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UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF THE

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, &c.

INTENDED TO SUPERSEDE

THE USE OF OTHER BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

ILLUSTRATED WITIT

THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY PLATES AND MAPS.

SECOND EDITION,

IN TWENTY-THREE VOLUMES.

VOLUME XII.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY JOHN BROWN, ANCHOR CLOSE,

FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
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IL E

Ι Ι Ε (1.)? ,

LE. n. f. (corrupted from aille, Fr. A ILEX AQUIFOLIUM, or common HOLLÝ. Of

walk or alley in a church or public this there are many varieties with variegated building. Properly aile.

leaves, which are propagated by the gardeners Upward the columns shoot, the roofs ascend, for sale, and some years ago were in great esteem, And arches widen, and long iles extend. Pope. but at present are little regarded; the old taste of (2.) ILÈ. 11. f. Caille, Fr.] An ear of corn. filling gardens with thorn evergreens being abos

lished. In the disposition of clumps, however, or (3.) ILE, a river of Somersetfhire, which runs rather plantations, of evergreen trees and fhrubs into the Parret, one mile S. of Langport. a few, of the most lively colours, have a good ef.

ILEHARRE, a town of France, in the dep. of fect in winter, if properly disposed. The best of the Lower Pyrenees, near Mauleon.

thefe varieties are the painted-lady holly, British ILEIGNES, a town of Hispaniola.

holly, Bradley's best holly, phyllis or cream holly, ILEN, a river of Wales, in Pembrokeshire. milkmaid bly, Prichet's best bolly, gold-edged

ILERAY, an illand of Scotland, on the W. hedgehog holly, Chyney's holly, glory-of-the-west coast of N. Uist, separated from it and from the holly, Broaderick's holly, Partridge's holly, Here. isie of Kirkbost by sands, which are overflotved at fordshire white holly, Blind's cream holly, Longbigh water. It is 3 miles long, half a mile broad, staff's holly, Eales's holly, Glver-edged hedgehog and yields good crops of barley, besides pasture holly. All these are propagated by budding or graft. for cattle.

ing them upon stocks of the common greep holly. ILERDA, in ancient geography, the capital of There is also a variety of the common holly with the ILERGETES, situated on an eminence between smooth leaves; but it is often found intermixed the rivers Sicoris and Cinga. It was often belieg- with the prickly-leaved on the same tree, and often ed and taken, being exposed to the incurfions on the fame branch there are both forts of leaves. from Gaul; and under Gallienus it was destroy. The common holly grows naturally in woods and ed by the Germans. It is now called LERIDA, in forests in many parts of England, where it rises Catalonia, on the Segra.

from 20 to 30 feet, and sometimes more, but the ILERGETES, the people of ILERDA, errone- ordinary height is not above as feet: the stem by ously called Iligertes by fome encyclopædifts. age becomes large, and is covered with a greyifh

ILESTGAGUEN, a strong town of Morocco, smooth bark; and those trees which are not loped in the province of Hea, feated on a mountain. or browsed by cattle, are commonly furnished with

ILET, a river of Ruffia, which runs into the branches the greatest part of their length, forming Volga, 40 miles NW. of Kazan.

a fort of cone; the branches are garnished with ILEUS. 1. f. [Latin.)- An ileus, commonly oblong oval leaves, of a lucid green on their upcalled the twisting of the guts, is really either à per surface, but are pale on their under, having a circumvolution, or insertion of one part of the gut Arong midrib: the edges are indented and waved, within the other. Arbuthnot.

with Tharp thorns terminating each of the points, (1.) ILEX. n. |: (Latin.1-The ilex, or great so that some of the thorns are raised upward, Icarlet oak, thrives well in England, is a hardy and others are bent downward, and being very fort of tree, and easily raised of acorns. The Spa- stiff, they are troublesome to handle. The leaves Biards have a sort they call enzina; the wood of are placed alternate on every side of the branches; whick, when old, is finely chambletted, as if it and from the base of their footftalks come out the were painted. Mortimer.

flowers in clusters, standing on very short foot. (2.) ILEX, the Holm or HOLLY Tree: A genus stalks, each of these sustain five, fix, or more of the tetragynia order, belonging to the tetrandria Aowers. They are of a dirty white, and appear class of plants, and in the natural method ranking in May; but are succeeded by roundith berries, under the 43d order Dumoja. The calyx is qua- which turn to a beautiful red about Michaelmas, dridentated; the corolla rotaceous; there is no and continue on the trees, if they are not destroyStyle; the berry is monospermous. There are fe ed, till after Christmas. The common holly is a Feral species ; but the most remarkable is ibe very beautiful tree in winter; therefore deserves a Vou XIL PART I.

A

place

place in all plantations of evergreen trees and long to it. It is seated almoft opposite Swansea, ihrubs, where its fining leaves and red berries in Glamorganshire, and is 49 miles NNW. of Exemake a fine variety. A few of the best variegated ter, and 181 W. by S. of London. Lon. 4. 5. W. kinds properly intermixed, enliven the scene. It Lai. SI. 14. N. is propagated by seeds, which never come up the ILHAVO, a town of Portugal, in Beira. first year, but lie in the ground as the haws do ; (1.) ILHEOS, a fertile province of Brazil, in the therefore the berries should be buried in the ground middle division. one year, and then taken up and fewn aţ Mi- $797.) Iųheos, the capital of the above province, chaelmas

, upon a bed expoká only to the morn feated on a tiver to named, 90 miles Ne. of Porto ing sun; the following spring the plants will ap- Segaro. Lon. 41. 25. W. Lat. 15. 5. S. pear, which must be kept clean froin weeds, and ILIA, the daughter of Numitor, and mother of if the spring prove dry, it will be of great fer: ROMULUS, the founder of Rome. See NUMITOR. vice to the plants if they are watered once a-week; (1.) ILIAC. adj. (iliacus, Lat.] Relating to but they must not have it oftener, nor in too great the lower bowels. --The iliac paffion is a kind of quantity, for too much moisture is very injurious convulsion in the belly. to these plants when young. In this reed bed the (2.) * Iliac Passion. A kind of nervous choplants may remain two years; and then be tranf. lic, whose seat is the ilium, whereby that gut is planted in autumn, into beds about fix inches twisted, or one part enters the cavity of the part afunder, where they may stand two years longer; immediately below or above; whence it is also during which time they must be constantly kept called the volvulus, from volvo, to roll. - Those clean from weeds; and if they have thriven well, who die of the iliac pafron have their bellies much they will be frong enough to transplant where fwelled. Flayer on the Humcili's. they are designed to remain; for, when they are (3.) The Iliac PASSION is called airs oriferere transplanted at that age they will grow to a lar- mei, and chordatsus. The name is derived by some get lze than those which are removed when they from the Greek verbliv, to wind or 'twis: See are much larger : but if the ground is not ready ANATOMY, N 1982 and MEDICINE, N° 193,89% to receive them, they should be transplanted into -.895. a nursery in rows two feet diftant, and one foot (4.) Iliac REGION. See ANATONY, 'No 267 asunder; where they may remain two years longer. ILIACORE, a town of Indoftan, in Malabar. If they are to be grafted with any of the yariega. ILIAD, [ias, from Ilium.] an ancient epic ted, kinds, that thould be performe after they poem, the first and finest of those composed by have grown one year in the nurie y; but the Homer. The poet's design was to now the plants, fa grafted should continue two years after Greeks, who were divided into

several little nates, is the purlety, that they may make good shoots how much it was their interest to preserve harbefore they are remoged; though the plain ones mony, among themselves; for which end he sets beshould not stand longer than two years in the que fore them the calamities that befel their ancestors Sery, because when they are older they do not from the wrath of Achilles, and his misundertandtransplant fo well. The best season for removing ing with Agamemnon; and the advantages that hollies is in autunn, especially in dry land; but afterwards accrued to them from their union. The where the soil is cold and moist, they may be Iliad is divided into 24 books or rhapsodies. transplanted with great safety in spring, if the ILIENSES, an ancient people of Sardinia, men. plants are not too nid, or have not stood long un. tioned by Livy; lib. 40. c. 19.1. 41. c. 6, 12. Temoved. Sheep in winter are fed with croppings ILIENSIUM Pagus. See ILIUM, No 3, of holly. Birds eat the berries. The bark for: ILINSKOI, four towns of Ruflia, in the gov. menied, and wathed from the woody fibres, make of Noyogorod, Olonk, Tobolsk, and Tuer. tbe cominon biru-lime. The plant makes an im. (1.) ILION, or Ilios. See Ilium, No penetrable fences and bears cropping, though it (2.) ILION, a town of Asia, in Thibet. does not in all respecta answer equally well with

ILISSIADES, a title of the Muses; from the bawthorn. The mood is used in fineering, and Ilissus, a river running to the E. of Athens is sometimes stained black to imitate ebony. Ilan- which, the Eridanus running on the W. lide, dles for knives, and cogs for mill wheels, are made falls below the city into the sea. It was facred to of it.. It is also made into hones for razors. Mil- the Muses, and their altar food on its bank, where lar says, he has seen the floor of a room laid with the luftration in the leffer-myfteries was usually compartments of holly and mahogany, which had performed. a fine effect.

ILLTHYIA, A title of Juno and Diana." ILFELD a town of Saxony, in Hohnstein. ILIVE, an Englifh printer and letter founder, (1.) ILFORD. GREAT, two villages of Effex, who publithed fomnc fingular tracts; particularly

(2.) ILFORD, LITTLE, ) on the Roding, which pretended tranflation of the book of JASHER; and is navigable

bence to the Thames. They are bam- an oration, proving that this world is Hell, and lets to the town of Barking; and lie 7 miles NE. that the souls of men are fallen angels. He died by E. of London.

. lun!

at London io 1763 . ILFRACOMBE, a fea-port of Devonshire, with

(1.) ILIUM, in anatoms See AxÁTOMY, N° a spacious bafin, formed by a good pier projecting 290. into the Bristol Channel. The high tides bere al. (2.) ILIUM, ILion, or Tujos, in ancient gcogra. low large vessels to enter the harbour, This port phy, a name of Troy, but most commonly used employs a number of brigs and slogps, chieNy in by the poets, and distinguilhed by the epithet Fr carrying ore from Cornwall, coa? from Wales, sus ; at a greater distance from tbe lea than that And corn to Bristol. A number of fishing Skiffs be- afterwards called Ilium Jorun. See N° 3.

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