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VOL. 4.] Wholesome Doctrine-the Chevalier and his Dog.

313 a market day, he mounted a tub, and Keep open, then, your workshops, and, thus addressed the listening crowd: as soon as you rise, open all the win“ Ye men of Derby, fellow-citizens, at- dows of your bed-rooms. Never sleep tend to me! I know you to be inge- in a room without a chimney in it, nor vious and industriouss- mechanics. By block tbat up. Inattention to this adyour exertions you procure for your vice, be assured, will bring diseases on selves and families the necessaries of yourselves, and engender, among you life; but if you lose your health, that typhus fever, which is only another power of being of use to them must name for putrid fever, which will carry.

This truth all of you know; off your wives and children. Let me but I fear some of you do not under- again repeat my serious advice : open stand how health is to be maintained in your windows to let in fresh air, at least vigour--this then depends upon your once in the day.-- Remember what I breathing an uncontamipated air; for say : I speak now without a fee, and the purity of the air becomes destroyed can have no other interest but your where many are collected together; the good, in this my advice.” effluvia from the body also corrupts it.

cease.

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ORIGIN OF SIGNS OF INNS, &c.

From the Gentleman's Magazine. THE CHEVALIER AND HIS DOG.

conversation of their deliverers.. The * When wise Ulysses, from his native coast

Chevalier died in 1728, and was buried Long kept by waves, and long by tempests tost, in the chureh of St. Oswald. at Zug, Arriv'd at last, poor, old, disguis'd, alone,

where, by his special appointment, he To all his friends, and ev'n his queen unknown,

is represented on a monument with his Chang'd as he was with age, and toils and cares, Furrow'd his rev'rend face, and white his hairs,

faithful dog lying at his feet. In his own palace doom'd to ask his bread,

Mr. Bowdier, in his “ Letters" writScorned by those slaves his former bounty fed, ten jo 1814, speaking of the Monks Forgot of all his own domestic crew,

of St. Bernard, , says, The faithful dog alone his rightful master knew!

great Unfed, unhoused, neglected, on the elay

avalanche happen, they go to the place, Like an old servant now cashier'd he lay;

even at the hazard of their own lives, Touch'd with resentment of ungrateful man, to see whether any travellers have been And longing to behold his antient lord again. Him when he saw, he tose, and crawl’d to meet,

overwhelmed and buried in the snow. ('Twas all he could) and fawn'd, and kiss d his feet.

Io these dangerous expeditions they Seiz'd with dumbjoy-then falling by his side, are accompanied by their faithful dogs, Own'd his returning lord, look'd up-and died." a remarkable breed from Sardinia, IN crossing the mountain of St. Go- somewhat resembling the Newfound

thard, the Chevalier Gaspard de land, but larger, and with the scent as Brandenburg and his servant were perfect as the best hound. If a human buried by an avalanche. His dog hav- body be buried in the snow, the dog is ing escaped, kept running backwards sure to make it known; and the monks and forwards, incessantly howling, from who go out provided with every thing the

spot where he had lost his master to necessary, dig out the body, convey it the convent, which fortunately was not to the convent, and, if possible, restore far distant. Astonished at his frequent suspended animation.

If life is quite visits, the monks

on the following extinct, the corpse is laid in a little morning obeyed his interceding indi- building near the convent, where I cations, and accompanied him to the saw a great number dried by extreme spot, where, by his scratching the cold, and slowly changing to their snow with his utmost strength, they parent earth. No year passes without conjectured the cause, and extricated inany lives being saved by these hosthe Chevalier and his servant after 36 pitaisle faibers, and scarce any withhours confinement beneath the snow, out some addition to the numbers in during which they could distinctly the chapel." hear the howling of the dog and the The dogs of Holland are employed 2Q ATHEVEUM. Vol. 4.

in drawing little carts with merchan

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THE DOG AND DUCK.

THE DOG AND

31+
Signs of Inns, &c.-Dog and Duck-Dog and Partridges.

(vol. 4 dize, fish, and vegetables. Pratt, in The active pointer, from his thong unbound, his á Gleanings,” gives' an interesting with glowing eye and undulating tail,

Impatiekt dashes o'er the dewy ground; account of them, and says that there is Ranges the field, and snuffs the tainted gale ; not an idle dog of any size to be seen Yet 'midst his ardor still bis master fears, in the Seven Provinces.

And the restraining whistle careful bears.

See how exact they try the stubble o'er,

Quarter the field, and every turn explore :
PARTRIDGES.

Now sudden wheel, and now attentive seize The former of these signs once deco- The known advantage of the opposing breezė. rated a house of considerable celebrity

At once they stop !-yon careful dog descries

Where close and near the lurking covey lies. in St. George's Fields, and gave its His caution mark, Jest ev'n a breath betray name to a medicinal spring, which was Th’impending danger to his timid prey; Once considered of great efficacy, though In various attitudes around him stand now entirely disused : the latter, gen

Silent and motionless the attending band.

So, when the son of Danae and of Jove, erally representing on its sign-board a

Crown'd by gay conquest and successful love, sportsman with a gun or net, is some- Saw Phineus and his frantic rout invade times denominated “ The Setting Dog." The festive rites by Hymen haered made; Lincolnshire is the county most

To the rude Bacchanals his arm outsprend

The horrid image of Medusa's head : abounding in ducks and aquatic fowl; Soon as the locks their snaky curls disclose, but, from the recent extensive inclo- A marble stiffness seiz’d his threat'ning foes ; sures of the fens, their numbers have Fixed were the eyes that mark'd the javelin thrown, been very much diminished. Pennant and each stern warrior reared his lance in stone.

From Shooting, by an informs. us that from only 10 decoys

anonymous Writer. in the neighbourhood of Wayafleet

Surely there are not many poets upwards of 31,200 head of wild-fowl who would be ashamed to have these were sent in one season to the metro- lines imputed to them. polis, to which may be added a con

It is said that Robert Dudley, the siderable number sold in the vicinity powerful Duke of Northumberland,

The water-dog and water-spaniel, was the first person that broke a setwhich are used in duck-bunting (and ting dog to the net. the latter also in the decoys,) are both A brace of Setters in the

year

1801 remarkably sagacious, and wonder- were sold by R. B. Thornhill, Esq. as

, fully expert in finding and recovering he informs us in his "Shooting Dithe wounded birds. The instances are rectory,” to Captain Bagot, for 200 very numerous in which these water- guineas. dogs have been ordered by their masters to “ go back and search," and have When Autumn smiles, all beauteous in decay, again returned with a bandkerchief, And paints each chequer'd grove with various hues, stick, or glove, out of hedges or hol- His nose in air erect; from ridge to ridge

My Setter ranges in the new-shorn fields, low trees, where they hav been pri- Panting he bounds, his quarter'd ground divides vately deposited, and have even dis- In equal intervals, nor careless leaves covered pieces of money purposely

One inch untried : at length the tainted gales concealed under stones.

His nostrils wide inhale; quick joy elates

His beating heart, which, awid by discipline Of the dogs used in pursuit of par- Severe, he dares not own, bue cautious creeps. tridges, the Spanish pointer, from Low-cowring step by step ; at last auaine which the English pointer was pro-.

proper

distance; there he stops at once,

And points with bis instinctive nose upon duced by a cross with the bound, was The trembling prey. On wings of wind upborne, introduced into this kingdoin about The floating net unfolded flies; then drops ; two centuries ago, and is remarkable And the poor fluttering captives rise in vain, for the extreme fiveness of its scent

Nor less the Spaniel, skilful to betray, and patience at its point, but is now

Rewards the fowler with the feather'd prey. Farely seen, being greatly excelled in Soon as the labouring horse, with swelling veins, activity and strength by its British Has safely hous’d the farmer's doubtful gains, descendant,

To sweet rcpast th'unwary partridge flies,

With joy amid the scatter'd harvest lies ; Here, where the yellow wheat away is drawn,

Wand'ring in plenty, danger be forgets, And the thick stubble clothes the russet lawa,

Nor dreads the slav'ry of entangling nets. Begin the sport.-Eager and unconfin'd,

The subtle dog scours with sagacious nose As wherätern Golus unchains the wind,

Along the field, and snufs each breeze that blows 7"

66

His

Somerville.

THE

eye, and

FOL. 4.] Signs of Irns, &c.--The 'Chequers-- The Dolphin. 315
Against the wind he takes his prudent way, when the simplest rules of arithmetic
While the strong gale directs hin to the prey, were known only to few-upon the
Now the warm scent assures the covey near ;
He treads with caution, and he points with fear;

squares.

The chequers of ale-houses, Then (lest some sentry-fowl the fraud desery, most likely, were also used for calcu. And bid his fellows from the danger fly)

lating the reckonings ; and this hypoth: Close to the ground in expectation lies,

esis is strengthened, if not confirmed, Till in the snare the flattering covey rise.Gay.

by a remarkable fact--that the same When milder autumn summer's heat succeedo,

sign was used at Pompeii, as appears And in the new-shorn field the partridge feeds, Before his lord the ready Spaniel bounds : by the engravings in the 4tb vol. of the Panting with hope he tries the furrow'd grounds ; Archælogia.--Pan. But when the tainted gales the game betray, Couched close he lies, and meditates the prey.

DOLPHIN. Secure they trust, the unfaithful field beset,

This fish, when sporting on the surTill hovering o'er 'em sweeps the swelling net.

Pope.

face of the water, sometimes deceives

the The Springer, or Springing Spaniel,

appears

crooked. Hence

on ancient coins and marbles he is of. will be more fully noticed under the sign of "The Pheasant,” for which ten thus pourtrayed ; and from these

” and Woodcock-shooting they are now adopted the distorted tigure we com

representations our sign-painters have chiefly employed.

. fat dog as excellent food, especially if it being forcibly kept under water

, and is The antients considered a young and monly see displayed.

The dolphin is soon suffocated by had been castrated. Hippocrates places sometimes taken up dead by fishermen itia the saine class with mutton and pork; out of their nets ; but he is extremely and in another place, says, that the flesh

tenacious of his life out of the water, of a grown dog is wholesome and and has been known to live three days strengthening, but that of puppies relaxing. In the Society Islands dogs are of colour before death is noticed by

on dry ground. His frequent change, fattened with vegetables, which the na- Lord Byron in his beautiful description tives cram down their throats when they of an Italian evening in the 4th Cauto will not voluntarily eat. They grow of Childe Harold.” exceedingly fat; and, when killed, the blood is preserved in cocoa-nut shells,

a paler shadow strews

Its mantle oʻer the mountains ; parting day and baked for the table.

Dies like the Dolphin, whom each pang imbues THE CHEQUERS.

With a new colour as it gasps away, It has been frequently stated that the The last still loveliest, till-tis gone—and all is grey. chequers which are painted on the doors

The dolphin was consecrated by the and window-shutters of public-houses ancients to the gods, and called the sawere once the arms of an Earl of Arun- cred fish. The story of Arion, the del, in whose department it rested to Lesbian musician, is related by Ovid, grant licences to sell spirituous liquors. Fasti, lib. 2. it was formerly consider

The accuracy of this assertion may ed a great delicacy in this kingdom. be doubted for various reasons, most of Dauphin is a title given to the eldest which being the result of dull antiqua- son of ihe kings of France, on account rian research would require more space of the province of Dauphiné, which in to unfold than can be allowed in our 1343 was bestowed on this condition columns.--But a much more satisfacto- to Philip de Valois, by Humbert Daury account of this sign has been given phin of the Viennois. The appellation, by the Honourable Daines Barrington, according to Chorier, was first assumed in his disquisition on the game of chess, by the son of Guy the Fat, Prince of published in the Archælogia. the Viennois, about the year 1120, pro

The Barons of the Exchequer have bably from bearing a dolphin as the always sat with a chequered cloth spread crest on his helmet at a tournament in over the table that is placed before them, which he distinguished himself. and the antient use of it was to settle

The following epigram on the death the accounts passed by this Court, the of the young Dauphin was written by computations being made in an age the Bishop of Lisieux :

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Delphinum juvenem rapuit Mors invida, square ?

was stated by tradition to have been Virtutes numerans, credidit esse senem.

the inn or civic residence of one of the Translated hy“ S. R.” in the Gen- Dauphins of France. If it were, it must tleman's Magazine for 1807 : have been of the Dauphin Louis, who Death snatchód ourDauphin-need the cause be told? came into England in 1216 to wrest Counting his virtues, he believ'd him old.

the sceptre from John. Moser, in his “ Vestiges Revived," The appellation of dolphins is given mentions the Dolphin, or rather the in literary history to the 19 commentaDauphine inn, from the fleur de lys, tors on the Classics, employed by Louis cognizances, and dolphins, with which XIV. of France, for the benefit of the it had been adorned. It stood on the Prince, under the direction of M. de Eastern side of Bishopsgate street With- Montausier his governor, Bossuet and out, near the end of Houndsditch, and Huet his preceptors.

USEFUL ARTS.

MR

R. Aust's machine for freeing the hours : and pieces of this thickness are

shaft horse of a luden cart when stated to become sufficiently dry to fallen will

from its cheapness and simplici- work after being placed in a warm room ty,contribute to obviate the serious incon- or work-shop for twenty-four hours. veniences of those frequent and distress- By this treatment, the wood is someing accidents which daily occur in the thing improved in its general colour; crowded streets of the metropolis. It and those blemishes, which are techniconsists of the simple addition to the cally called green veins, are entirely recommon props of the cart of an iron moved. The eggs or larvæ, also, of bar and hook about half their length, any insect, which may be contained in attached to the top of each prop, and a the wood, will be destroyed by the bent iron prong at the bottom to prevent heat of the steam.—Two very importheir slipping: the props are strength- tant advantages are said to result from ened with an iron ferrule at each end. Mr. Callender's process. In the first When a horse falls, the props are taken place, a considerable part of the capital, from their usual fastenings, with the which is vested in wood lying to season hooks attached to the shaft ends; the during many months, may be saved. forehorse chains are then booked in at And secondly, as none of the small the top of the props, and, as they stick wood, froin two to six inches thick, is in the ground when he pulls, he raises ever seasoned, according to the usual them perpendicular, and they pull the course of trade, chairs, ballustrades, shaft

up
after thein ; the horse's power

and similar articles, which are usually on the props increases as they become made of such wood, must necéssarily more upright, which is essential, as it be very subject to warp, wbich incongives the best help to the fallen horse venience is prevented by adopting the when he is about to rise,

expeditious mode of seasoning above Mr. Callender's method of seasoning described.-New Mon. Mag. mahogany, for which the Society re- Rubbing the skin with camphorated oil is warded him, is both simple and effica- quitoes in hot countries.--- Abeľs China.

the best protection against the attack of muscious. The following is his process : Bark.--- By numerous experiments recentHaving provided a steam-tight wooden ly made, it is indubitably proved, that larch box, capable of holding conveniently oak bark.

bark answers every purpose in tanning as such pieces of mahogany as are fit for chairs, &c. he adapts to it a pipe from a lixiviuin which effectuallý eradicates, by re

es and mixed with strong vinegar, forms a boiler, by means of which he fills the peated application, warts, corns, and other box (after the mahogany has been put cutaneous excrescences.---New Mon. Mag. into it,) with steam, the temperature

Nov. 1818. of

An experiment to distil hy steam is making which is about equal to that of boiling at Roscrea, under the inspection of excise water. The time required for wood, an Great expectations are entertained by those

officers and several experienced distillers. inch and a half thick, is about two concerned. as to the saving of time and fuel.

The bark of the willow tree burnt to ash

VOL. 4.]

Historical Particulars of Aix-la-Chapelle.

317

HISTORICAL PARTICULARS

PELLE;

0F AX-LA-CHA

MAGNE.

This young

season.

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, AND THE EMPEROR CHARLEMAGNE. From the New Monthly Magazine, November 1818.

The first who there received the ImWITH ANECDOTES OF CHARLE- perial crown, and with it the heirship to

all the dominions of the mighty CharleFacts relating to a city celebrated magne, was his only remaining son,

for the . it has been the theatre-and now so Prince's coronation by Hildebert, Archparticularly brought into public notice bishop of Cologne, took place in the by the present Congress, cannot, it may life-time, and in the presence of his fabe supposed, fail of gratifying the curi. ther, who gave, during the ceremony, a osity this circumstance is calculated to striking proof of his despotic power, by

It is therefore hoped, that the telling his son, just as the Archbishop following little account will not at the was going to circle his bead with the present time be considered as out of Imperial Diadem, to take it from the

hands of that prelate, and place it there The antiquity to which Aix-la-Cha- himself! pelle lays claim, is confirmed by its be- Thus he was, it may be said, a selfing mentioned in the Commentaries of crowned Sovereign over the vast empire Cæsar and the Annals of Tacitus. The of his father ; the only bounds to which Romans, when they were at war with were, to the West, the Atlantic Ocean the Germans, had fortresses raised, and and the Ebro-to the South, the Medcolonies established there ; but when iterranean-to the North, the German the virtues of its mineral waters and hot Ocean and the Eyder—and to the East, baths became fully known, it was in- the Raab, and the Mountains of Bohevested with the rights and privileges of a mia. city, by the name of Aquægranius, or Among the many events considered the Waters of Granius. Its present in those days of comparative darkness, name is derived from the church, which as miraculous, either through superstiwas built and dedicated by Charle- tious credulity, or ignorance of the natmagne, to the Virgin Mary.

ural causes which gave to them that It is well known that Aix-la-Cha- appearance, two of a curious nature are pelle, which had been destroyed by the recorded as having occurred at Aix-laHuns in the reign of Attila, was repair- Chapelle. ed, beautified, and enlarged by that When the time appointed for the great Prince, who, charmed by the consecration of the church of Notre pleasantness of the surrounding country, Dame arrived, Charlemagne fixed his made it the seat of Empire ; and it is mind on having as many bishops to said that what was the Town-hall, form- assist the Pope, Leo III. in the pered at that period part of his palace. By formance of the ceremony, as there a decree of the Golden Beill, it was ap- were days in the year. This full numpointed to be the place of coronation ber the Emperor, with all his power, for all the Sovereigns of the Empire ; could oot muster : two were still wantand so much superstition was after- ing when all those who could be colwards attached by those Sovereigns, in lected were assembled in the church, regard to the being consecrated in the and his Holiness was preparing to bechurch of Notre Dame at Aix, that if gin the service. Ere he could do so, any of them were prevented from receiv- however, to the surprise and delight of ing their crowns in that city, they en

every one, Mondolphus and Gonduldeavoured by their liberality to the phos, two bishops who had for years Town and Church, to avert the ill-for- slept quietly in their graves, at Maestune which might arise from their being tricht, suddenly appeared among their compelled to perform the ceremony brother prelates ; and after properly elsewhere.

performing their part in the solemnities

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