have been mistaCurious Fact in Natural History.-It is a fact, we be4 with regard to the very thing which we are examin-metrical knowledge of the greatest importance to the forma-lieve, not much known, that the eel, though it lives in an Also, "That his authority may have been praiseatmospheric changes, is yet singularly affected by high element that seems to place it beyond the reach of the orthy in almost every instance except just that under winds. This is well known to the inhabitants of Linlithnsideration." Your correspondent, of course, then, does gow, who have an excellent opportunity of observing the way at once with testimony and authority; for if we take habits of that animal, in the loch adjoining the town. athority at all, it certainly must be that of great men. The stream which flows out of that loch at the west end nd when he takes away the testimony of great men, reservoir, from which it escapes by a number of holes in passes through a sluice, and falls into an artificial stone e shakes the foundation of society. The authenticity the sides and bottom. These holes are too small to let ancient volumes, which are delivered down from age to eels of a common size pass, and hence this reservoir ange, and which depend solely on the authority of great swers the purposes of an eel-trap or cruive. The fish, ad good men, is destroyed at once. But I would have however, are rarely found in it in calm weather; but when strong winds blow, especially from the west, these tenants 4m to know, that the testimony which gives authenticity of the waters seem to be seized with a general panic, and a volume, may, by the same rule, be brought in suphurry from their lodgings like rats from a conflagration. opinion; for many books depend solely for At these times they rush through the outlet in crowds, heir truth on the opinion of great men. But I forbear to and fall pell mell into the reservoir, from which they are ay any more on a point which is attempted to be refuted During the late high winds, a cart-load was taken out of speedily transferred to the frying-pans of the burgesses. > such ridiculous reasons: your correspondent argues the reservoir every day, and in one day no less than two against himself. Can any thing be more absurd than to cart-loads!

port of an

ton of the elegant classical scholar. Eton, and many of
our primary schools have cultivated the study for many
years, and it must be grateful to men of classical taste to
find that their example is becoming more generally imi-
tated in the respectable private establishments throughout
Britain. Scotland, hitherto notoriously negligent on this
head, seems to have become sensible of the utility of me-
trical compositions, as we find, from the speech of the
chaplain to the new Edinburgh school, that it is intended
to pursue the study of that art to an extent commensurate
with its importance.

I was led more immediately to the present remarks by
the perusal of a book entitled Studia Metrica, by a Mr.
Underwood, a gentleman who is, I believe, now resident
in this town. To Mr. U.'s mode of teaching versification,
as exhibited in the preface, I cannot subscribe. It may
answer, and possibly very well, with private tutors,

During the life of Porson, Perry's Morning Chronicle,

and other periodicals were often adorned with Latin metrical emanations from his pen; and were this art to be cultivated in proportion to its utility and elegance, we should perhaps see the Kaleidoscope, and other similar publications, more frequently graced with elegant productions of this sort. If you approve of the present contribution, I shall be happy, at a future period, to forward my senti. ments with regard to other branches of the ancient languages.-Meantime, accept the good wishes of a


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The subject of education, and particularly of popular instruction, has of late excited an unusually large portion of public interest and inquiry; and we have, therefore, pleasure in drawing attention to Mr. J. S. Walker's intention to give a lecture on the general advantages of education. After Mr. W.'s address a debate will commence, on the moral character of the present community I compared with that of former times-and as Mr. W. has taken means to secure the attendance of several gentlemen who will deliver their opinions on this occasion, an animated and interesting discussion is anticipated. The Lecture will be given at Mr. Paris's elegant and commodious saloon, Hardman-street, this evening (Tuesday.)



PARKER-STREET, for SALE BY PRIVATE CONTRACT, or SUBSCRIPTION SHARES, the celebrated Picture of the WHITE HORSE, by Sir P. P. RUBENS, with a Portrait of the Archduke Albert of Austria, his Patron.

This Picture infinitely surpasses any of the kind ever painted; the manly elegance of the Prince, the correct Drawing and Foreshortening of the Horse, are the happiest efforts of Art; and Praise cannot be too lavish on the Beauty and Delicacy of the Colouring, which form, altogether, one of the finest Pictures of this inestimable Master.

SEVEN FEET SIX INCHES BY FIVE FEET. Also, the Splendid Picture of the CIRCUMCISION, by Andrea del Sarto, 6 feet by 5.

The Composition, Colouring, and Figures in this Picture are the genuine characteristics of this great Master. To be disposed of by Subscription Shares; likewise, to be seen at Messrs. WINSTANLEYS'.

Particulars of the Shares may be known from Messrs. WINSTANLEY.

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