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Sont-ce toujours les mêmes?
Y a-t-il de telles coutumes dans
votre pays?

N'avez-vous jamais entendu rien de


Parmi ces tableaux y en a-t-il plu

sieurs que vous estimez ? Tout le cours de sa vie n'a-t-il pas été un enchaînement de crimes? Plusieurs ne se nuisent-ils pas en s'efforçant de nuire aux autres? Tout vice n'est-il pas odieux ? Un tel projet ne vous étonne-t-il pas?

Plusieurs motifs ne l'ont-ils pas déterminé à partir pour l'Europe?

Are they always the same?
Are there such customs in your

Have you never heard anything

Among those pictures are there
several which you esteem?
Has not the whole course of his life
been a series of crimes ?
Do not many injure themselves by
endeavoring to injure others?

Is not every vice odious?
Does not such a scheme astonish

Did not several reasons determine
him to set out for Europe?


See page 98, and also the preceding rules on these



This pronoun requires the verb following it to be in the subjunctive; it is used only with regard to persons, and signifies quelque personne que, whatever person; as, Qui que ce soit qui ait fait cela, whoever has done that. When it is followed by ce soit, it is used with a negation, and signifies aucune personne, nobody, no one; as, Je n'y trouve qui que ce soit, I find no body there.


refers only to things, and signifies quelque chose que, whatever thing; it requires the following verb to be in the subjunctive; as, Quoi que ce soit qu'il fasse, ou qu'il dise, on se défie de lui, whatever he does or says, he is distrusted.— When this pronoun is followed by ce soit, it is used with a negative, and signifies aucune chose, not any thing; as, Sans application, on ne peut réussir en quoi que ce soit, without application it is impossible to succeed in any thing whatever.

QUEL QUE, whatever,

when followed by a verb, is written in two words; and then, quel, adjective, agrees in gender and number with the nominative of the verb, and que, conjunction, remains invariable: Quelles que soient vos affaires, venez, whatever business you may have, come.


followed by a substantive, is written in one word; it is then an adjective, and takes the number of the substantive: Quelques efforts que vous fassiez, whatever attempts you may make.


followed by an adjective, a participle, or an adverb, is written in one word; but it then becomes an adverb, and consequently it must remain invariable: - Quelque puissants qu'ils soient, however powerful they may be ; Quelque considérés que nous soyons, however esteemed we may be; Quelque adroitement qu'ils s'y prennent, however dextrously they may do that. [Acad.]


as an adjective, agrees in gender and number with the substantive or pronoun it qualifies :-Tout homme, toute femme, tous les hommes, toutes les femmes.

But, when an adverb, it remains invariable: Tout artificieuses qu'elles sont, however artful they may be; tout spirituels qu'ils sont, howeyer spiritual they may be.

EXCEPTION. Tout, although an adverb, varies, when the adjective or the participle which follows it is feminine and begins with a consonant or h aspirated :-Toute hardie qu'elle est, however bold she may be; toutes détestées qu'elles sont, however detested they may be.


is used to mark a parity between objects, by comparison; as, c'est un homme tel qu'il vous le faut, he is just such a man

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le se tromper ind. 4 passant

whoever thou be, contemplate with religious veneration this monument contempler un = 2 respect m. 1 -m. gratitude; it is the tomb of a just and benevart. reconnaissance f. ce tombeau m. -2

erected by


olent man.

faisant 3 1


How can he hope to be beloved who has regard
comment espérer de
lui ne d'égards

for no one? Whatever he may do or say, he (will find it) very



to destroy prejudiccs so deeply


bien rooted. A mind

de la peine détruire des préjugé m. si profondément enraciné vain, presumptuous, and inconsistent. will never succeed in any thing présomptueux sans consistance whatever. Whatever a frivolous world may think of you, never frivole 2 monde 1 puisse



swerve from the path


of virtue. Let chemin m. art. f. que (what they may,) we must always respect them.

quel i

make, I doubt whether you will succeed.



que posite they may be

réussir subj. 1


subj. 1 s'accorder

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agree on that point. The man who descends

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ne rentrer

into himself only to discover his defects, and correct them, likes


que pour y

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to see himself as he is. However surprising that phenomenon


se corriger en surprenant 2 phénomène m. 3 be, it is not against the order of nature. Children as they are, they

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Qui que ce soit qui ait fait cela, n'a- | Whoever has done that, has he not

t-il pas mal fait ?

Quelques fautes que vous fassiez, n'aurai-je pas soin de les corriger?

Quelle que soit la fortune de cet homme, ne peut-il pas la perdre en un instant?

Quels que soient les efforts de mes ennemis pour me détruire ne réussirai-je pas dans cette entreprise ? Quelque riche qu'il soit ne vous a-t-il pas néanmoins refusé ce petit service?

Quelque courage que vous ayez, n'en a-t-il pas autant que vous? Quelque bonté que vous ayez pour lui, en aurez-vous autant qu'il le mérite?

Quelque aimables qu'elles soient n'ont-elles pas cependant leurs défauts ?

Qui que ce soit qui ait dit cela, ne s'est-il pas trompé ? Quelque belle qu'elle puisse être doit-elle pour cela être vaine?

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done wrong?

Whatever mistakes you may make, will I not take care to correct them?

Whatsoever may be the fortune of that man, may he not lose it in an instant ?

Whatever may be the efforts of my

enemies to destroy me, shall I not succeed in that undertaking? How rich soever he may be, has he

not nevertheless refused you that small assistance?

Whatsoever courage you may have, has he not as much as you? Whatever kindness you may show to him, will it be as much as he merits?

However amiable they may be, have they not nevertheless their imperfections ?

Whoever told you that, was he not mistaken?

However beautiful she may be, ought she on that account to be vain?

Let the laws be what they may, yet ought we not to respect them?

Will you come to see me whatever business you may have? Do you not fear those generals

however powerful they may be?

Toute femme qu'elle est, n'est-elle | Woman as she is, is she not very pas très courageuse?

courageous ?

Tout enfants qu'ils sont ne se sont- Children as they are, have they not ils pas fort bien conduits? behaved very well?

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tueux 2 scène f. 1

of night, when we perceived,



approche f.

at the foot of an ancient oak, a

art. nuit f. quand apercevoir ind. 2 à pied m. vieux chêne m. boy of a most interesting

enfant art. 2

countenance. His beauty, his air of

intéressant 3 art. figure f. 1

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ingenuousness and candor, his gracefulness struck us, and we

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grâce pl. frapper ind. 3 approached him. What? alone here, my boy?

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whence art thou? Whence comest thou? What art thou d'où

approcher ind. 3 en

alone? I am not alone, answered


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* 2 he smiling, I am not alone; répondre ind. 3 d'un air riant

but I was fatigued, and I (have seated myself) under the shade of this

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ind. 2 fatigué tree, while my mother is busy in gathering simples to

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suffers. Ah! (how many) troubles my good mamma has! How souffrir 1 2 de peine f. pl. 2 maman 4 1 many troubles! Did you know them, there is not one of you that would not be

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qui touched with pity, and who could refuse the tribute de pitié * lui subj. 2 un tribut We said to him, lovely child, thy ingenuousness, ind. 3 * aimable

* larme f. pl.

pro, candour, innocence, (every thing,) interests us in thy misfortunes and

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malheur m. pl. those of thy mother. Relate them to us; whatever they be, fear raconter 2 * 1

not to afflict us. (Woe be) to whoever cannot

fortunes of others!

de affliger

m. pl.


subj. 1
for the mis-

ne sait pas s'attendrir sur mal
He immediately related the history of his mother,
2 aussitôt 1 ind. 3

with an expression, an artlessness, a grace, altogether affecting. Our

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tout-à-fait touchant f. s. the liveliest emotions; tears (trickled down our couler ind. 3



cheeks) and we gave him what little money we


art. peu de argent que

(In the mean time) the mother returned.

had about us ind. 2 sur

(As soon as) he saw revenir ind.3 dès que



cependant he exclaimed, (make haste,) mamma, make haste; see what these


accourir s.


ce que

good little folks have given me; I have related to them thy misforgens f. pl.

tunes; they have been affected (by them,) and their sensibility (has touché m. pl. en




not been satisfied) with shedding tears. See mamma, see what they s'est pas borné

have given me.



The mother was moved; she thanked us, and
ind. 3 attendri f. remercier


said; generous feeling souls, the good action which you (have = = 2 et sensible 3 ame f. pl. 1

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Ce garçon désire-t-il me parler? Est-ce son frère qui doit être récompensé au lieu de lui? Quand l'armée parut vos compagnons prirent-ils la fuite? Est-ce vous qui me parlez? Est-ce lui qui a écrit cette lettre? L'a-t-il envoyée à vous ou à moi? Est-ce ni vous, ni lui, qui avez cassé mon crayon?

N'est-ce pas eux qui l'ont cassé? Vous parlez de mon cousin, le connaissez-vous?

Le voyez-vous et lui parlez-vous tous les jours ?

Où portez-vous ces livres ?

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Does this boy want to speak to me?
Is it his brother who is to be re-
warded instead of him?
When the army appeared, did your
companions run away?

Is it you who speak to me?
Is it you who wrote that letter?
Has he sent it to you or to me?
Is it neither you, nor he, who has
broken my pencil ?

Is it not they who have broken it? You speak of my cousin, do you know him?

Do you see him, and do you speak to him every day?

Where are you carrying those books?

Are you not carrying them all to my brothers?

Your cat is thirsty, shall I give her water?

Do you send them some apples or some plums ?

Have you returned to her the handkerchief which she lent you? Will you return it to her to-morrow morning?

Penserez-vous à nous, et nous | Will you think of us, and will you

écrirez-vous aussitôt que vous le pourrez ?

write to us as soon as you can ?

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