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THE following method of treating this subject, is the one employed by the Editor, in his classes. It will be found adapted to the usual circumstances of singing schools, in New England.

These schools, generally, consist of twenty or thirty lessons, of two or two and a half hours each. Their object is not so much to make the individuals attending them, accomplished singers, as to train and prepare a choir of singers, as a whole, for a respectable and decent performance of their part, in public worship. The most that can be done, in the time allowed and with the means at command, should be attempted; but it is obvious that no person ignorant of the subject, can be taught to read even psalmody at sight, in twenty lessons, still less to master the difficulties of other descriptions of music. The judicious teacher will adapt his method to the circumstances of his school, and will not, in a term of twenty lessons, commence a course which can only be completed in sixty. There are two extremes to be avoided, namely, spending too much time in mere exercises in Rhythm and Melody, and on the other hand, too much in the mere practice of tunes.

The first, leads to mechanical singing, and the last is merely singing by rote.

The choir ought, if possible, to be made familiar with a sufficient, though not too extensive list of tunes, and at the same time, to have so much acquaintance with the principles of music, that they may, without a teacher's assistance, add new tunes to their list, from time to time.

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There are three varieties of Triple measure,

3 and 3.

There are two varieties of quadruple measure, and 4.

In all these cases the fraction represents the quantity of time in each
measure. The upper figure or numerator, shews the number of parts,
into which the measure is imagined to be divided; and shews also the
number of beats, inasmuch as there is a beat to each imaginary division
of the measure. The lower figure or denominator, shews the value of
the parts respectively, into which the measure is imagined to be divided.
ART. 17. The time of the measures may be occupied by any notes
or rests whatever, at the pleasure of the composer; which amount to
that indicated by the fractions.

ART. 18. A piece of music may, however, commence or end with a
measure not full.

ART. 19. Examples of the varieties of measure, the time of which is
variously filled by notes and rests.

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ART. 20. In regard to the rapidity of beating time, it is a matter entirely of judgment, to be exercised as each different tune presents itself. Whatever degree of quickness is determined on, must be carefully sustained throughout each tune, unless there are musical characters or terms to direct a change.

vii able to the ear of every man, and is the basis of all music. It constitutes what is called the SCALE.

ART. 24. The scale consists of seven primitive sounds. The eighth sound has a resemblance to the first of such a character, and its effect upon the ear is so like it, that it is called by the same name. Thus, if the first sound of the scale be called A, the eighth will be called A. The intermediate ones will be respectively B, C, D, E, F, G.

ART. 25. In order to represent the differences of sound with respect to pitch, the notes are written upon the page in different situations. High sounds have their notes written higher than low ones.

ART. 26. But that there may be no uncertainty in regard to the intended relative positions of the notes, a character is made use of to define them, called a STAFF. It consists of five lines drawn quite across the page, together with as many short lines (called ADDED LINES) as may be necessary to furnish a place for very high or low notes. The staff might be made to consist of a great number of lines drawn the whole width of the page, rendering the short added lines unnecessary; but it is found most convenient to use five long ones only.

Here is a representation of the staff, with some added lines:




ART. 21. Sounds of different pitch, that is of different acuteness or gravity, are named from the first seven letters of the alphabet, in order to distinguish them from each other.

REMARK. The acuteness or gravity of a sound depends upon the rapidity of the vibrations of the sonorous body producing it.

ART. 22. A sound produced by a certain degree of rapidity of vibration, receives a certain letter as its name.

ART. 23. There is a certain series of sounds, rising one above the other, to the number of eight, which has a foundation in nature, is agree

Ist space.

It will be ooserved, the lines are numbered from the bottom, and the spaces between the lines are also numbered from the bottom.

ART. 27 The notes are written upon the lines and in the spaces between, not only within the long lines, but upon the short lines beyond them and in the spaces between them.

ART. 28. The scale may commence upon any pitch whatever. It is usual to begin with the sound called C. This sound may be written upon the staff, any where we please; but it is usual to write it either on the first added line below, or in the second space, as represented.

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ART. 29. As there are two ways of placing the letters upon the staff, it becomes necessary to use the characters written upon the staff in art. 28. These are called CLEFS. The one in the upper staff is called the G clef, because it fixes G upon the second line, as it will be noticed that that line passes through the body of the figure. G being upon the second line, of course C in regular order, falls in the third space and first added line below.

The one in the lower staff is called the F clef because it fixes F upon the fourth line, and of course determines the place of all the other letters in their proper order.

ART. 30. In speaking of the different sounds of the scale, it is convenient to number them as in the figure in art 28.

ART. 31. To assist the learner in acquiring a just idea of the several sounds of the scale, and in establishing them in his mind by the principle of association, certain syllables are applied in the manner represented in the figure in art. 28.

These syllables being Italian, have a different pronunciation from what they would have in English. Do is pronounced with the o long, as in the word no. RE is pronounced ray. Mi is pronounced me. FA has the vowel sound of a, in father. SOL has the o long as in no. LA is sounded like fa, and si is pronounced see.

ART. 32. The scale may be EXTENDED upwards and downwards, to any extent. When we go above eight, this last becomes one of a new scale, going upwards in the same order to eight again; and so on. And when we go down below one, this number becomes eight of a scale, be

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val. Of course intervals are of various magnitude. ART. 33. The difference of pitch between sounds is called an inter

ART. 34. The interval between one and two of the scale is that called a TONE. From two to three is also a tone; and from three to four is a HALF TONE; from four to five is a tone; from five to six is a tone; from seven to eight is a half tone.

ART. 35. This order of intervals constitutes the peculiar character of the scale; and it must be preserved, let the scale commence with any sound whatever.

ART. 36. It will be remembered therefore, that between the letters E and F, is the half tone interval. Also, between B and C, is the same. ART 37. The smallest interval practically recognized in music, is the


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