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Avez-vous une écritoire?

Ai-je la cire?
Ont-ils les bougies?
Ont-ils le chandelier?
Avez-vous les chandeliers ?
Avez-vous le mot ?

Avez-vous le premier mot?

Have you an inkstand?
Have I the sealing-wax?

Have they the wax-candles?
Have they the candlestick?
Have you the candlesticks?
Have you the word?
Have you the first word?

N. B. Here the teacher may continue (if there is time) asking questions from the Practical Course which will be found at the end of the grammar. The scholar must repeat the substantive instead of using the relative pronoun, for example: avez vous la plume? the scholar must answer, oui, j'ai la plume, and not je l'ai, because we have not yet arrived at the use of the relative pronouns.

At the head of the Practical Course will be found further directions, important to know, previous to preparing the above and succeeding questions.

CONTRACTION OF THE ARTICLE WITH THE PREPOSITION.

Contraction in grammar is the reducing of two syllables into one, and takes place when the preposition precedes the article; in which case, instead of placing de le (of the) or à le (to the) before a masculine singular beginning with a consonant or h aspirated, du, or au must be used. De les (of the, pl) is changed into des, and à les (to the, pl) into aux, before plural nouns of either gender; we say, du roi, instead of de le roi, of the king; au roi, for à le roi, to the king; aux dames, for à les dames, to the ladies, &c.

Contraction does not take place before a noun feminine singular, we say, de la reine, and not du reine, of, or from the queen; nor before a noun singular of either gender beginning with a vowel or h mute, for we cannot say, du enfant, but we say, de l'enfant, of, or from the child; nor can we say, du homme, but, de l'homme, of or from the man.

When tout, all, every, intervenes between de or à, and the article, contraction likewise does not take place; de tout le monde, of every body; à tout le monde, to every body; de toutes les vertus, of all virtues; à toutes les vertus, to all virtues, &c.

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La reine,

Feminine singular, S La reine, DE LA reine, à La reine, not contracted.the queen, of the queen, to the queen,

Before a vowel,sing. S L'enfant, DE L'enfant, à L'enfant, not contracted.

the

queen,

L'enfant,

Before a vowel,s the child, of the child, to the child, the child,

Before h mute, sing. S L'homme DE L'homme, à L'homme, not contracted. the man, of the man, to the man,

Plural, m. or f. contracted.

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L'homme, the man,

Les maisons, Des maisons Aux maisons Des maisons the houses, of the houses to the houses' thehouses.

UN homme, D'UN homme, À UN homme, UN homme,
a man,
of a man, to a man, a man,

UNE femme, D'UNE femme à UNE femme, UNE femme, a woman, of a woman, to a woman, a woman.

EXERCISE.

The horse of the king; the castle of the queen; of the princes; from cheval, m. roi, m. château, m.

- pl.

de the mountain; to a prince; to the boys; from a book; of the bottle; -m. garçons, m,

of the houses; of the garden; to the gardens;

montagne, f

maisons, pl.

jardin, m. pl.

f. s.

livre, m. bouteille, f. from the soul; to a lady;

ame, f. dame, f.

to the ladies; the top of the mountain; the bottom of the valleys; dames, pl. sommet, m.

silk is soft to the touch; the

fond, m. vallées, f.pl. happiness of a feeling man is to relieve soie, f. douce toucher, m. bonheur, m. sensible 21 de subvenir à the wants of the poor. A man given to pleasure was never pauvre, m. s. livré art. plaisir, m. ne fut jamais He obeyed the orders of the king. The warbling il obéil à ordres

besoins, pl. a great man.

grand

birds, the

art. oiseaux

gazouillement, m.

of

murmuring of streams, the enamel of meadows, the -re, in. art. ruisseaux émail,m. art. prairies

coolness of woods, the fragrance of flowers, and the sweet smell

fraicheur, f. art. bois, pl. parfum, m. art. fleurs

douce odeur f. of plants, contribute greatly to the pleasures of the mind and to the art. plantes, contribuent beaucoup plaisirs health of the body. The hope

santé, f.

esprit

of success strengthened the corps, m. espérance, f. art. réussite f. fortifia cause of vertu, and weakened the audaciousness of rebellion. Fire - f. art. vertu, f. affaiblit

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of every

=

body.
tout art. monde, m

More or less

61

pain is terre, f. plus ou moins de peine The history of man under all the

=

partage in. circumstances of life, is the study of the wise. circonstances, f art. vie, f. does not become all

ne sied ni à tous art.

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étude sage, m. art. enjouement, in. ages nor all characters. m. pl. ni à tous art. caractères, m. pl.

QUESTIONS.

Avez-vous vu le château du roi ?
Oui, monsieur, j'ai vu le château du
roi.

Ai-je vu le cheval de la reine?
Avez-vous le fusil du prince?
Ai-je les clous du charpentier?
Avez-vous le marteau du charpen-
tier?

Ont-ils les biscuits des matelots?
Ont-ils le poisson des pêcheurs?
Avez-vous le chien du voisin ?
Avez-vous le fromage du fermier?
Avez-vous le fromage de l'épicier?
Ai-je le cheval du général?
Avez-vous les gants du général ?
Ai-je le crayon du peintre ?
Ont-ils les choux du jardinier ?

Ont-ils le pain du boulanger ?
Ai-je le chapeau du soldat?

Ai-je l'habit du soldat?

Have you seen the castle of the king?
Yes, sir, I have seen the castle of the
king.

Have I seen the horse of the queen?
Have you the gun of the prince?
Have I the nails of the carpenter?
Have you the hammer of the car-
penter.

Have they the biscuits of the sailors?
Have they the fish of the fishermen?
Have you the dog of the neighbor?
Have you the cheese of the farmer?
Have you the cheese of the grocer?
Have I the horse of the general ?
Have you the glove of the general?
Have I the pencil of the painter?
Have they the cabbages of the gar-
dener?

Have they the bread of the baker?
Have I the hat of the soldier?
Have I the coat of the soldier ?

Avez-vous le mouchoir du matelot? Have you the handkerchief of the

Ai-je le fusil du capitaine?
Avons-nous le cheval du lieutenant?
Le capitaine a-t-il la bouteille du
matelot ?

Ai-je l'argent du courtier?
Avez-vous l'or du courtier ?
Avez-vous le drap des marchands.
Avez-vous le dé de la couturière?

Ont-elles le fil de la couturière ?

Ai-je les livres des écoliers?
Ai-je les cahiers des garçons?
Avez-vous le dictionnaire des filles?

sailor.

Have I the gun of the captain?
Have we the horse of the lieutenant?
The captain has he the bottle of the
sailor?

Have I the money of the broker?
Have you the gold of the broker?
Have you the cloth of the merchants?
Have you the thimble of the seam-
stress?

Have they the thread of the seam-
stress?

Have I the books of the scholars?
Have I the copy-books of the boys?
Have you the dictionary of the girls?

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

The adjective pronoun must be repeated before every noun in a sentence. All adjective pronouns, except the adjective of number, must agree with the noun. In English, you say, for example, her hat, because the hat belongs to a female; but in French, without reference to whom the thing belongs, we regard only the gender and number of the thing, and make the adjective pronoun agree with it; sa plume, his pen ; son livre, her book.

The preposition de, of, or from, before a possessive adjective pronoun is thus rendered:

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The preposition à, to, is placed in French before the above pronouns in the same manner as the preposition de, whenever to, is expressed in English; as, à mon cheval, to my horse; à son livre, to his or her book.

The preposition de, of or from, or à, to, when followed by the demonstrative this or that,these or those, is rendered as follows: before a noun masculine beginning with a consonant, or h aspirated.

Of this, or of that,

by,

de

To this, or to that,

by, à

ce,

cet, before a noun masculine commencing with

a vowel, or h mute.

cette, before a feminine noun.

Of these, or of those, by de ces. before nouns in the plural, of either To these, or to those, by a ces.

gender.

Thus we say, de mon cheval, of or from my horse; à ta maison, to thy house; de ces arbres, of or from those trees.

EXERCISE.

From my house; of thy garden; of his letter; of your pocket;

maison, f.

connaissances, pl.

of our acquaintances;

from our neighbors; to my sisters;

brother; to that church; of these pictures; église, f.

your friends; to your will ;

of their pleasures; to their treasures;

jardin, m.

lettre, f.

poche, f. to my

voisins. pl.

sœurs, pl. of that river;

of

frère, m.

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QUESTIONS.

Do you speak of my happiness?
Do you speak of his misfortune?
Do they speak of our journey?
Are you afraid of your horse?
Am I afraid of their horses?
Are they afraid of your dog?
Do you see the steeple of that church?
Do you look for the cloak of that
captain?

Parlez-vous de mon bonheur?
Parlez-vous de son malheur?
Parlent-ils de notre voyage?
Avez-vous peur de votre cheval?
Ai-je peur de leurs chevaux?
Ont-ils peur de votre chien?
Voyez-vous le clocher de cette église?
Cherchez-vous le manteau de ce ca-
pitaine?
Cherchent-ils les fusils de ces sol- Do they look for the guns of those
dats?
soldiers?

Voyons-nous le sommet de cette Do we see the top of that moun-
montagne ?
tain?

Portez-vous cette pomme à votre Do you carry that apple to your

mère?

Portez-vous ce livre à cette dame?
Portent-ils ces plumes à ces gar-
çons ?

Avez-vous le dé de ma sœur?
Avez-vous le cahier de mon frère?

Ai-je le cahier de vos frères ?

Pensez-vous à vos affaires?

mother?

Do you carry that book to that lady? Do they carry those pens to those boys?

Have you the thimble of my sister? Have you the copy-book of my brother?

Have I the copy-book of your brothers?

Do you think of your business?

Donnez-vous ce mouchoir à votre Do you give that handkerchief to

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your father?

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Donnez-vous ce gâteau à ces en- Do you give that cake to those fants? children?

Donuent-ils des fraises à leurs | Do they give strawberries to their sœurs? sisters?

Donnent-ils des amandes à leur Do they give almonds to their mothmère?

Mangez-vous le fruit de cet arbre? Mangez-vous le poisson de ces pêcheurs?

er?

Do you eat the fruit of that tree?
Do you eat the fish of those fisher-

men?

Portent-ils du poisson à ces mes- Do they carry fish to those gentlesieurs ?

men?

Touchez-vous le cheval de mon Do you touch the horse of my frère? brother?

Touchez-vous le chien de ce meu- Do you touch the dog of that nier? miller? Cherchez-vous le livre de ma sœur? Do you look for the book of my sister?

Votre frère cherche-t-it le canit Does your brother look for the pende son cousin? knife of his cousin? Cherche-t-il les cahiers de ses cama-Does he look for the copy-books of his class-mates?

rades?

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