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VOL. 4.]

Barrow's History of Polar Voyages.

431

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the women were marked with black in a large sound, in which they saw so streaks. They seemed to worship the sun, many whales that they named it Whale pointing constantly to it and stroking Sound : it lies in latitude 77° 30'. their breasts, and calling out at the same Between two great sounds was an istime Ilyout! The men and dogs are land, which they called Hakluyt's buried in the same manner, each having Island, and the latter sound Sir Thomas a heap of stones piled over them. Smith's Sound, which runneth to the

“ Departing from hence they stood north of 78°, and is admirable in one away to the northward, between the ice respect, because in it is the greatest vaand the land, being in a channel as it riation in the compasse of any part of were of seven or eight leagues wide, the world known; for, by divers good till they came to the latitude 74° 4', observations, I found it to be above when they found themselves much pes- points or fifty-six degrees varied to the tered with the ice; and here they westward.' To a cluster of islands dropped anchor near three small islands, Baffin gave the name of Carey's Islands, which appeared to be occasionally vis- but he does not give their position. ited by the people of the neighbouring “ The wind being favourable, they coast. They then tried to make their stood to the south-westward, in an open way to the westward, but the ice was sea, and with a stiff gale of wind, till too firm to let them pass : and there- the 10th, when it became calm and fogfore they returned to some islands in gy; they were then near the land, in latitude 73° 45' to wait till the ice the entrance of a fair sound, which they (wbich they observed to consume very named Alderman Jones's Sound. The fast) should disappear. During their boat was sent on shore, but it soon restay at this place, some forty of the turned on account of the bad weather ; patives came in their boats and ex- no sigo of people were seen, but abunchanged seals' skins, sea-morse teeth, dance of sea morses among the ice. and unicorn's horns, for small pieces of Standing on to the westward, they iron, glass beads, and such like. To opened out, on the 12th, another great this place they gave the name of Horn sound in 74° 20', which they named Sound.

Sir James Lancaster's Sound. Here,' “ On the 18th, on perceiving that says Baffio, our hope of passage bemuch of the ice had already wasted, gan to be lesse every day than other, for they proceeded northerly ; but the from this sound to the southward wee weather was extremely cold with much had a ledge of ice betweene the shoare snow, and Baffin

says,

it froze so hard, and us, but cleare to the seaward; wee that on Midsommer day our shrowds kept close by this ledge of ice till the roapes, and sailes, were so frozen that 14th day in the afternoone, by which we could scarce handle them. By the time wee were in the latitude of 71° 16' 1st July, being then in latitude 75° 40', and plainely perceived the land to the they had got into and open sea,' which,' southward of 70° 30' ; then wee, haysays Baffin, anew revived the hope of ing so much ice round about us, were of a passage.' On the second they forced to stand more eastward ;' and in found a fair cape or headland, which this direction they ran amongst the ice they named Sir Dudley Digges's Cape, threescore leagues, nor could they apin latitude 76° 35', and twelve leagues proach the land till they came to about beyond this a fair sound, having an 68°, and being then unable to get to island in the midst, making two en- the shore on account of the ice, they trances. To this sound they gave the drifted down to 65° 40'. “Then,' says name of Wolstenholme Sound; it is Baffin, 'wee left off seeking to the west described as having many inlets or shoare, because wee were in the insmaller sounds in it, and as a fit place draft of Cumberland's Isles, and should for the killing of whales.

know no certaintie and hope of passage “On the 4th, the weather being could be none.' stormy, they found themselves embayed

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432

Barrow's History of Polar Voyages.

(VOL. 4

“ This voyage (adds Mr. Barrow), the work before us. In mentioning the which ought to have been, and indeed navigation of the Portuguese family of may still be, considered as the most in- Cortereal and their entrance of the St. interesting and important either before Lawrence, it is said, or since,is the most vague,indefinite,and “ As to the name of Canada, which unsatisfactory of all others, and the ac

was given to the country on the right count of it most unlike the writing of of the entrance, it was by many geograWilliam Baffin. In all his other journals, phers confined to a village situated at we have not only the latitude and longi- the confluence of the Seguenai, and, tude noted down, but the observations according to most writers, originated in of the heavenly bodies from which they the following circumstance :- When were deduced, and the arithmetical the Portuguese first ascended the river, operation inserted; the longitude, the under the idea that it was a strait, thro' variation and declination of the mag- which a passage to the Iudies might be netic needle, the courses, steered, and a discovered--on arriving at the point variety of particulars entered on the wbere they ascertained that it was not proper day; but in this most important a strait, bút a river, they, with all the voyage, purporting to have reached emphasis of disappointed hopes, exmany degrees of latitude beyond any claimed repeatedly, Cà, nada !-(Here, preceding voyage, and to have skirted nothing !) which words caught the atthe coast and islands of America, where tention of the natives,and were rememthe passage

must have been found, if it bered and repeated by them on seeing has any existence, we have neither other Europeans, onder Jacques Carcourse, nor distance, nor variation of tier, arrive in 1531—but Cartier misthe compass, except once, and no one takes the object of the Portuguese to longitude whatever ; so vague and inde- have been gold mines, not a passage to fioite, indeed, is every information left, India ; and if the Portuguese account which could be useful, that each suc- be true, he also mistook the exclamaceeding geographer has drawn “ Baf. tion of Cà nada for the name of the fin's Bay" on his chart as best accorded country. with his fancy.”

Our readers are aware that there have It

been some attempts made by land as be observed, that this result may was in great measure owing to the cir- well as by water to reach the Polar cumstance of Baffin's

basin. of reference

Of these the most prominent map never having been printed ; for is

were the journies of Mr.Samuel H-arne now clear that he not only reached near

in 1772, and of Mr. Alexander Macly if not quite as high a latitude, but kenzie in 1789. By a glance at the correctly described the objects there map it will be seen that they have sevpresented to view, as Captain Ross erally affixed their names to points of

the North American continent, about with all his advantages has been able to do, excepting the discovery of a new

the 70th degree of latitude, the foriner race of people, certainly under the in 110, and the latter near 133 of west shade of a little romance if we rely on

longitude. But it seems more than the Newspaper statements which have problematical that either ever reached

We shall therefore abstain appeared concerning them. We

presume that they are Esquimaux driven from noticing their narratives or pointnorth by Indian outrage, for it is not ing out thesr inconsistencies, and coneasy to conceive that they have either clude with a brief account of Captain originated in the latitudes where they

Buchan's expedition into the interior of are planted or been derived from higher. Newfoundland, of which it is astonishBut it is premature to inquire into this ing how little is really known at this matter; and we shall proceed to quote

day. two or three other curious passages, re

“Since the first establishment of the lating to various epochs as specimens of fishery on the banks of Newfoundland,

the sea.

were

VOL. 4.]
Barrow's History of Polar Voyages.

433 very little communication has at any go on with Mr. Buchan. They did so time been had with the natives of this till they came near the place to which large island, and for more than half a they were to be conducted, when one century past none at all; indeed, it of them became panic-struck and fled. was considered by many as doubtful But the tempers of the two men whether there were on the island any different. The latter remained unshapermanent inhabitants, or whether the ken in bis determination, and with a Indians, sometimes seen on the western cheerful countenance and an air of percoast, did not come in their canoes fect confidence in the good faith of his across the Strait of Belleisle merely for new allies, motioned to them with his the purpose of fishing and killing deer. hand to proceed; disregarding his A settler, however, reported that, in the companion, and seeming to treat with autumn of 1810, he bad discovered a scorn Mr. Buchan's invitation, to depart storehouse on the banks of the River freely if he chose to do so. Soon afterof Exploits. Upon this report, Sir wards the party reached their rendezJohn Duckworth sent Lieutenant (now vous; slept there one night ; loaded Captain) Buchan, commander of the themselves with the presents and returnschooner Adonis, to the Bay of Es- ed again to the wigwams. The behaviour ploits, for the purpose of undertaking of the Indian remained always the same. an expedition into the interior, with a He continued to shew a generous confiview of opening a communication with dence, and the whole tenor of his conthe native Indians, if any such were to duct was such as Mr. Buchan could be found. His vessel was soon frozen not witness without a feeling of esteem up in the bay ; and on the 12th Janu- for him. ;

On arriving at the wigwams ary, 1811, Mr. Buchan began his march they were found deserted, and the lointo the interior, along the banks of the dian became exceedingly alarmed, river, accompanied by twenty-four of Many circumstances determined Mr. his crew, and three guides ; and, having Buchan to let him be at perfect liberty; penetrated about one hundred and thir- and this treatment revived his spirits. ty miles, discovered some wigwams of The party spent the night at the wigthe natives. He surprised them; and wams, and continued their route in the their inhabitants, in number about sev. morning. They had proceeded about enty-five persons, became in his power. a mile, when, being a little in advance He succeeded in overcoming their ex- before the rest of the party, the Indian treme terror, and soon established a was seen to start suddenly backward. good understanding with them. Four He screamed loudly and fled with a of the men, among whom was their swiftness that rendered pursuit in vain.” chief, accepted his invitation to accompany them back to the place where, as The cause of his flight is thus told in he explained to them by sigos, he had Mr. Buchan's Journal :left some presents which he designed for them.

“ We observed that for an instant he “ The confidence by this time exist- stopped to look at something lying on ing was mutual, and so great, that two the ice ; but in another instant we lost of Mr. Buchan's people requested to sight of bim in the haze. On coming remain with the Indians till his return up we recognized with horror the bodwith the presents. They were permit- ies of our two unfortunate companions ted to do so ; and Mr.Buchan set out on lying about á hundred yards apart ; his return to his depôt, with the remain- that of the corporal was pierced by an der of the party and the four Indians. arrow in the back; and three arrows They continued together for about six had entered the other ; they were laid miles (to the resting place of the night out strait with their feet towards the before,) when the chief declined going river, and backs upwards, their heads any farther, and with one of his men were off, and no vestige of garments took leave, directing the other two to left; several broken arrows were lying

3G ATHENEUM VOE. 4.

434

Account of Mr. Burckhard and his Works.

[vol.4

ble.

about, and a quantity of bread, which could be expected from so short and must have been emptied out of the fatal an intercourse, we shall probably knapsacks ; very little blood was visi- insert it in a future number. In the

meantime we take leave of this highly

entertaining and interesting volume. We are sorry that our limits prevent (In our next No. we propose giving the Account of us from copying the notice of the habi- Newfoundland and its Natives, mentioned above, tations and manners, &c. of these sav- and also two interesting Letters from Officers en

gaged in the late Expedition to the Arctic Reages ; but as it is more curious than

gions.]

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BURCKHARD THE TRAVELLER.

From the Literary Gazette. TH VE English African Association, &c. of the country, as to assimilate him

which has so laudably exerted it- self entirely with the native Arabs. At self for the discovery of the interior of one time he made excursions to the Africa, is now on the point of publish- Lesgians and Houran, at another visited ing, through its secretary, Mr. Hamil- the ruins of Palmyra and Balbeck, at ton, (the under secretary of state, author another resided for whole months in of the Egyptiaca, and other valuable the most northerly Provinces of Syria, works,) authentic accounts of the in- among the Turcomans. His journals comparable Sheik Ibrahim, the high- and observations during these years, spirited traveller Burckhard.

which he called his apprenticeship, are Burckhard, a Swiss by birth, belongs, all in the possession of the African Ashowever, as a sage, such as Cicero sociation. On the 18th June, 1812, paints," qui omnem orbem terrarum he began his first journey to Cabira, unam urbem esse ducunt,” to the whole from Damascus. Avoiding the beaten human race.

He was a younger son track from El-Arish, to the frontiers of of the ancient and most respectable fa- Egypt, he went, disguised as a poor mily of that name, and born at Zurich. Bedouin, by Palestine, to the East of Full of generous indignation at the idea the Jordan, by way of Szalte, through of becoming, under the banners of Na- Arabia Petræa, and the desert of El poleon, an instrument of oppression, Ty. When he arrived at Cahira, he came at the end of the year 1808 to on the 4th of September, he was fully England, where he was introduced by determined to penetrate into the interior the venerable Sir Joseph Banks to the with the first caravan to Fezzap or African Association. He considered Darfour. This plan could not be exethe death of Mungo Park as doubtful; cuted at that time. Instead of this he and the fate of Houghton, Hornemann, undertook two highly dangerous jourand Ledyard, did not deter him. His' nies into the ancient Ethiopia. The moral character, his robust constitution, first was from Assouan to the fronhis rare quickness of understanding, tiers of Dongola. It was here that he which facilitated the acquisition of eve- found, in the months of February and ry species of knowledge, made his ea- March 1813, many ancient Egyptian gaging in the service of the African As- and Nubian ruins, with Greek inscripsociation desirable to all parties, and he' tions like those at Philæ. He underreceived from every quarter encourage- took the second journey in the summer ment and assistance, He departed of 1814, through Nubia to Suakem from England on the 2d of May, 1809, and Djedda. His detailed accounts, and arrived at Aleppo (by way of Mal- which are in England, contain the ta) in the beginning of July. He pas- most extensive information that ever sed the whole of the three following has been given of the present state of years in acquiring so thorough an ac- civilization in this country, which was quaintance with the language, manners, once the cradle of all the knowledge of

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VOL. 4.]
Literary Character of Mr. Coleridge.

435 the Egyptian priests. He then, in the the 5th of October, 1817, after he had character of ä Mahomedan pilgrim, been walking, full of health and spirits, visited Mecca and Medina, saw and with the British Consul general, Mr. observed every thing with perfect secu- Salt, in his garden, he was seized with rity, as he was now not to be distin- so dreadful a dysentery, that, notwithguished in any respect from the natives. standing all the exertions of Dr. RichThe African Association received the ardson, travelling physician to Lord most particular information on sub- Belmore, who happened to be on the jects, such as do European before him spot, he died on the 15th of the same was ever able to give, and a complete month. According to his last will, he history of the Wechabites, from the was buried as Sheik Ibrahim, with first origin of that sect, 60 years ago, Mahometan ceremonies. To his friend to their last treaty of peace with Ma- Osman, an Englishman, whom Mr. homet Ali, Pacha of Egypt, in 1815. Salt had prevailed on the Pacha to reHis last excursion was from Cahira, lease from slavery, he bequeathed 1000 which now remained his permanent piastres, and remembered his faithful abode, to Mount Sinai, and to the servant and all his other friends. When Eastern point of the Red Sea. To his dying, he dictated, “ let Mr. Hamilton uncommonly valuable journal of this acquaint my mother with my death, journey, is added a memoir on the and say that my last thoughts were alMarch of the Israelites through the ways with her.' He left his library to Desert.

the University of Cambridge, and conOur Traveller collected also for the fided the care of it to the well known Association, Glossaries of African Lan- traveller, Dr. Clarke. Whoever knew guages, which he obtained by question- him, could not but consider him as peing the natives who visited Egypt, culiarly qualified to execute a plan during his forced stay in that country, nerer yet accomplished. Free from all also 999 Arabian Proverbs, with an petty selfishness, he had only the grand English Commentary; and made a object before his view, to which he sa.

'. translation of a burlesque Epic Poem, crificed every thing. Fire sparkled in in the popular language of Cahira, the his eyes. His conversation, in every

. subject of which is a contest between language, was uncommonly interesting. Wine and Bast, (this is the name of All Europeans travelling in Egypt, all intoxicating preparations of hemp were readily assisted with his advice in seed and opium, in that country.) Even the frankest manner. A week before these collections are highly valuable, his fatal sickness, he bought books for and shew that if his life had been pro- Lord Belmore, and for another Enlonged, he would have become one of glishman--the popular oriental novel, the most instructive travellers that ever “ Life and Adventures of Asilar and visited these countries. Burckhard's his beloved Ibla,” in 40 parts, of wbich last writing was composed in May, there is a copy at Vienna, and another 1817. From that time he made all has just been translated into English, preparations for penetrating into the in- and prepared for the press by a secreterior of Africa, with a Caravan, which tary of the British Embassy at Constanwas destined for Murzuck. But on tinople.

a

MR. COLERIDGE.

From the Monthly Magazine. THE man of genius, struggling with a delicate and iogenuous child, moved

adverse circumstances, is one of to sorrow by the slightest chiding, and the most affecting subjects which can pining over the recollection of the most be presented to the imagination. We trivial neglect; beloved, however, by see him first in remote and humble life, his parents with a degree of solicitude

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