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VOL. 4.) Origin of Inn Signs, &c.- Queen's Cross-Charing Cross.

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sum required for repairs caused this bar- ments of fiefs, worth about 35,000 gain also to go off. He then purchased francs per ann: Canino was his last purthe palace of the Nugnez family, via chase, and Louis and Joseph lent him Condotte, for about 150,000 francs, and money to complete these acquisitions. about 100,000 more to render it habit- Jerome also lent bim 100,000 florins able. He had previously acquired the when King of Westphalia, but turned estate of Ruffinela, and some surround- out so imperious a creditor, that Lucien ing property ; the Villa Mecéné at Ti- pawned his wife's diamonds to repay voli, Rocca-Priore, Dragoncella and Ap- the debt. ollina, ancient lordships or dismember

ORIGIN OF SIGNS OF INNS, &c.

From the Gentleman's Magazine.

THE CROSS,

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and where a large inn at present exhibMANY beautiful specimens of the its the sign of the Golden Cross.

architectural skill and piety of our The ancient cross was destroyed hy ancestors, in the Crosses which were the enlightened advocates for a radical the usual oroaments of the market-places reform; who encouraged the arts, by and church-yards, fell a sacrifice to the ordering the demolition of those monufanatical zeal of the Parliamentarians in mevts of piety which were adorned with the time of the unhappy Charles; but the most exquisite specimens of sculpsome few still remain, and views of ture and painting ; who patronized litthem are occasionally exhibited on the erature, by seriously considering the sign-boards of houses in the towns propriety of destroying all records of where they are situate, whilst the fecol- past ages, and beginning every thing lectioù of others, once of conspicuous anew ; who purified the administration beauty, as of the Cross at Coventry, is of justice, hy obtaining with their clarecalled to the mind by the representa- mours the execution of the patriot tion on the sign-board, which has out- Wentworth, and the venerable Laud, in lived the original.

direct opposition to every principle of On the death of Eleanor, the amiable equity or law ; who murdered their wife of Edward I. and daughter of Fer- King for a breach of the privileges of dinand III. King of Castile and Leon, the Commons, and elevated a Protecwhich happened at Hardeby in Lin- tor, who with a military force turned colnshire, Nov. 28, 1291, her body by all the Members out of doors; who order of Edward, was removed to West- declared a House of Lords to be useminster ; and in testimony of the ten- less and dangerous, yet instituted a new der affection which he felt and she so House, by raising to the Peerage the justly merited, he erected at every place very dregs of the people ; who abolishwhere the corpse rested on its journey, ed Episcopacy, and ejected from their an elegant cross, adorned with the statue benefices “ scandalous ministers" who and arms of the deceased. Three of taught the people " to fear God, and these beautiful and affectionate memo., honour the King,” and filled their pulrials still remain, one at Geddington in pits with Fifth-Monarchy men, who Northamptonshire ; one called Queen's preached blasphemy and treason. Such Cross, near Northampton ; and one in were the blessings of a radical reform Hertfordshire,but near the town of Wale in our own country ; but even these tham in Essex. The last place where have been obscured by the superior glothe body was deposited prior to its sep- ries of a neighbouring Nation in modern ulture in the Abbey, was at the then days. The murder of its sovereigns village of Charing, between London with circunstances of unparalleled atro. and Westminster, which, froin the me- city ; the ceaseless fall of the axe or morial erected by Edward, obtained its guillotine ; the public spectacles of present appellation of Charing.cross, monsters with their bodies entwined

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104 Signs of Inns.-- Invention of the Cross-Signature of the Cross. (vol.4

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with the reeking and bloody entrails of It bad been aiso inflicted among the their victims ; the general avowal of Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, CarAtheism (though indeed the National thaginians, and even the Greeks. Assembly did decide by their vote in The Invention or discovery of the favour of the existence of a God !)—all Cross, as appears by our Almanacks, is at length terminating in a military des- celebrated on May 3. Helena, the potism which depopulated the Nation, mother of Constantine, when 80 years and proved the scourge of the whole civ- of age, visited the Holy Land, and acilized world, till at length overthrown cording to the Legend, discovered the by the councils and the arms of Britain three crosses on which our Saviour and ---all these unequivocally attest the supe- the two thieves bad been crucified. To rior glories of the Age of Reason, and ascertain the one on which our Saviour tbe triumph of the Rights of Man. had been suspended, the corpse of a wo

Elevated as we are to the highest em- man was laid upon each alternately ; inence of political glory; possessed of the two first produced not any effect, a constitution the admiration and envy but the latter unquestionably established of the world ; secured in our persons its verity by instantly restoring the woand property by the pure administration man to life. The Cross itself too, alof equitable laws; and enjoying the though divided and subdivided into inmost perfect rational liberty, both civil numerable fragments, which were disand religious : shall we endanger these tributed among the pious, so that the inestimable blessings by snapping at a pieces taken from it amounted to treble shadow, by searching for some theoretic the quantity of wood of which it origgood, which, like the apples of the Cas- nally consisted, yet nevertheless remainpian, however tempting in prospect, ed undiminished and entire !!! have always proved, on tasting, dust Our antient English Historians assert and bitterness? If we once allow an thai Constantine the Great was born at inroad to the waters through those em- Colchester, and that Helena bis mother bankments which the wisdom of our was the daughter of Coel a British forefathers have raised for our protection, Prince ; but these assertions are discredwho shall say to the Ocean, “ Thus ited by modero authors. The island in far shalt thou go and no farther ?” which Buonaparte is now confined was If we once put the stone of anar- named in honour of her, and consechy in motion, will not its descent be quently the common pronunciation of it, commensurate with our present eleva- as Si. Ilelēna, is incorrect. tion ? and vainly may we attempt to

SIGNATURE OF THE CROSS.' check its progress till all that is sacred Many deeds of Synods were antienthas been crushed by its forces ly issued, expressing that, as my Lord

“ Quieta ne movete.” “ Principiis obsta." the Bishop could not write, at his request The proverb,

others had subscribed for him. Many * HE BEGS LIKE A CRIPPLE AT A CROSS,'.

, charters granted by nobles, and even by which we still

sovereigos, bore their mark, or

Siguse to denote a

num Crucis" alone,“ pro ignorantiâ peculiar earnestness of entreaty, has

literarum," as in a charter dated about been banded down to us from those the year 700 by Withred King of Kent. times when the afflicted poor used to Even the great Emperor Justinian was solicit alms at the different crosses.

compelled to have his hand guided by a THE CROSS HANDS.--THE THREE CROS- secretary, or he would not have been

SES.---THE FOUR CROSSES. able to bave subscribed to any of his Crosses were antiently erected at the edicts. From this custom of making ineeting of public roads, and very ma- crosses are derived the words signing ny of the houses decorated with the and signalure, used as synonymes for above signs are thus situated.

subscribing and subscription. Constantine by law first abolished There is a vulgar opinion that those the punishment of the cross, which had monumental effigies which we not unbeen used by the Romans till his time, frequently meet with in antient churches

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vol. 4.]

Fine Arts.--Hilton's Una and the Satyrs.'

105

having their legs crossed, were intended North Wales, has been adopted from as representations of Knight Templars; the armorial bearings of Sir Watkins but this distinction was not exclusively Williams Wynn, bart. a gentleman not confined to that order, but extended to more distinguished for the extent of his any knight who had visited the Holy domains than for bis public spirit, as the Land, or had even assumed the cross patron of agricultural improvement, and on his habit as significant of his inten- as the Colonel of the Denbigh militia, tion of such an expedition.

which he commanded in France when Guillim enumerates 39, and Colum- those worthy Cambro-Britons volunbiere 72, different sorts of crosses used teered their services to join the victoriin Heraldry. St. George's cross, Gules ous army of the Duke of Wellington. on a field Argent, is the standard of Foote having been in company

with England, that Saint being the reputed an ancestor of the present baronet, a Patron of this nation.

very large man, and being asked how he THE CROSS FOXES,

liked him,replied, “Oh,a true Welshman, the sign of very many public houses in all mountain and barrenness."

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FINE ARTS.

T

From the London Literary Gazette.

Which her own clay shall cover, heaped and pent, ROYAL ACADEMY.

Rider and horse---friend, foe, in one red burial blent ! Ililton's very fine Picture of Una with the Satyrs.

The sublime imagining of this fearful THIS work is not only of the highest class scene, and especially the last line, mock vis

of composition, but as admirable in ex- ible representation. The mind can rest with ecution as in conception. The subject is from awful delight on the very indistinctness and the Faërie Queen :--- ·

confusion of an idea ; but painting must de

fine it, and when defined it is nothing. Lord “ So from the ground she fearlesse doth arise

Byron, however, gives us a whole chain of And walketh forth without suspect of harme.

consecutive ideas---every member of the They, all are glad as birdes of joyous pryme, verse is a picture. The mingled heap of carThence lead her forth, about her dauncing round, nage and fire, the massing of woe and death Shouting and singing all a shepheards ryme ; by the Poet, convey an obscure and dread And with greene braunches strowing all the ground, sensation ; but when we look upon the painDo worship her as Queen:

ter's work, we discover only a glare of red, And all the way their merry pipes they sound,

and a number of shadows, which excite neiThat all the woods with double eccho ring ;

ther interest nor emotion. And this not from And with their horned feet doe weare the ground,

want of powers in Mr. Turner to treat the

subject in the grandest style, but from the Leaping like wanton kids in pleasant spring."

subject itself being above any style. There It must be confessed that this is a charming are, nevertheless, several tine parts in this poetical picture, and thence the greater difti". work. colty of transferring it to the canvass. Yet A1r. Hilton has given us Spenser entirely. London never possessed so many attracUna herself is the figure most questionable tions, in exhibitions of works of art, as duraccording to the rules of art. There is an ing the past month. The company itself unnatural coldness about such a mass of white forms a spectacle no where else to be seen: in the centre of such a glow of colour. Some but the exhibitions, especially opened for the of the Satyrs are exquisitely, painted---the gratification of the taste and curiosity of the oue playing the pipe on the right band, and public, consist of... he who is just descending from a leap like The Exhibition of the Royal Academy, at wanton kid,' appear to be as excellent as Somerset.House. any thing of the kind ever painted. The The Exhibition of the Society of Painters, landscape too is harmonious, and rich, and in Spring Gardens. natural; the distance and the foliage on the The Exhibition of old Masters, at the foreground do equal honour to the artist's British Institution. pencil.

Miss Linwood's Gallery, Leicester-Square. The genius of Turner has failed in No.263, Mr. Wesi's Exhibition, Pall Mall. where he has tried to portray the Poet's The Panorama, Leicester-square. description of Waterloo :

---Ditto, in the Strand. Last noon beheld them full of lusty life;

Leonardi da Vinci's Last Supper, in Pall

Mall. Last eve in Beauty's circle proudly gay ;

Mrs. Aberdein's Papyruseum, Bond-street. The midnight brought the signal---sound of strife;

Dr. Bullock's splendid Museun. Piccadilly. The morn the marshalling of arms--the day,

Mr. Thiodon's Theatre of Arts, Spring Battle's magnificently stern array !

Gardens. The thunder clouds close c'er it, which when rent Messrs. Flight & Co.'s Apollonicon, St. The earth is covered thick with other clay,

Martin's-lane. 0 ATA EN EUM. Vol. 4.

106

Sketches of Society.--Female Gamblers.

(vol. 4.

$

The Menagerie at Exeter Chaoge.

This fiftieth Exhibitiou of the Academy And the matchless collections in the na- contains 1117 paintings, drawings, and sculptional repository of the British Museum,--. tures ; the majority of which are superior to open every Monday, Wednesday, and any six of the best pieces in the first thirty Friday, to all who sign their names. exhibitions at this school. Indeed, the most

Other objects of attraction are found in enthusaistic admirer of the ancieot schools the Bazaar, in Soho-square, and in the must admit, that there are some new pictures Western Exchange, Old Bond-street: also in this exhibition capable of ranking with in the Auction,rooms of Phillips, Christie, the best hundred pictures of those schools ; Squibb, Robins, &c. &.---in which the most while there are few that are below mediocsplendid and rare works of art and manu- rity.---Mon. Mag. facture are daily on exhibition or sale.

From the Literary Gazette. Aug. 1818.

THE HERMIT IN LONDON,

OR
SKETCHES OF ENGLISH MAXXERS.

No. IV.

They disfigure of time.

peat the same brief visit at two or three FEMALE GAMBLERS. other parties in the course of the night. IT T has always appeared to me that A dancer may escape the card-tax; but the stronger passions, such as ava

a man of serious babits, and of middle riee, ambition, and revenge, are ill suit- age, must pay the forfeit of money and ed to the softer sex. the beauty of woman, and completely

It is astonishing how many hours this change her nature. Gaming, which is occupation engrosses in high life. Lady a compound of idleness and cupidity, Lansquinette assured me, that she playbut which excites these passions, has ed three rubbers of whist regularly every precisely the same tendency, and hur- evening, unless she sat down to some ries the fairest works of nature into the game of chance. In the former case,

she devoted her three hours per greatest excesses.

diem , There is, however, a minor species

to cards ; in the latter the whole evenof play which is not so dangerous, and ing. In wet weather she played in which can be blamed only for the loss the morning ; and at Castle Costly, she of time which it occasions. It is one always spent two or three hours before of the taxes on a man in society, to be dinner at cards, when the state of the compelled to sit down for such a space atmosphere or the roads prevented her of time at a card-table, at routs and going out. Averaging her play hours at other evening parties. I feel a je ne at four or five per day, they compose sais quoi of misery and disgust, the

one third of her time, since her Ladyment the fair lady of the house presents

ship devotes twelve hours to rest. Now, me the pack of cards to draw one; and abstracting four more for her toilette, I view myself destined to be fixed to which is not less than it takes, there are ehair for at least one rubber, or per- tional employment, out of which break

but four more clear hours for any ramy haps more. Then, farewell conversation ; farewell my greatest amusement,

fast and dinner time are to be deducted. observation : farewell mirth and all

I met with her the other night at variety.

Lady Racket's ; and she immediately

I had A young Exquisite* may just make hooked me in for a rubber. his appearance for a few minutes, make scarcely got clear of this engagement, his bow to the lady of the house, cast a

and of five guineas at the same time, glance round in order to be able to having lost five points upon the rub, count all the beauty and fashion in the when I was entreated to sit down to room, and then withdraw, throw him

cassino in
company

with Mrs. Marvelself into his chariot or vis-a-vis, and re

lous, Sir Herbert Maxton, and Lady

Longtick. I the more readily, bow* It may be well to observe that our Hermit die ever, complied with the request of my vides the Dandies of fashion into two principal classes, to one of which he gives the appellation of right honourable hostess, since at cas* Exquisites," and to the other of" Ruffions." -Ed. sino the attention is not so entirely taken

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VOL. 4.)
Female Gamblers.

107 up ; less importance it attached to the are always fortunate ; 'tis ny trick." game, and a little light and confused (Mrs. Marvellous) Have you heard conversation may be allowed ; whilst that Lady Barbara Bankton bas' (interat whist you see grave faces sitting in rupted by the Baronet)“ Cut, Madam;" judgment over your play, and observe as · Yes, Sir Herbert, she has cut, and left much interest and anxiety, as much si- her lovely children.'

“ Your Ladylence and attention, as a speech of De- ship's game." • To the mercy of the mosthenes would have claimed from his world. How shocking for her three auditors.

daughters !' “ A double game." (Mrs. “Come,” said Lady Racket to me, Marvellous) •She certainly had the most “ you must make one at cassino; (then indulgent husband in the world.' “ The lowering her voice) you will have the base wretch, I have no patience with charms of Lady Longtick to contem- her.” A hard rub.' “ Yet I could plate, and Mrs. Marvellous will amuse always see through her conduct.” Had you with some very astonishing stories you said thro' her drapery,' replied Sir in the intervals of dealing, etcetera.” Herbert, • I should have been satisfied • Your Ladyship’s commands are so that you were right, for she was a walkmany laws to me,' said I, as I resigned. ing transparency. But here comes her ly took my place at the table. " The cousin, the General.' “ The game is up." Hermit of London," exclaimed Mrs. Released from the cassino table, I Marvellous, in half a whisper to Sir walked round the room, and cast an eye Herbert. They both elevated their on the different tables. I stopped' for a eyebrows, as much as to say, here's a moment behind my friend Lord Levity's fellow who will observe us closely. I chair, and contemplated the countemade my best bow, and took iny seat. nances at an unlimited loo.

I drew cards, and fell to the lot of said Lady Lavish, in a tone of brokenMrs. Marvellous. “You must not scold heartedness which told me that she had me if I play

ill,” said she. “ Not for lost. Every feature was changed, the the world,' answered I, • I never scold- warm smile which gives such attractions ed a lady in my

life.' “I wish I could to her countenance had disappeared.; say as much of Sir Herbert,” said she, dejection filled fier eyes, and despair sat “ indeed it was nothing short of cruel, on every feature. . Mrs. Beverly was your crossness to Lady Maxton yester- also a great loser : not less than eighty day; you actually brought tears into guineas did she pay for her night's pas

Novsense,' exclaimed the time. She put on a sort of placid look, Baronet,' you know I wanted not to a well-bred indifference, a forced and play at all ; but the Nabob could not unnatural smile ; but nature, true to its inake up his party without us, and I feelings, betrayed the secret of her hate above all things to play with my mind, and gave the outlines of revenge, wife; married couples dever ought to and of disappointment to her counteplay together.' “Unless," interrupted nance. “ You are out of luck," obLady Loogtick, “ they understand one served I. •A trifle or so,' answered another as well as our friends in Port- she, with an assumption of tranquillity land Place.” • And then,' replied the which imposed upon nobody, Baronet, it is not very pleasant to play The other ladies (the eldest only against then' (a general sınile.) eighteen) were all anxiety. The natu

“ It is your deal, Mrs. Marvellous.” ral lustre of their complexion was marrTwo and three are five,' “ The heart ed by a flush of intemperate feeling and is yours, Lady Longtick, and little cass over-desire to win. Their eyes were falls to me.” · Have

you heard of the attentively riveted to the cards, and Royal marriages ?' “ Three tricks, by from time to time they communed with Jupiter !”– The naval Duke. “Your each other by glances of satisfaction, koave, my lady.”—- I am quite out of doubt, or discontent. Whilst these three luck ; how many Queens?” (Sir Her- Graces were half metamorphosed by hert) • One, and that's quite enough.' their attention to their bad or good for“ Bravo, Mrs. Marvellous, "said I, “ you tune Colonel Crab sneered as he was

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her eyes.

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