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confidence in the flesh, no hope of heaven because she was so good, no idea of anything in herself that could be pleasing to God. That one so unworthy of the favour of God as she felt herself to be, could be saved, seemed to her humility too good to be true. Not that she doubted for a moment the mercy, faithfulness, or power of God to save her, but she was afraid that her faith was not saving faith, that her repentance was not sound, that her prayers were too poor to be accepted of so great and so holy a God. When her minister referred in conversation to her arrival in the better land, she would generally say, in allusion to her own fears, “ Yes, if I should ever get there.”

Our sister was one of the bruised reeds, but though bruised, not broken and cast away by her Saviour; for it is said of him, “A bruised reed he will not break.” Her spirit had long been bruised by humbling convictions of sin, and manifold temptations, and daily trials ; but though bruised, she was not forsaken. She was still able to hope in God, and to trust in the merits and mercy of her Saviour, and to commit her soul into his hands; and we believe that her timid, tender, and affectionate spirit is now filled with light, and love, and joy in the immediate presence of the Lamb. Though subject for some years to daily indisposition, she was active in the discharge of the duties of her position, and endeavoured to promote the comfort of others far more than her own. Her sudden removal is a loud call in providence to us all so to live

that if our death also should be sudden, sudden death may be to us sudden glory. These solemn events are too often slighted and unimproved, and persons continue as indifferent as ever to all the claims of God, and the soul, and eternity.

There are several points in reference to the piety of our departed sister to which we would just refer, in hope that they may be imitated by others.

There is evidence to believe that she cherished sincere, warm, and abiding love to the word of God. The worn appearance of her Bible, her daily companion in the wilderness, shows that she was in the habit of frequently reading its sacred pages, and of refreshing her soul from these wells of salvation, There is reason to hope that her soul was often comforted, amidst manifold cares, temptations, and afflictions, by the words of life, instruction, and comfort she found here, and that she was able to say with the psalmist, “Thy statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimage.” Her relatives and friends, and all who read this account, will find it to their advantage to imitate our sister in this respect, and to try and carry out more fully the command of Christ, “Search the Scriptures.” The worn appearance of our Bibles, from daily use, is much to the honour of our Christian profession, for this is our map, to guide us in safety and triumph to the new Jerusalem.

Our friend felt the claims of the gospel, and according to her ability was willing to contribute to its support. Her personal wants were

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small, which gave her the opportunity of giving more liberally to the cause of Christ, and she was disposed to improve it for the glory of God.

Her readiness to promote the comfort of others was a very prominent and pleasing trait in her character. It is said of the Saviour, "He pleased not himself.” In this lovely feature of his character our departed friend was like her Lord. She would often disregard the weakness of her body, that she might be active in promoting the convenience and happiness of those around her. Hence her removal will be daily felt to be a loss by her near relatives, for they will miss her many little acts of kindness.

She was also very patient in the endurance of repeated and increasing trials.

Her spirit was not a complaining one. She was remarkably free from all bitterness of spirit and revengeful feelings, under the

great provocations to evil she was called to endure. She had the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit. Her gentleness made her great in the estimation of her friends, and was a quiet power for good in the circle in which she moved.

Our friend hoped, from the change in her circumstances, that she should enjoy enlarged opportunities of attending the ordinances of the sanctuary; and if health and life had been spared, we are sure that she would joyfully have improved them. She needed no urging to attend the house of her God. The word of life was truly precious to her, and was received as the food appointed for the sustenance of her spiritual life.

May this signal, solemn, sudden visitation lead us all to awake from all indifference to he claims of God, and to live more as those who are looking for the coming of Christ !

H. H.

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South Africa.

DR. LIVINGSTONE'S TRAVELS.

AFRICAN TEST OF INNOCENCE. When a man suspects that any of common among all the negro nahis wives have bewitched him, he tions north of the Zambesi. sends for the witch-doctor, and all This summary procedure excited the wives go forth into the field, my surprise, for my intercourse with and remain fasting till that person the natives here had led me to behas made an infusion of the plant. lieve that the women were held in They all drink it, each one holding so much estimation, that the men up her hand to heaven, in attest- would not dare to get rid of them ation of her innocency. Those who thus. But the explanation I revomit it are considered innocent, ceived was this : the slightest imwhile those whom it purges are pro- putation makes them eagerly desire nounced guilty, and put to death by the test; they are conscious of being burning. The innocent return to innocent, and have the fullest faith their homes, and slaughter a cock, in the “muavi” detecting the guilty as a thank-offering to their guardian alone; hence they go willingly, and spirits. The practice of ordeal is even eagerly, to drink it. When

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in Angola, a half-caste was pointed out to me, whogyis one of the most successful merchants in that country; and the mother of this gentleman, who was perfectly free, went, of her own accord, all the way from Ambaca to Cassange, to be killed by the ordeal, her rich son making no objection,

The same custom prevails among the Barotse, Bashubia, and Batoka, but with slight variations. The Barotse, for instance, pour the medicine down the throat of a cock or of a dog, and judge of the innocence or guilt of the person accused according to the vomiting or purging of the animal. I happened to mention to my own men the water-test for witches formerly in use in Scotland: the supposed witch, being bound hand and foot, was thrown into a pond ; if she floated, she was considered guilty, taken out, and burned; but if she sank and was drowned, she was pronounced innocent. The wisdom of my ancestors excited as much wonder in their minds as their custom did in mine. " WOMEN'S RIGHTS” IN AFRICA.

When a young man takes a liking to a girl of another village, and the parents have no objection to the match, he is obliged to come and live at their village. He has to perform certain services for the mother-in-law, such as keeping her well supplied with fire-wood; and when he comes into her presence he is obliged to sit with his knees in a bent position, as putting out his feet towards the old lady would give her great offence. If he becomes tired of living in this state of vassalage, and wishes to return to his own family, he is obliged to leave all his children behind-they belong to the wife. This is only a more stringent enforcement of the law from which emanates the practice which prevails so very extensively in Africa, known to Europeans as" buying wives.” Such virtually it is, but it does not appear quite in that light to the actors. So many head of cattle, or goats, are given to the parents of the girl, “to give

her up," as it is termed, that is, to forego all claim on her offspring, and allow an entire transference of her and her seed into another family. If nothing is given, the family from which she has come can claim the children as part of itself: the payment is made to sever this bond. In the case supposed, the young man has not been able to advance anything for that purpose ; and, from the temptations placed here before my men, I have no doubt that some prefer to have their daughters married in that way, as it leads to the increase of their own village. My men excited the admiration of the Bambiri, who took them for a superior breed, on account of their bravery in elephanthunting, and wished to get them as sons-in-law on the conditions named, but none yielded to the temptation. COAL NEAR THE ZAMBESI RIVER,

On mentioning to the Portuguese Commandant of Tete that I had discovered a small seam of coal, he stated that the Portuguese were already aware of nine such seams, and that five of them were on the opposite bank of the river. As soon as I had recovered from my fatigue, I went to examine them. We proceeded in a boat to the mouth of the Lofubu, or Revubu, which is about two miles below Tete, and on the opposite or northern bank. Ascending this about four miles, against a strong current of beautifully clear water, we landed near a small cataract, and walked about two miles, through very fertile gardens, to the seam, which we found to be in one of the feeders of the Lofubu, called Muatize, or Motize. The seam is in the perpendicular bank, and dips into the rivulet, or in a northerly direction. There is, first of all, a seam ten inches in diameter, then some shale, below which there is another seam, fiftyeight inches of which are seen, and, as the bottom touches the water of the Muatize, it may be more. This part of the seama is about thirty yards long. There is then a fault. About 100 yards higher up the

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The usual conveyance is by means of very large canoes and launches built at Senna.

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stream, black vesicular trap is seen, penetrating in thin veins the clay shale of the country, converting it into porcellanite, and partially crystallizing the coal with which it came into contact. On the right bank of the Lofubu there is another feeder entering the river, near its confluence with the Muatize, which is called the Morongozi, in which there is another and still larger bed of coal exposed. Further up the Lofubu, there are other seams in the rivulets Inyavu and Makare; also, several spots in the Maravi country have the coal cropping out. This has evidently been brought to the surface by volcanic action, at a later period than the coal forma

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tion.

GOLD-WASHING IN AFRICA. The natives know the value of gold perfectly well, for they bring it for sale in goose-quills, and demand twenty-four yards of calico for one penful. When the rivers in the district of Manica and other gold-washing places have been fooded, they leave a coating of mud on the banks. The natives observe the spots which dry soonest, and commence digging there, in firm belief that gold lies beneath. They are said not to dig deeper than their chins, believing that, if they did so, the ground would fall in and kill them. When they find a piece or flake of gold, they bury it again, from the superstitious idea that this is the seed of the gold, and, though they know the value of it well, they prefer losing it rather than the whole future crop. This conduct seemed to me so very unlikely in men who bring the dust in quills, and even put in a few seeds of a certain plant as a charm to prevent their losing any of it on the way, that I doubted the authority of my informant; but I found the report verified by all the Portuguese who know the native language and mode of thinking, and give the statement for what it is worth.

FREE AFRICAN LABOUR.
The wages of free labourers, when
employed in such work as gold-
washing, agriculture, or digging
coal

, is two yards of unbleached calico per day. They might be got to work cheaper if engaged by the moon, or for about sixteen yards per month. For masons and carpenters even, the ordinary rate is two yards per day. This is called one braca. Tradesmen from Kilimane demand four bracas, or eight yards, per day. English or American unbleached calico is the only currency used,

The carriage of goods up the river to Tete adds about ten per cent, to their cost.

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The Sunday-School.

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THE TRANSPLANTED ROSE. The newly-turned earth in the cor- to bloom and flourish in the heavenly ner of yon quiet churchyard reminds paradise. us of the sad party that so lately Marianne E-, upon whose gathered round the opened tomb, earthly resting-place we have been prepared to contain the mortal re- gazing, was the child of pious pamains of one dearly loved and fondly rents, trained in the fear of the prized; and that beauteous rose a Lord, and with her only brother, the kind friend has taken from his gar- subject of devout, earnest, and conden, and planted on her grave, is a stant prayers. Blessed with a frank, sweet emblem of the far more pre- open-hearted, loving disposition, she cious one the Redeemer hath taken speedily won the affection of all who from the soil of earthly fellowship, knew her; for though free, she was

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singularly simple and artless. To her widowed mother and only brother she was both a solace and a joy; her class of little ones in the Sabbath-school soon learnt to love her; and no meeting seemed complete without her cheerful smile and happy laugh.

Though greatly loving and often deeply interested in good things, it is to be feared she did not experience the great vital change, or truly surrender her heart to the Lord Jesus, till near the close of life. Though long near the kingdom, she did not enter in, till laid upon a bed of sickness and pain. About six months previously to her death, she was somewhat impressed by a sermon from the words, “The love of Christ constraineth us,”-a theme well calculated to move so loving and sympathizing a nature. From that time she felt some anxiety, which was sustained by attendance on meetings then being held on the special behalf of the young people.

At last, she was seized with a painful and trying disease, which, as for some days she kept from the notice of her mother, laid firm hold upon her frame, and though at first no serious fears were entertained, it soon became evident that an already feeble frame could scarcely hope to bear up under it. At first, she felt much alarm at the thought of death, feeling how great had been the folly of life without a resolved purpose to serve the Lord Christ. Christian friends spoke to her of the evil of sin; she said, “I know it, and feel it too:" and then they directed her to the great and gracious Saviour, whose salvation was for all, who had loved her even to die for her, and whose kind invitations should win her heart and draw her to his service,

One whole night, in the early part of her illness, she spent altogether in prayer for salvation, and in the morning said Jesus had made himself known unto her, she had yielded her heart to him, and he had filled her soul with a blessed foretaste of heaven. From this time the fear of death seemed taken away; she some

times expressed a wish to live, if only for six months, but it was in order that she might enjoy the service of Christ, and do something for him. “I should wish to live a little,” she would say, know I have lived nineteen years, and not begun my work yet; and I think there are some of my friends I could get to come to Christ:" and as the hope of living was taken away, she wished that her death might be blessed to these friends, if her life might not be. One regret filled her mind,-it was, that she had not come to Christ before, and yielded her heart to her Saviour while life and powers were given to 'her.

Though her sufferings were very acute, she bore them with great patience, and was able to speak calmly of death, saying, “I am the privileged one of the three, that I should be taken first to heaven; but you will quickly follow me, and I will have the gate open for you; it is open already for me. At one time, as a friend entered her room, she exclaimed, “ Happy, happy! Jesus stands with arms wide open waiting to take me; look !” She evidently beheld more than was permitted to those about her couch. At times she would repeat little hymns, such as, – “Nothing in my hand I bring,

Simply to Christ's cross I cling." “ Angels, joyful to attend,

Hov'ring round thy pillow bend,
Wait to catch the signal given,

And escort thee quick to heaven;" and turning to those watching, said, “Don't you think the signal is already given for me?” She wished the Sabbath-school children might sing, on the Sunday following her interment, that beautiful hymn,“ We sing of the realms of the blest ;" when she would be “knowing what it was to be there."

Once a little cloud of doubt and darkness seemed to pass over her mind; but on her mother entering her chamber some time after, she said, “The cloud has passed, mother dear; all is bright again ; you said

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