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8 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְאוֹנָן בָּא אֶל־אֵשֶׁת אָחִיךָ וְיַבֵּם אֹתָהּ וְהָקֵם זֶרַע לְאָחִיךְ ; 9 וַיִּדַע אוֹנָן כִּי לֹא לוֹ יִהְיֶה הַזְרע וְהָיָה אִם־בָּא אֶל־אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו וְשִׁחֵת אַרְצָה לְבִלְתִּי נְתָן זֶרַע לְאָחִיו : 10 וַיָּרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיָּמֶת גַּם־אֹתוֹ : 11 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ שְׁבֵי אַלְמָנָה בֵּית־אָבִיךְ עַד־יִגְדַּל שֵׁלָה בְנִי כִּי אָמַר פֶּן־יָמוּת גַּם־ הוּא כְּאֶחָיו וַתֵּלֶךְ תָּמָר וַתֵּשֶׁב בֵּית אָבִיהָ: 12 וַיִּרְבּוּ הַיָּמִים וַתָּמָת בַּת־שְׁמַע אֵשֶׁת־יְהוּדָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוּדָה ויעל עַל־גזזי צאנוֹ הוּא וְחִירָה רֵעֶהוּ הָעֶדְלָּמִי תִּמְנָתָה: 13 וַיִּגַּד לְתָמָר לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָמִיךְ עלֶה תִמְנָתָה לָגָן צאנו : 14 וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָה מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצְעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה: 15 וַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לְזוֹנָה כִּי כַסְתָה פָּנֶיהָ : 16 ויט אֵלֶיהָ אֶל־הַדֶּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָבָה־נָא אָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ כִּי לֹא יָדַע כִּי כַלָּתוֹ הִוא וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־־תִּתֶּן־לִי כִּי תָבוֹא אֵלָי: 17 וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֲשַׁלַּח גְּדִי עַזִים מִן־הַצָאן וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־תִּתֵּן עֵרָבוֹן עֵד שָׁלְחֶךְ : 18 וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֶרֶבון אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן־לָךְ וַתֹּאמֶר חֹתָמְךְ וּפְתִילֶךְ וּמַטְךְ

שֶׁר בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן־לָהּ וַיְבָא אֵלֶיהָ וַתַּהַר לוֹ: 19 וַתָּקָם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ: 20 וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה אֶת־גְּדִי הָעֲלִים בְּיַד רֵעֶהוּ הָעֶרְלָמִי לָקַחַת הָעֶרָבוֹן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מְצָאָהּ: 21 וַיִּשְׁאַל אֶת־אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמָהּ לֵאמֹר אַיִךְ הַקְדֵשָׁה הִוא בָעֵינֶים

ל־הַדֶּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא־הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה : 22 וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא־־מְצָאתִיהָ וְגַם אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם אָמְרוּ לֹא־־הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה : 23 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה תְּקַח־לָה פֶן נִהְיֶה לָבוּז הִנֵּה שָׁלַחְתִּי הַגְּדִי הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא מְצָאתָהּ: 24 וַיְהִי בְּמִשְׁלְשׁ חָרָשִׁים וַיִּגַּד לִיהוּדָה

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empty, there was no water in it. 34 And Jacob rent his clothes,

25 And they sat down to eat and put sackcloth upon his loins, bread and they lift up their eyes and mourned for his son many days. and looked, and behold, a company

35 And all his sons and all his of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, daughters rose up to comfort him; with their camels bearing spicery, but he refused to be comforted; and balm, and myrrh, going to and he said, For I will go down carry it down to Egypt.

into the grave unto my son mourn26 And Judah said unto his ing: Thus his father wept for him. brethren, What profit is it if we 36 And the Midianites sold him slay our brother, and conceal his into Egypt, unto Potiphar, an blood ? *

officer of Pharaoh's, and captain 27 Come, and let us sell him to

of the guard. || the Ishmaelites, and let not our CHAP. XXXVIII. hand be upon him; for he is our 1 Judah begetteth Er, Onan, and brother, and our flesh: and his

Shelah. ' 6 Er marrieth Tamar. brethren were content. $

8 The trespass of Onan.

by ites, merchant-men; and they drew. AND- it came to pass at that and lift up Joseph out of the pit, time, that Judah went down from and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites, his brethren,' and turned into a for twenty pieces of silver: and certain Adullamite, whose name they brought Joseph into Egypt.

was Hirah. 29 9 And Reuben returned unto 2 And Judah saw there a daughthe pit; and behold, Joseph was ter of a certain Canaanite, whose not in the pit : and he rent his name was Shuah; and he took her, clothes.

and went in unto her. 30 And he returned unto his 3 And she conceived and bare a brethren, and said, The child is son; and he called his name Er. not; and I, whither shall I go? 4 And she conceived again, and

31 And they took Joseph's coat, bare a son; and she called his and killed a kid of the goats, and name Onan. dipped the coat in the blood. 5 And she yet again conceived,

32 And they sent the coat of and bare a son: and called his many colours, and they brought name Shelah, and he was at Chezib, it to their father; and said, This when she bare him. have we found : know now whether 6 And Judah took a wife for it be thy son's coat or no.

Er his first-born, whose name was 33 And he knew it, and said, Tamar. It is my son's coat; an evil beast 7 And Er, Judah's first-born, hath devoured him: Joseph is was wicked in the sight of the without doubt rent in pieces. LORD; and the Lord slew him.

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left the body; but as the coat is found and not the body, it is clear that an evil beast hath devoured him. Abarbanel.

* The learned Abarbanel hath observed, that there are but three things which influence a person to commit murder ; viz. First, to take from him his wealth ; Second, revenge; Third, to exult over him as a conqueror : to all which Judah replied. For as to the first, says he, what profit will accrue to us from it? Secondly, he is our brothes, so that we should take revenge on our own flesh and blood; and thirdly, we must cunceal his blood;, and consequently cau have no opportunity of boasting over him.

That is, according to the Hebrew, they hearkened to him-paid attention to what he said, and were willing to follow his advice.

Heb. Eunuch. Although the word does not signify eunuchs only : but also courtiers, officers, and chamberlains. || Heb. Chief of the slaughtermen, or executioners. Nachmanides and Abarbanel.

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וְהַבּוֹר רֵק אֵין בּוֹ מָיִם: 25 וַיִּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל-לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגְלְעָד וּנְמַלֵיהֶם נִשְׁאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוריד מִצְרָיְמָה: 25 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה אֶל־אֶחָיו מַה־בֶּצַע כִּי נַהֲרֹן אֶת־אָחִינוּ וְכְסִינוּ אֶת־־דָמְוֹ: 27 לְכוּ וְנִמְכְּרֵנוּ לישְׁמָעֵאלִים וְיָדֵנוּ אַל־תְּהִי-בוֹ כִּי־אָחִינוּ בְשָׂרֵנוּ הוּא וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶחִין : 28 וַיַּעַבְרוּ אֲנָשִׁים מִדְיָנִים סְחֵרִים וַיִּמְשְׁכוּ וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף מִן־הַבּוֹר וַיִּמְכְּרְוּ אֶת־־יוֹסֵף לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים בְּעֶשְׂרִים כָּסֶף וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף מִצְרָיְמָה : - 29 וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין-יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע

אֶת־בְּגָדָיו : 30 וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־אֶחָיו וַיֹּאמַר הַיֶלֶד אֵינֶנּוּ וַאֲנִי אָנָה אֲנִי־בָא; 31 וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־כְּתְנֶת יוֹסֶף וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ שְׂעִיר עִים וַיִּטְבְּלוּ אֶת־־הַכְּתְּנֶת בַּדָּם: 33 וַיְשַׁלְחוּ אֶת־כְּתְנֶת הַפַּסִים וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶל־אֲבִיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ זאת מָצָאנוּ הַכֶּר־נָא הַכְּתְנֶת בִּנְךָ הִוא אִם־לֹא: 33 וַיַּכִּירָה וַיֹּאמֶר כָּתְנֶת בְּנֵי חַיָּה רָעָה אֲכָלָתְהוּ טָרָף טרָף ייֶסֶף :

וַיִּקְרַע יַעֲקב שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם עַק בְּמָתְנָיו וַיִּתְאַבֵּל עַל־ בְּנוֹ יָמִיסְ רַבִּים : 35 וַיָּקָמוּ כָּל־בָּנָיו וְכָל־בְּנֹתָיו לְנַחֲמוֹ וַיְמָאֵן לְהִתְנַחֵם וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֵרֶךְ אֶל־בְּנֵי אָבֶל שְׁאֲלָה וַיִּבְךְ אֹתוֹ אָבִיו : 36 וְהַמְדָנִים מָכְרָוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מִצְרָיִם

לְפָוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַבָּחִים : לח

וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו וַיַּט עַר־־אִישׁ עֶרְלָמִי וּשְׁמָוֹ חִירָה : 2 וַיַּרְא־שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת־אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי וּשְׁמוֹ שְׁבַּע וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבִא אֵלֶיהָ: 3 וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ עֶר : 4 וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֶּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ, אוֹנָן : 5 וַתִּסֶף עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֶׁלָה וְהָיָה בִכְזִיב בְּלִדְתָּה אֹתוֹ :

וַיִּקְח יְהוּדָה אִשָּׁה לְעֶר בְּכוֹרוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ תָּמָר : 7 וַיְהִי עֶר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רֶע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיְמִתֵהוּ יְהוָה :

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round about, and made obeisance him, and behold, he was wandering to my sheaf.

in the field : and the man asked 8 And his brethren said unto him, saying, What seekest thou? him, Shalt thou indeed reign over 16 And he said, I seek my us? or shalt thou indeed have brethren: tell me, I pray thee, dominion over us? And they hated where they feed their flocks ? him yet the more for his dreams, 17 And the man said, They are and for his words.

departed hence: for I heard them 9 And he dreamed yet another say, Let us go to Dothan. And dream, and told it his brethren, Joseph went after his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed : and found them in Dothan. a dream more, and behold, the 18 And when they saw him afar sun and the moon, and the eleven off, even before he came near unto stars made obeisance to me. them, they conspired against him,

10 And he told it to his father, to slay him. and to his brethren: * and his 19 And they said one to another, father rebuked him, S and said unto Behold, this dreamer cometh. || him, What is this dream that thou 20 Come now therefore, and hast dreamed ? Shall I and thy let us slay him, and cast him into mother and thy brethren indeed some pit; and we will say some come to bow down ourselves to evil beast hath devoured him: 1 thee, to the earth.

and we shall see what will become 1) And his brethren envied of his dreams. him: but his father observed the 21 And Reuben heard it, and he saying

delivered him out of their hands: 12 | And his brethren went to and said, Let us not kill him. feed their father's flock in Shechem. 22 And Reuben said unto them,

13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Shed no blood, but cast him into Do not thy brethren feed the flock this pit that is in the wilderness, in Shechem ? Come, and I will and lay no hand upon him; that send thee unto them. And he he might rid him out of their said unto him, Here am I. I hands, to deliver him to his father

14 And he said to him, Go, I again. pray thee, see whether it will be 23 | And it came to pass when well with thy brethren, and well Joseph was come unto his brethren, with the flocks; and bring me that they stript Joseph out of his word again. So he sent him out of coat, his coat of many colours the vale of Hebron, and he came that was on him. to Shechem.

24 And they took him, and cast 15 | And a certain man found him into a pit; and the pit was

* After he had told it to his brethren, he again told it to his father in their presence, Jarchi.

Not in anger, but to prevent or allay the anger of his brethren, when they perceived that his father treated it with a kind of contempt.

Here we have a proof of the meekness, as also the submission of Joseph to his father's command, in the readiness he shewed to obey him, notwithstanding his being sensible of the hatred which bis brethren bare to him.

# Heb. Master of dreams. They called him the master of dreams, because they were of opinion that he did not really dream those dreams which he told them, but had devised them of himself: for which reason they said, Come now therefore, and let us slay him, &c. and we shall see what will become of his dreams." This they said by way of derision. Which of the brethren it was that uttered this expression, we cannot be certain ; but it is the opinion of the commentators that it was Simeon and Levi: and when the whole is considered, it will appear, that there is great probability of truth in this opinion ; for Reuben and Judah did not seem to wish his death: and as to the children of the hand-maids, they were not of esteem sufficient to talk in that manner against the favorite son of their father ; besides, he was in the habit of friendship with them. See verse 2.

For, said they, when our father sees the coat of many colours brought to him he will easily believe our tale ; for had he been murdered by rubbers, they would have taken the coat, and have

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