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The Jnquirer.

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QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. sophy of etiquette, and what are the

659. Choice of Books.-In Macau- laws which govern social intercourse lay's essay “ On the Athenian Orators in the various walks of life ?-AWKthis sentence occurs :-“It is not by

WARK, turning over libraries, but by repeatedly

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. perusing and intently contemplating a few great models, that the mind is best 646. The Battle of the Herrings disciplined.” I shall be glad to know took place Feb. 12, 1429.

It was what books are the best fitted for this fought on the occasion of that invasion constant and thorough study.-A. B. C. of France by the English which called

660. I am anxious to be informed Joan of Arc into the field. We take as to what is at present the best, the the following notice of this event from most advanced and trustworthy copy, the excellent“ School and College Hisin a single compact volume, of the Scrip- tory of England," by J. C. Curtis, for tures without note or comment, to be a knowledge of which we are indebted obtained. The question, as will be to a review in the British Controverseen, tacitly excludes the existing so- sialist:—“The campaign was opened by called "authorized version.” I desire the siege of Orleans under the guidance the embodied results of the more recent of Salisbury, who while reconnoitring scholarship and criticism in a handy- the defences was mortally wounded sized volume. I beg earnestly and re- (Oct., 1428). Suffolk succeeded to the spectfully to ask, Is it competent to me command, and continued the blockade to obtain at the present time this deside- during the winter. Early in the folratum ? Answers meeting my require- lowing year, Bedford sent a convoy of ment, either absolutely or relatively, provisions under the escort of fifteen will be much and highly valued.--0.D. hundred men, headed by Sir John

661. What has become of the “Na- Fastolfe. The French, learning their tional Corresponding Literary Society”? design, with a force three times as Is it in existence at present ? If it is, large endeavoured to intercept it, and Who is the secretary, and what is his a severe engagement took place at address ? If not, is there any similar Rouvrai, in which Fastolfe gained a society in operation at present ? and the complete victory. The action was address of the secretary ?—RICHARD. called the Battle of the Herrings, be

662. I understand there was recently cause the convoy contained a great started in London a newspaper printed quantity of that kind of food ” [as, in English, French, and German. Would says another chronicler, “it was Lent"], some gentleman mention its name, price, 12th Feb., 1429 (p. 165). Thereafter and by whom published ?—W. D. there follows a brief but vivid account

663. Social etiquette puzzles me of “The Maid of Domremy," whose greatly. Could you tell me what book monument yet brightens the market, to read about this most essential question place of Rouen, where, on 30th May, for a young pushing man ? Are “Lord 1431, she is said to have been burned Chesterfield's Letters to his Son” the alive as a sorceress and a hereticbest things to be had in our language though recently doubt has been thrown upon the point ? What is the philo- on that story.-R. M. A.

as

655. Jonathan Edwards's " A Careful and Strict Inquiry into the modern prevailing notion that Freedom of Will is supposed to be essential to Moral Agency” was first published in 1754, in the fifty-first year of the author's age, and four years before his death. It is a masterpiece of metaphysics. Isaac Taylor says, “ The treatise on

the will is to a true philosophy of human nature the demonstrations of Leibnitz are to modern mechanical science." "It is universally acknowledged to be one of the greatest efforts of the human intellect." An edition of "The Treatise on the Will" was issued in London in 1831, by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, we think, which contained an elaborate and exhaustive introductory essay by Isaac Taylor. In 1834 an edition of his works was issued, under the superintendence of Henry Rogers, to which an “Essay on the Genius of Edwards” is prefixed. As a mere training in logical analysis, in terse concentratedness of thinking, and in the consecutive pursuit of reasoning from premiss to conclusion, no better book is to be found in the English language. Yet its author was temned, despised, persecuted, hunted by the odium theologicum! How strangely the defenders of the faith defend the faith !-R. M. A.

Ought President Johnson to be re

elected ? Is Prayer efficacious ? Is a European Confederation possible ? Should the British Army be reorganized

on the European plan? Is England declining in Political Infla

ence ? Is Ritualism inconsistent with Chris

tianity? Does History give a Verdict in favour

of or against Protestantism ? Are Sisterhoods in accordance with

Christianity ? Is Co-operative Labour advisable ? Are Standing Armies beneficial ? Ought we to have Asylums for In

ebriates ? Have Russia and America cognate

interests ? Does John Bright merit the confidence

of the British people ? Which would most effectually estin

guish Bribery—the Punishment of

the Bribers or the Bribed ? Are the offers of Salvation in Christ

limited to this present World ? Does the Theology of the Schools

coincide with that of Scripture ? Is Church Organization unfavourable

to Home Piety? Was the Jewish Sabbath a Day of

Worship? Is the “ Private Interpretation of

Scripture allowable ? Does Christian Doctrine develop ? Is Sensation the Original Source of all

thought ? Have we any Evidence for the existence

of Matter? Have we any Evidence for the inde

pendent existence of Mind ? Is Knowledge power ? Do Christian Ethics differ from Natural

Morals ? Are there good reasons for believing in

Providence ? Does the Speculative differ from the

Practical Reason ? Are Virtue and Happiness coincident? Is Reasoning from Analogy legitimate ?

con

SUBJECTS SUITABLE FOR DEBATE. Have recent Wars disturbed the Balance

of Power in Europe ? Is Temporal Power essential to the

Papacy? Ought Marriage to be regarded as a

Civil or a Religious Ceremony ? Is Peace likely to prevail in Europe

long ? Is Non-Intervention a proper policy for

Britain ? Does Old Testament teaching favour

Polygamy ?

The Societies' Section.

6

REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETIES. The Philosophical Institution, Edin- Practical Astronomy in the University burgh.—The following is a list of the of Edinburgh. lectures announced for delivery at this 17. “ Thomas Hood,” by George notable northern association:

Dawson, M.A., Birmingham. 1. “ Opening Address," by Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart., M.P.

The Dublin Young Men's Christian 2. “Plato," by John Stuart Blackie, Association, in connection with the M.A.

United Church of England and Ireland, 3. “The New England States; their is under the patronage of his Grace the Origin, Condition, and Prospects,” by Lord Archbishop of Dublin (Richard M. D. Conway, Esq., Virginia, U.S. Chenevix Trench). The meetings are

4. “Man ; Where, Whence, and held in the Association House, 8, DawWhither ?” by David Page, F.R.S.E. son Street, Dublin, on sabbath evenings

5. Washington Irving," by the at five, for the Bible class, in which Rev. Adam L. Simpson, F.S.A. Scot. the subject of study for this session is

6. An Englishman's Impression of "St. Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews.” Scottish Usages,” by Frederick W. Bed- On Friday evenings there are Scripford, LL.D., D.C.L.

ture lessons, which are followed by lec7. “The Method of Nature,” by John tures, essays, and debates. Among the Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. London. lectures there are noted in the pro

8. Concert of vocal and instrumental gramme the following topics:-“The music, under the direction of John Hul- Employment of Spare Hours ;" “ Leilab, Prof. of Vocal Music in King's Coll. sure Hours, and Mutual Improvement;"

9. " Richard Brinsley Sheridan ” “ Plants in Relation to Man," &c. (with illustrative readings from his Among the the essays we notice:works), by George W. Baynham, Esq. “ The Past and Present of Mexico;"

10. “The English Commonwealth “ The Life and Writings of Southey;" and the Protectorate,” bg T. H. Green, “ Lord Chief Justice Bushe;" “ ConM.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. fessions of St. Augustine;" and "The 11.

" Modern Engines War," by English Church before the Arrival of John Scott Russell, C.E., F.R.S. Lond. St. Augustine.” The debates, as has

12. John Milton," by John Nichol, been acknowledged on the programme, B.A., Oxon., Prof. of English Literature have been selected from the volumes of in the University of Glasgow.

the British Controversialist for 1864 13. “ The Progress of the Philosophy and 1866. The members have the of History," by the Rev. Robert Flint, use of a consulting library, open every Professor of Moral Philosophy in the day except Sunday ; and a wellUniversity of St. Andrews.

supplied reading-room. Latin, Greek, 14. "Letters and Letter-writing,” by and French classes are open, and exaGeorge Seton, Advocate.

minations for prizes are held periodic15. “Mr. Buckle's Historical Philo- ally. A lending library is in course sophy,” by A. V. Dicey, M.A., Barrister- of formation, as is also a class for the -at-law, Fellow of Trin. Coll., Oxford. study of English literature. A course

16. “The Great Pyramid, and Egyp- of public lectures is in process of being tian Life Four Thousand Years ago' arranged, and the entire prospects of (with photographic illustrations shown the association are healthy and proby the oxy-hydrogen light), by C. mising. Young men are welcomed at Piazzi Smyth, F.R.SS., Professor of the association house.

Literary Notes.

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EDITIONS of Homer, Sophocles, and other great classical works are in preparation, by some of the most accomplished scholars of Oxford.

A work on “Prophecy,” displaying, it is said, “ripe scholarship, critical talent, and literary taste,” is nearly ready for press. It is due to the pen of Rev. James Bonnar, United Presbyterian Church, East Kilbride, N.B.

It is said that Nathaniel Hawthorne has left a posthumous novel, finished, but unrevised.

Much original matter will be incorporated with Rev. P. H. Waddell's Biography of Robert Burns.”

Ex-Governor Eyre is engaged on “A Narrative of my Government of Jamaica."

Milton's “Paradise Lost," illustrated by G. Doré, in folio, will shortly be issued, edited by Dr. Vaughan.

Mr. Bayard Taylor is engaged on a translation of “Faust."

We are, “ Sooner or Later," to have a serial tale by Mr. Shirley Brooks.

Professor J. Veitch's "Life of Sir William Hamilton” may, “report asserts,” be expected shortly.

A Biography of Sir Walter Raleigh," by James A. St. John, with new facts and documents, is, after the labour of seven years, nearly ready.

A volume of “ Lectures on Literature," by John Nichol, Esq., is spoken of as in preparation.

Professor Masson is to edit the Globe “ Milton.”

George Gilfllan's great poem on “Night,” the labour of nearly twenty years, is to appear, we believe, at Christ

The shilling “Shakspere," edited by J. D. Halliwell, is to be published by J. C. Hotten.

W. C. Hazlitt is preparing a new edition of the "Works of Charles Lamb," and a “Life of Wm. Hazlitt."

“ The Elements of Rhetoric," by S. Neil, has just been reissued in a cheap and elegant form, price 28.

On dit that Napoleon III. is engaged on a "Life of Charlemagne."

Flasman's illustrations of Dante's divine poem are to be reproduced by Messrs. Bell and Daldy.

"1793,” a romance by Victor Hugo, is reported finished; and a “ History of England” is now engaging that author's pen.

A new and complete “Life of Garrick” is promised by Mr. Percy Fitzgerald.

J. S. Mill is engaged at Avignon in editing the works of the late H. T. Buckle, the historian of civilization.

The American Tract Society has issued “ The Life and Times of John Milton," by W. C. Martyn, who endeavours to gauge the power of the poet as a controversialist and a statesman in a review of his prose writings.

W. R. Herndon, formerly a law partner with Abraham Lincoln, is making collections for a new biography of “ The Martyred President."

Messrs. A. & C. Black are issuing their copyright edition of the Waverley Novels entire at sixpence each.

Alex. Smart, a working printer, author of “Rambling Rhymes,” “Songs of Labour,” &c., died 19th October.

An MS. of Edgar Allan Poe's has been discovered at New York, and is to be published shortly.

Edwin P. Whipple has a work in the press on "Character and Characteristic Men.”

J. G. Whittier is to issue his “Prose Writings,” and “The Tent on the Beach, and other poems.”

Edward Peacock is collecting materials for a biography of “ Thomas Taylor, the Platonist” (1758—1835).

A French epic, "The Bismarkiad," has been projected by M. Viennet.

mas.

The Logic of Criticism.

READERS of all classes have been struck with the singular diversity of opinions often pronounced upon authors and their works. In the various periodicals of the day the most opposite verdicts are expressed, not only regarding the manner but the matter of books, One is not unfrequently informed, in a review of a new work, that it is full of originality, interest, and ability; while in another the same production is spoken of as destitute of any claim either to excellence of style, soundness of reasoning, or superiority of treatment. “The glorious uncertainty" of criticism has become almost as renowned as that of the law; and men have begun to believe that king David's dissuasive exhortation - "Put not your trust in princes”-should be extended also to critics. The different organs of opinion seem to employ canons of judgment at utter variance with each other; but, worse than all, in the same serial it is not unusual to find one composition reviewed by a critic holding one sort of opinions on such books, while another work of the same kind is adjudicated upon by an advocate of opinions of a completely dissimilar description. Politics, religion, party, sects, local influence, personal feeling, and many other agencies by which the judgment is warped, are named among the reasons for this state of affairs ; so that though the cause of it may admit of dispute, we presume the fact will not be denied; it has, indeed, become the scandal of literature.

The reality of the fact is so patent, that several methods have been suggested for the extirpation or the mitigation of the evil. It is held by some that the anonymity of criticism, by releasing the reviewer from a sense of personal responsibility, encourages him to take up that view of any particular work which promises to admit of the most striking treatment and the production of the most telling kind of paper ; that such a method of reviewing does not bind the critic to the constant maintenance of the same form or spirit of judgment, or necessitate the testing of the canons employed, previously to their application in any individual case. It is not uncommon for writers who take this line of argument to stigmatise anonymous as unprincipled criticism, so that the word unprincipled passes (shall we say by a fallacia accidentis ?) from bearing the signification of unscientific to suggesting that of dishonest. Certainly the objections taken to anonymous reviewers may be held to prove that, in the opinion of the remonstrants, such criticism as they produce is in some sense untrustworthy, and that it would, in all probability, be rendered less so by the introduction of the fashion of signing all such articles with the name of the writer. 1866.

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