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Singular Account of the Inesive at Aversa.

[Vol. 4


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between the statues of Piety, and Wis- nesses to these experiments, we had dom, who place on his brow a crown an opportunity, says the author, of oboffered him by the love of his subjects. serving the effect which the Galvanic In the adjoining apartments, some young electricity produced on several individ. men of distinguished birth, quietly. uals, a statement of which will throw amused themselves in playing billiards. the greatest light on the obscure art of

Astonished at the urbanity,the deco- treating the infinite variety of mental rum, the tranquillity and the politeness, aberrations.] of this unfortunate family, a stranger It struck twelve, and the experiments could not help saying to my guide, ceased, it being the hour of dioner. As “ Where then are the insane ?". Wher- we proceeded to the Refectory, the ever you turn your eyes,' answered he, Chevalier Linguiti, the other physician, The peace, the regularity, the good pointed out the dark chamber, the floor temper, which you witness here, are and walls of which are covered with the fruit of vigilance, of order, of a mattresses to confine the maniacs when skilful combination of the different the fit of phrenzy is on them; and the methods of promoting health, and of beds, on which the patients are placed happy application of the means pointed in such a manner, that (the circulation out by medicine, moral philosophy, not being impeded) it is impossible for and a profound knowledge of the hu- them to injure themselves or others, man mind.

He likewise sheived us the strait waistIn more than one kind of mental de- coats, which permit the insane to walk rangement, the difficult art of adminis- about at their ease, without being able tering medicines, and, above all, that to commit any excess; the apartment of prescribing the use of them, must destined for the surprise bath; the occupy the first raok.

Hospitals for theatre, wbere these unfortunate persons the insane governed like places of con- recreate

themselves in representing finement, or, like prisons, destined to musical pieces ; and lastly, that of the secure dangerous patients who must be puppets, where their minds are frequentsequestered from society, are calculated ly diverted in a very beneficial manner. but to multiply the kinds of victims · I saw this whole family again assemwhom they contain.

bled at table, Unhappily it was still In this Hospital the ancient rigorous too numerous, notwithstanding the treatment of the patients has been hap- frequent and daily cures which annually pily replaced by tender and affectionate restore a great number of its members cares, by the admirable art of gaining to the state, to their relations, to the the mind, and by a mild and pliant arts, the sciences, and humanity. The firmness. Experience has soon de- bread, the wine, the meat, the soup, all monstrated the advantages of this system, the aliments, were wholesome, of good and every body acknowledges that it quality, well prepared, and well served was inspired, not by the blind empiric- up: tranquillity, order, silence, were ism of ill judged pity, but by profound every where observed ; but it was then knowledge and enlightened reflections that I first became sensible in what kind on the cause of madness and the means of a place I was. The continual agitaof curing it.

tion of the insane, the motion of their ['The writer here gives an account of muscles, which is not interrupted in two eminent physicians, who came to their moments of rage, the animal heat begin a series of Galvanic experiments, which in many of them is much increasapplied to certain species of madness ed, the extraordinary energy of their very frequent in hospitals for the insane. strength, sometimes excite in them ani After having chosen the patients, M. extraordinary voracity; and it was Ronchi, one of them, explained in an such, in some of these unfortunate pereloquent and concise manner the reasons sons, that they devoured their food like which convinced him that the remedy ferocious beasts, appearing insatiable, seemed efficacious, and the hopes which whatever quantity the kind Director set might be conceived of it. Being wit- before them. Their physiognomy, VOL. 4.]

Original Anecdotes of the Buonapartes.


their gestures, their secret murmurs, a moment without exciting the most which would cause them to be taken sorrowful reflections on the dreadful less for men than for brutes, evidently evils which assail humanity. proved that in these moments they were Full of these gloomy reflections, I deprived of reason, and governed by left Aversa to be in the evening at Nainstinct alone. A melancholy and ples, intending to visit the next day the paintul sight, which cannot be beheld Royal Establishinent for the Poor.

From the Literary Gazette, June, 1818.


Concluded from p. 75.


NAPOLEON, on bis side, appear- quently to land on the coast of Provence,

ed closely to adhere to all that his and proceed to Paris, without any mobrother recommended ; but, true to his lestation. The plot was, in fact, civil natural character, he commenced by and military ; as persons who had forcompletely deceiving the senator ; en- merly filled the situation of ministers, deavouring to persuade the latter, that a old counsellors of state, commissaries, sense of her own interests would induce clerks, and women of abandoned charAustria toʻsecond the enterprise ; and acter, composed the pivot on which the that, moreover, he had already received infernal machine was known to move, an assurance, that both his wife and and constituted its principal support. child would be sent to Paris in the event * * * * * It was not till the end of of its success. In threatening that pow. December that the generals, who had er with a general rising of the Italians, been initiated into the approaching caheaded by Murat, said Napoleon, Aus- tastrophe, began to hold their first meettria, rather than run the risk of losing ings at Paris. her possessions there, would consent to The plot was divided into two parts, withdraw from the coalition, if ever so that of Buonaparte's debarkation, and well inclined to oppose his re-establish- the insurrection of several garrisons in ment. As the execution of this calam- the northern departments, which were itous plan seemed practicable in Lucien's to march on the capital, and possess eyes, he left the success of it to the for- themselves of the royal family : this tunes of his brother : so that, apparent- was to be effected by the aid of perfidy ly, he had merely a secondary part to and treason, prepared with a degree of play in the grand political drama, which infamy altogether unworthy of the was about to throw the cause of Euro- French character. The public is fully pean liberty back for so many years. aware how amazingly the develope-, It was Joseph who assumed the most ment of this scheme was favoured by active agency in maturing the plot. This the blind confidence of the court, crimcrowned adventurer, tho' destitute alike inal neglect of an infatuated ministry, of talents or vigour of character, contri- and above all, hy the public opinion of vedl, in the rage of disappointed vanity, nearly all France. and stimulated by his love of gold, to In the course now pursued by Buonlay the first part of the train which pro- aparte, of which there appears to be duced the final explosion in France, some new and important parts bere deHaving previously fixed his residence veloped, Lucien took an earnest concern, at the castle of Prangrin, in Switzer- “ Lucien had scarcely heard of the land, that place became the head quar- landing, when he suduenly threw off ters for those conspirators who were the mask, which had bitherto made his employed to conduct the correspondence sentiments appear somewhat doubtful, thro’ the south of France, particulary and even indifferent with regard to NaLyons, Grenoble, Dijon, and even on poleon. to the capital. Agents from Elba, des- “On perceiving the Pope's alarm at the patched by Napoleon himself, used fre- idea of that man's return, who had op



Original Anecdotes of the Buonapartes. (vot. 4 pressed him for so many years, the prince was no longer any chance of dissolving of Canino persuaded his soverign, that the coalition, it was high time to think he could always control the policy of of opening the campaign." Buonaparte, and preserve bis holiness Of the performances of Lucien durfrom any future aggression. The pontiff ing this short revolutionay struggle, we had already availed himself of Lucien's think the following character bears the mediation, when Murat was marching evident marks of truth ; and were we to a body of troops towards Rome, and adopt the affected phraseology of the thought he should pow confide the in- times, we would say, 'it belongs to histerest of his states, as well as those of tory.' religion, to the same hands. It was by - Installed in his new habitation, Luthis artifice that the senator obtained cien sought for celebrity in three distinct passports to traverse Italy. Oo procur- capacities, that of prince, minister of ing these, he entered France ihrough state, and poet: all the public authori. Switzerland, and arrived at Paris late ties haztened to compliment his highness, in April : here he continued in the ut- who studied to receive them with dignimost secrecy, having also preserved the fied politeness. In this respect the senstrictest incognito on his Journey from ator had a manifest advantage over bis Rome. Although not one of his most brother : no one could have a greater intiinate friends knew of Lucien's being talent for blending ease and affability in in the capital for some time, he was his official communications thau Lucien; nevertheless frequentiy at the Tuileries, so that he soon became the object of and had many long conferences with general applause in all the circles of the Napoleon, by whom he was charged to resuscitated court, as well as amongst conduct a negotiation of great moment the public functionaries : nor was aduwith the British goverment: this failed lation spared on this occasion ; and a even before the necessary passports were hireling newspaper, the Journul de Parsigned. The senator went down to the is, which had but a few montbs before coast to wait for them, but not being al- most severely criticised the


of lowed'to cross the channel,he returned to Charlemagne, now sang a tulsome paliParis with the same secresy he had leítit.” node, containing an unbounded panegy

* The journey into Switzerland was ric on the same composition !" concerted with Napoleon; for although “The fact is, that the senator's credit the reconciliation was complete and sin. was no less real than bis influence was cere, it became necessary for Lucien to active. He was present at all the privy conceal it for the present, lest somne ob- councils and other conferences held by stacle should be thrown in the way of the members of the goverment, also his family's leaving Rome. On the other whenever the leaders of the two chamhand, it was of the utmost consequence bers inet. To him Napoleon left the that his return to power should be so difficult task of preparing the public managed, as not to give umbrage to those mind, and surmounting difficulties : in persons who had seized the reins of ad- a word, Lucien had ondertaken the veministration for the time being, and un- ry troublesome and thankless office of a der whom Napoleon himself had been conciliator, between the parties of every obliged to serve a species of tutelage, cast, which having at first united to suphaving found it impossible to regain all port Napoleon, seemed now desirous of his

power at once. From Lucien's po- contending the prize of power with him, sition in Switzerland, the emperor hop- and at all events of obliging the new ed the senator would be able to open the government to compromise with themsecret negociations with Austria, and selves. The Prince of Canino fully have greater facilities in stimulating tbe succeeded in gaining over Carnot, who, exer.ions of Murat.

of all the ministers, seemed to shew the · But as events soon began to accumu- senator most deference : these grand late, and become daily more pressing, props of the restored dynasty were freparticularly when every hope of contin- quently together, and used to have very uing at peace had vanished, and there long interviews.”

VOL. 4.]

Original Anecdotes of ihe Buonapartes.





The efforts made by Lucien to sus- LUC.-You deliberate when it is netain bis imperial relative were strenuous, cessary to act; while they act without but fruitless ;--the decadence of the Buo- deliberating. Dapartes was inevitable.

- What can they do? They are “ Amongst the ministers, Carnot seem - mere talkers ! ed to be the only person who remained LUC.---Public opinion is with them, a stanch supporter of the new govern- and they could pronounce your forfeiture ment: a secret council being summoned, to the throne. it was proposed to dissolve the two NAP.— The forfeiture! Theydare not! chambers; but the very imposing atti- LUC. --- They will dare every thieg, if tude assumed by that of the deputies, you dare nothing. under Fouché's management, rendered --Let us see Davoust. the success of this scheme extremely im- " Leaving the garden, Napoleon reprobable."

turned to his cabinet, followed by LuDefeated in the Chamber, Lucien cien : here the emperor remained plungand the ministers retired to the Elysèe, ed in a deep reverie, and shewing all the where all was consternation.

symptoms of irresolution, notwithstand. On their return to the Elysée, uneas- ing the pressing instances of the senator, iness and alarm had spread through the who at length quitted the room,telling a palace; and the senator burried from secretary that was present, and who behis carriage to the garden, in which Na- trayed considerable uneasiness at what poleon happened to be walking ; on he saw, “ What's to be done? The perceiving his brother, the emperor turn- smoke of Mount St. Jean bas turned his ed pale, and as suddenly became ilush- brain : he is a lost man !” On saying ed. “ Well !” said be to the senator. this, he got into his carriage again, drove

“ This laconicexclamation bad scarce- off to the Palais Rogal, and there sat ly escaped Napoleon's lips, when Lu- down to brood over his misfortunes, cien conducted bim into an adjoining with scarcely a ray of hope remaining.” arbour, where a person attached to the Counteracted by Fouché in the Reemperor's person heard the following gency and other questions, the intrigues dialogue between the two brothers : and zeal of Lucien, he insisted on a LUCIEN.- Where is


prompt flight to America, whither all now? Why so irresolute ? You must the brothers would follow; and a note, surely know what is the result of not signifying that such was the intention of daring to act under such circumstances ? Napoleon, was intercepted on the 26th

NAPOLEON. I have dared too much. of June. From this moment every

LUC.— 1'oo much and too little. Do hour became more pregnant with danso now for the last time.

ger to the Corsican dynasty. Lucien, NAP.--A tenth of November ? under the pame of Count de Chatillon,

LUC.---By no means. A constitution- fled to Boulogne, with the design of enal decree. The laws give you the power. barking for the United States. A cou

NAP. They no longer respect the rier caused him to change his resolution; constitution ; and if they oppose the de- and, full of apprehensions, he took the Cree ?

road to Italy as Count de Casali. After LUC.—Then they are rebels, and dis- wandering some time on the frontiers of solved of their own accord.

Savoy, the dread of being arrested by :- The national guard would the Royalists induced him to surrender come to their assistance.

10 Count Bubna, the commander of the LUC. The national guard has only a Austrian corps marching on Lyons. He physical

power of resistance. When cal- was not ungraciously received hy that Jed upon to act, the shopkeepers which officer, who dispatched an Austrian aidcompose it, will only ibink of taking du-camp to accompany him to Turin, care of their wives, daughters, and ware- where he arrived 12th July, with the inhouses.

tention of proceeding to Rome. But NAP.-If a tenth of Novemher failed, no sooner had he alighted at the hotel it might cause another tilth of October.* de l'Univers, than he was arrested and

carried prisoner to the citadel.


* 1795.



Original Anecdotes of the Buonapartes.Lucien's Treasures. (vol. 4

“Lucien's wonted firmness seemed now “Having thus fulfilled the task propoto fail him. • I cannot conceive,” cried sed, and conducted our hero to the last the Prince of Canino, “ why they should eventful scene of his political life, we treat me as a prisoner : I, who have al- trust the pledge given in the introducways opposed the ambitious designs of tion to these Memoirs, has been amply my brother, and who in this last instance redeemed ; and that the authentic sourwas only induced to revisit France for ces from whence our materials have the purpose of bringing him back to inore been drawn, will tend in no trifling demoderate views.”

gree to the elucidation of a subject which The clemency of the Allies reassur- has hitherto created opinions with respect ed him, and he awaited their decision to the Buonaparte family as foreign to in a captivity rendered as little painful truth as they are injurious to the best inas possible by King Victor Emanuel, terests of society. It is also boped that whose brother was under some former while the minor details of this work have pecuniary obligation to the prisoner, in contributed to the reader's amusement, regard to the receipt of bis pension of the historical records and reflections 50,000 crowns allowed to the abdicated which accompany them will not be altomonarch by the French government.- gether without their effect in aiding the The close of Lucien's career we trao- great cause of morals aud public liberty : scribe in the words of the author : by holding vice up to well merited re

“ A decision of those ministers who proach, exemplifying its short-lived trirepresented the four principal powers, umph, and above all, shewing the real Egland, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, motives that have actuated the conduct at Paris, soon led to Lucien’s release, of a family which might have still enjoyand enabled him to proceed to Rome ; ed the highest dignities in Europe, had where it was stipulated, that he should the individuals composing it betrayed a remain under the superintendence of the greater regard for virtue, and listened to papal police, and on the express condi- the prophetic voice of that PUBLIC OPINtion of his not quitting the koman states, ion to which their fall can alone be atThe intervention of Pius VII. was par tributed !” ticularly favourable to Lucien in this di- When Lucien left France in 1804,the lemma : indeed the holy father seems to author says he had an income of 200,000 have exhausted Christian charity ių fa- livres ; a capital of 500,000 francs in vour of the senator.

Spain; the Hotel de Brienne, at Paris, “ Leaving Turin on the 15th of Sep- and 200 pictures there, sold to bis mothtember 1815, accompanied by a Pied- er for 900,000 francs. He had also his montese officer, and passing through salary as senator, and the revenue of the Modena, the Prince of Canino was once seignory of Poppelsdorp, making tomore restored to the arms of his anxious gether 65,000 francs per ann.;

and wife and family.

1500 as a Member of the Institute. “Here Lucien seemed at first resigned The latter payments were, however, to his fate, and even appeared to inedi- stopped when he was ordered to quit tate somewhat philosophically on the France in 1810, and his income consevanity of human wishes. The senator's quently reduced from about 12,000l. to conduct was also exceedingly circum- 8,5001. a year. Thus it is stated, but spect; but whether he did not consider from his style of living he must have himself as sufficiently free at Rome, or had much more. His expense

in the that his ardent mind began to iodulge in purchase of works of art were immense some new projects of ambition, a most his collection was valued at 2 millions pressing application for passports to the of francs. When in Italy he treated for United States of America was made by the purchase of Bassano, the chateau of bim towards the end of 1816. Soon the Giustiniani family, where the fine after which it was discovered, that hav- works of Dominichino are to be seen, ing deliberated on this request, the allied but its owner asked too high a price. ministers sent a qualified refusal, decid- He next tried to buy the Villa

Hongroise ing that he should still continue under on the site of the Baths of Dioclesian, the inspection of the police at Rome. celebrated for its vast gardens, but the

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