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VOL. 4.]

Observations, Anecdotes, &c.


the neighbouring mines, and two hun- hundred tons melted annually, and two dred tons are used every week. The thousand labourers are employed. The coals are, according to the old custom, river Carron puts the machines in mopiled up in heaps of four feet high, tion, and for the dry season a reservoir from six to eight feet broad, and from of thirty acres in extent is kept up. twenty to thirty feet in length. There This undertaking belongs to a society. are in every heap six flues to promote Besides this establishment, Scotland the current of air; the carbonization is possesses many foundries and meltingcompleted in fifty, sixty, or seventy houses, which furnish every year thirtyhours. The coals do not lose much of two thousand seven hundred and sixty their mass. The raw iron is melted in tons, the ton at 71. sterling, which six reverberatory furnaces, and here amounts to 229,3271. sterling; and they make cannon, and a great seven thousand six hundred and twenty many other articles of the coarsest as persons gain their livelihood by this well as of the finest quality. In the institution. Eleven foundries in Glassix furnaces twenty tons are meited at gow alone employ above a thousand a time. We saw a great variety of persons, and the value of their produce manufactured goods, from the largest is above 500,000l. sterling. cannon and carronades for the royal We returned from Carron to Falnavy, to the most elegant chimney or- kirk. From this place the road leads along a well-cultivated chain of hills


There is also in this foundry a great covered with country seats and parks, machine to bore the cannon; the gun to Linlithgow, a small place consisting is placed in a horizontal position; the of ill-built houses. Here we saw begborer lies on a carriage, which is ad- gars for the first time. The country vanced towards the cannon; the latter beyond it is high and well cultivated. turns round its axis without advancing. Night overtook us eight miles from This mechanism is put in motion by Edinburgh, and we were only apprized a fall of water. of our entrance into the city by the There are nearly six thousand five bright illumination in the streets.





mitted the manuscript of his Novum JOTWITHSTANDING the prai- Organum to the perusal of his cousin ses which were lavished upon this Sir Thomas Bodley, who in returning British Solomon, as his flatterers called it, gave him this advice: "One kind of him, it appears that the booksellers were boldness doth draw on another, insofar from being fond of engaging in his much that methinks I should offend works. The learned Thomas Lydyat, not to signify, that before the transcript in a letter to Mr., afterwards Archbish- of your book be fitted for the press, it op, Usher (written August 22, 1611) will be requisite for you to cast a censays, I have sent you the King's book sor's eye upon the stile and elocution, in Latin against Vorstius, yet scant dry which in the frame of your periods, and from the press which Mr. Norton, in divers words and phrases, will hardly who hath the matter wholly in his own go for current, if the copy brought to hands, swore to me, he would not print, me be just the same that you would unless he might have money to print it." publish."

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This great man, of whom the world is yet to seek for a good memoir, subE ATHENEUM. Vol. 4.


Sir Henry Wotton whose history has been so well related by honest Izaack Walton, spent the close of his very busy

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life in Eton College, when he entered into deacon's orders, and he became provost. The year before his death he said on returning to the College from an excursion to Winchester: "How useful was that advice of a holy monk, who persuaded his friend to perform his customary devotions in a constant place, because in that place, we usually meet with those very thoughts which possessed us at our last being there: and (added Sir Henry) I find it thus far experimentally true, that my now being in that school, and seeing that very place where I sat when I was a boy, Occasioned me to remember those very thoughts of my youth which then possessed me; sweet thoughts indeed, that promised my growing years numerous pleasures without mixtures of cares; and these to be enjoyed when time (which I therefore thought slow paced) had changed my youth into manhood; but age and experience have taught me, that these were but empty hopes; for I have always found it true as my Saviour did foretel, sufficient for the day is the evil thereof. Nevertheless I saw there a succession of boys using the same recreations, and questionless possessed with the same thoughts that then possessed me. "Thus one generation succeeds another, both in their lives, recreations, hopes, fears and death."

Their's buxom health of rosy hue,
Wild wit, invention ever new,

And lively cheer of vigour born;
The thoughtless day, the easy night,
The spirits pure, the slumbers light,

That fly th' approach of morn.
Alas, regardless of their doom,

The little victims play;
No sense have they of ills to come,

No care beyond to day :

Yet see how all around them wait
The ministers of human fate,

[VOL. 4

And black misfortune's baleful train !
Ah shew them where in ambush stand
To seize their prey the murderous band,
Ah! tell them they are men.


dramatist have dwelt with rapture upon All the critics upon our immortal his creative genius in bodying the offwords giving powers to airy nothings spring of his imagination, or in other exactly adapted to the character and office for which he had occasion. Among those beings by far the most extraor dinary is Caliban, the monstrous production of a dæmon and a witch, inheriting all the qualities of each parent, and uniting to the most hideous outward form a diabolical malignity and acuteness, with simplicity and ignorance. Yet this uncouth representation loses the credit of originality when the reader ification of lust in the Faery Queen : compares the picture with the person

It was to weet, a wild and savage man,

Let the whole of this beautiful senti- Yet was no man, but only like in shape, ment be compared with Gray's Ode on a distant prospect of Eton College, and I

am much mistaken if the reader will not
at once see the original germ of that
pathetic composition.

Ah happy hills, ah pleasing shade,
Ah fields belov'd in vain,

Where once my careless childhood stray'd,
A stranger yet to pain!

I feel the gales that from ye blow
A momentary bliss bestow,

As waving fresh their gladsome wing,
My weary soul they seem to sooth,
And, redolent of joy and youth,
To breathe a second spring.

But it is in the description of the sportive joys of the youthful train that the sage instructs the poet.

Gay hope is theirs, by faney led
Less pleasing when possest;

The tear forgot as soon as shed,

The sunshine of the breast;

And eke in stature, higher by a span,
All over-grown with hair, that could awhape

An hardy heart, and his wide mouth did gape

With huge great teeth like to a tusked boar,
For he lived all on rapine and on rape,

Of men and beasts, and fed on fleshly gore,
The sign whereof yet stain'd his lips afore.

His nether lip was not like man nor beast,
But like a wide deep poke, down hanging low,
In which he wont the relics of his feast
And cruel spoil, which he had spar'd, to stow;
And over it his huge great nose did grow,
Full dreadfully empurpled all with blood,
And down both sides two wide long ears did glow.

In the play Caliban shews the contracted limits of his knowledge and his attempt at grateful feeling, by the following very natural expressions:

I prithee let me bring thee where crabs grow,
And I with my long nails will dig thee pig nuts,
Shew thee a jay's nest, and instruct thee how
To snare the nimble marmozet. I'll bring thee
To clust'ring filberds; and sometimes I'll get thee
Young shamois from the rock.


VOL. 4.]

Origin of Signs, &c.-The Custle.


On turning to the third book of the conception and magical influence over Faery Queen, we meet with this descrip- the passions must ever command the tion of an Incubus, or at least the son of admiration of mankind, even should the a witch, and his awkward courtship of a language in which he wrote ever cease young damsel in distress who had put to be a living tongue.

herself under the beldam's protection.

Oft from the forest wildings he did bring
Whose sides empurpled were with smiling red;
And oft young birds, which he had taught to sing,
His mistress' praises, sweetly caroled;
Garlands of flowers, sometimes for her fair head
He fine would dight: sometimes the squirrel wild
He brought to her in bands, as conquered
To be her thrall-

In pointing out these coincidences of apparent imitation, it is not intended to cast the slightest reflection upon the genius of the mighty master of the human heart, whose original powers



In the year 1738 the patriotic bookseller Andrew Millar printed a new edition of Milton's Areopagitica with an admirable preface written in a style of animation equal to the unanswerable performance which it recommends. The author of this preface was James Thomson, the poet; and any publisher, who should undertake to reprint the book at this time would render an acceptable service to the public.

From the Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1818.


THE greater part of the castles built by the Saxons were in ruins at the time of the Norman invasion, which was one reason why William made himself master of the country with so much facility. The Conqueror, to overawe his newly-acquired subjects, began to repair and augment the old castles, and to erect new fortresses in the principal cities; and, as he parcelled out the lands of the English among his followers, they, to protect themselves against the resentment of those whom they had despoiled, built castles for their own residence on their estates. These haronial edifices multiplied so fast, that in the turbulent reign of Stephen there were no less than 1,115 castles in this kingdom.

Numerous venerable remains of feudal strength and grandeur still exist; and it is therefore not to be wondered at that "the Castle" should be a favorite sign. Among the houses thus distinguished, I would particularize for their excellence the splendid hotel at Marlborough, built on the site of the antient fortress, and that most comfortable house, the principal inn at Tamworth, situated near the venerable cas-tle which proudly overlooks that antient


town, once the residence of the Mercian

monarchs, the scene of many events of historic interest, and where the heroic Ethelfleda, who followed her father Alfred with hardy unequal steps, and who rebuilt the castle and the town after their destruction by the Danes, breathed her last, July 19, 919.

Tamworth Castle, with the adjacent property, I am grieved to say, was alienated about a year or two ago, for the first time since the Conquest; it having descended in a direct line from Robert Marmion, Lord of Fontenoy, in Normandy, to whom the Conqueror originally granted it, thro' the families of Freville and Ferrers, to its late noble possessor, the Marquess Townshend, Earl of Leicester, and President of the Antiquarian Society, who was much attached to the venerable fabrick. The Marmions exercised the office of King's Champion on the day of coronation; but it appears that they enjoyed this privilege in right of their manor of Scrivelsby in Lincolnshire. The poetical Lord Marmion of Walter Scott is described as of this family; and, on his arrival at Norham Castle,

"They hail'd him Lord of Fontenay,
Of Lutterward and Scrivelbay,

Of Tamworth tower and town."


Biography of M. G. Lewis.

[VOL. 4

In the "Second Part of Henry VI." ridiculous to be omitted, "Castra dicShakspeare, who closely follows the re- ta sunt a castitute, quia ibi omnes caste lations of our old chroniclers, tells us, vivere debent." that a spirit, raised by the witch Jourdain, said of the Duke of Somerset,

"Let him shun Castles

Safer shall he be upon the sandy plains
Than where castles mounted stand."

And in the same Play, in the scene
of the first battle of St. Alban's, fought
May 23, 1455, Richard, after killing
Somerset, exclaims :

"So lie thou there

For underneath an ale-house paltry sign,
The Castle in St. Alban's, Somerset

Hath made the wizard famous by his death."



I have read in comedies and ludicrous essays, of public-houses called the Cat and Fiddle, and the Cat and Bagpipes; but I own that I never saw either of these odd combinations; nor, indeed, do I recollect any sign in which a Cat has been introduced, excepting a Civet-cat over the door of a perfumer's, and a public-house called Puss in Boots." However, I believe that the above-menThe plays of our immortal Drama- tioned signs have been exhibited in or tist, derived from our credulous histo- near London, and probably are so still. rians, have embalmed several instances Between the Cat and Fiddle there of similar prophetic accomplishments. may indeed appear some connexion, as Thus of Henry IV. it was predicted the entrails of the one are supposed to that he should die at Jerusalem; and furnish the strings of the other; or the accordingly he expires in a room in the sign might originate in the ambiguity of palace of the Abbot of Westminster, the word kit, at once the abbreviation that was called the Jerusalem Chamber. of kitten, and a small violin. It was foretold of William de la Pole, first Duke of Suffolk :

"By water shall he die and take his end."

If the

house became popular, a rival landlord might perhaps be induced to adopt a sign somewhat similar; and if a ScotchAnd consequently the name of his man, he was not unlikely to chuse the murderer proves to be Walter, pronational bagpipe as the adjunct to his nounced Water, Whitmore. But more cat. But altho' my attempted explanaespecially in Macbeth, where the witch- tion of signs altogether is merely "desies assure him of safety, excepting in the occurrence of events apparently impossible, but which being accomplished, he exclaims just before his fall:

"And be those juggling fiends no more believ'd
That palter with us in a double sense;
That keep the word of promise to our ear,
And break it to our hope."

Julius Ferrettus, as quoted by Grose, has given an etymology of castrum too

pere in loco," yet perhaps, if they had their origin in mere caprice, the very dissimilitude and incongruity of the objects was the sole reason for coupling them together, which appears to have been the case at the village city of Llandaff in Glamorganshire, where is a public-house denominated "The Cow and the Snuffers."


From the Literary Gazette, August 1818.

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To be continued.

causes been separated from Mrs. I, for a considerable period preceding that MATTHEW Gregory Lewis was M. G. Lewis, his son, received born in the year 1773, his father his education at Westminster School, being at that time deputy Secretary at and on coming of age was elected into War, which office he held for many Parliament for the borough of Hindon. years, and finally retired on a pension. In the years 1793 and 4 he made a His death happened within these few tour of the Continent, and to amuse his years, having through some family leisure hours whilst travelling, he wrote

VOL. 4.]

M. G. Lewis, author of the " Monk," &c.



age as

a romance called the Monk, which was logical order, but simply notice some published in three volumes in 1795. of the most important of his producIt has been stated to us that this novel tions. In 1799 " The Twins, or Is it was written at an earlier age, when the he or his Brother," for Bannister's benauthor was only sixteen, but though efit, was something like the "Three this assurance came from the best au- and Deuce;" but as it was never repeatthority, we are inclined to consider it ed, we take it for granted not so sucrather as an apology for what was cessful. Mr. Lewis immediately_afthought morally injurious in the publi- ter produced a comedy called the East cation, than as a fact to be entirely de- Indian, which met with little approbapended upon. The Monk, as a work tion. Bannister spoke a curious epilogue of imagination and a literary produc- in the character of Queen Elizabeth, tion, displayed great genius and talent, ascending through a trap-door. Its and some of the poetry was exquisite extravagance was worthy of the ly touching; though it must be con- cribed to the author-for this piece alfessed, that while its beauties acquired so was said to be written when he was for it the highest degree of deserved sixteen. Alfonso, King of Castile," popularity, the censures which its li- a tragedy, (1802) was one of the chief centiousness, immorality, and mockery dramatic productions of Mr. Lewis's of religion called down upon it, were pen. It was originally brought out at also but too justly merited. These ob- Covent Garden. The wildnes of the servations apply to the first edition, the fable was too much for regular tragedy, author having been induced by the se- and the situations too terribly romantic, verity of criticism, and probably by a and the catastrophe too horrid, for a more mature sense of propriety, to re- judicious tribunal. The play failed, move some of the most offensive passa- was altered, played again, and tried at ges in the second and subsequent edi- Drury Lane, but never, to use a theattions. The success Mr. Lewis expe- rical phrase, could obtain a run. His rienced in his first literary undertaking, tragedy of Adelgitha, in 1806, was encouraged him to apply more assidu- rather better received, though, like most ously to those pursuits, for we find him of the author's other productions, the from about this time constantly before moral is so abominable, as to annihilate the public as an author. In December any commendation which could be be1797 he produced his musical drama stowed on interesting situation and of the Castle Spectre, at Drury Lane, good dialogue. In 1809 "Venoni, or which met with extraordinary success. the Novice of St. Marks," a powerfulDuring the rehearsals the second appearance of the Spectre was objected to by Mr. Sheridan, but the author insisted that the piece should conclude as he had written it; and the applause of the audience proved him right, whatever impartial criticism may allege against it as a violation of dramatic order. The drama, like the novel we have already mentioned, abounds in well-contrived though romantic incidents; and the language is always elegant and vigorous, often sublime and appalling. It was published in 1798, and has been much read and played ever since.

It is not our intention to follow minutely the appearances of Mr. Lewis's translation and adaptations of foreign plays to the English stage in chrono

ly captivating drama in three acts, taken
from the French Victime Clôtrée, issued
from the same fertile source, and though
violently opposed for some nights, be-
ing withdrawn, and (as in the case of
Alfonso) a new last act substituted, it
became a favourite for the season.
Temper, a farce translated from the
Grondeur, whence Sir Charles Sedley
took his Grumbler, was rather disgust-
ingly than laughably broad, and conse-
quently failed. The only other dramas
from Mr. L.'s pen, of which we are a-
ware, though Raymond and Agnes and
many others have been constructed on
his productions, are
the Harper's
Daughter, from Schiller's Minister, at
Covent Garden in 1803, which did not
excite more than a mediocre sensation ;

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