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Vous a-t-il appris à lire et à écrire? Has he taught you to read and to

Le domestique ferme-t-il la porte de crainte que ces matelots n'entrent?

Vais-je fermer cette porte-ci en cas que l'autre ne soit pas bien fermée? Mangerez-vous des poires après que vous aurez mangé ces ananas? Les domestiques desserviront-ils la table avant que vous ayez fini ? N'étudierez-vous pas votre leçon à moins que vous n'y soyez obligé ?

write?

Does the servant close the door for fear that those sailors should come in ?

Shall I close this door, in case the

other should not be well closed? Will you eat pears after you shall

have eaten those pine-apples? Will the waiters clear the table be

fore you have finished? Will you not study your lesson unless you are compelled to it?

CHAPTER IX.

THE INTERJECTION.

The Interjection is a word which is used to express the sudden emotions of the soul.

The principal interjections are:- of

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ADMIRATION ... Oh!

ENCOURAGEMENT. Ça! Allons! Courage!

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APPLAUDING.... Bravo! Vivat!

O is employed in the oratory apostrophe: -O mon fils! adorez Dieu, et ne cherchez pas à le comprendre.

PART II.

SYNTAX.

CHAPTER I.

OF THE NOUN OR SUBSTANTIVE.

GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES.

SOME substantives are sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine, according as they are used, and also according to the meaning they are intended to convey.

Aigle is feminine, when it means ensign.

L'aigle Américaine,

L'aigle impériale,

the American eagle.

the imperial eagle.

But if used in any other sense, it is masculine :

L'aigle fier et courageux est l'emblême de la liberté ; the proud and courageous eagle is the emblem of liberty.

Orgue, (instrument of music) is masculine in the singular, and feminine in the plural.

Avez-vous vu le nouvel orgue?
Voilà deux belles orgues,

Have you seen the new organ?
There are two fine organs.

Gens, people, persons, requires the adjectives or pronouns which precede it to be in the feminine; but those which follow it, to be in the masculine.

Les vielles geus sont généralement | Old people are generally suspisoupçonneux, cious.

Tous is used, however, instead of the feminine toutes, when that adjective is the only one that precedes the noun gens. Tous les gens qui pensent bien a- All persons who think well act gissent bien,

well.

Couple, a couple, when used without referring especially to gender or sex, is of the feminine gender; but, when re

ferring to male and female of any living beings, it is of the masculine gender.

Une couple de pigeons, means merely two pigeons, perhaps both male or female.

Un couple de pigeons, means especially two pigeons, a male and a female.

Hymne, a hymn, is feminine, when meaning church song, but in any other acceptation it is masculine.

Le bréviaire de Paris contient de | The breviary of Paris contains très belles hymnes,

La Marseillaise est un bel hymne,

some very beautiful hymns. The Marseillaise is a fine hymn.

PLURAL OF NOUNS.

There are nouns which never take a plural termination, though they may be used to convey a plural meaning:1. Proper names, whose orthography should not be altered. 2. The names of metals, considered in their original state; as, l'or, le platine. 3. The names of virtues and vices; as, l'innocence, la vanité. 4. Some words of a physical or moral nature; as, le sang, l'odorat, le sommeil, la faim. 5. The infinitives of verbs, and adjectives, used substantively. With regard to proper names, however, when they are used as common nouns that is, to represent individuals like those whose names are employed

we say:

La France a eu ses Césars et ses | France has had her Cæsars and

Pompées,

Substantives, not yet considered as French, which are taken from foreign languages, do not take the mark of the plural; and we say, des alléluia; des Te Deum, te-deums ; des post-scriptum, postscripts; des forté-piano, piano fortes..

ON COMPOUND NOUNS.

RULE I. When a noun is compounded of two substan-tives, united by a preposition, the first only takes the sign of the plural; as,

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RULE II. When a noun is compounded of a substantive and an adjective, they both take the sign of the plural; as,

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RULE III. When a noun is compounded of a preposition, a verb, or a substantive, the substantive alone is put in the plural; as,

Des avant-coureurs,
Des arrière-saisons,

Des garde-fous,

forerunners,
latter end of autumn,
rails on bridges.

REMARK. There is a small number of substantives, composed of a verb and an adjective, or of a verb repeated, that never take the sign of the plural; as,

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art.

Gold is the most pure, the most precious, the most ductile, and

parfait

after platina, the heaviest of all

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pr. art.

art.

metals. Chastity is an obligation of

Intoxication,

all conditions.
pr. art. état m. pl. art. ivresse

which proceeds from beer, is of longer duration than that which

venir

art..

*

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*

feeling, which teaches

art. toucher

apprendre

Sleep is the image of

sight.

art.

art.

learn

to distinguish

truth from

-guer

art. faux

de bonne heure 2 apprendre 1

art.

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The Tartars always
Tartare

of an army. The fish-carriers

chasse-marée m. pl.

être avant-coureur m. pl. did not arrive iu time. This door is only fastened with a latch;

ind-3 à

ne que fermer à art. loquet m.

and all (the persons) in the house have each their key.

ceux de

passe-partout m.

QUESTIONS.

Votre père n'a-t-il pas acheté un | Has not your father bought a new

nouvel orgue?

Ne vendra-t-il pas les deux petites orgues que j'ai vues hier?

organ?

Will he not sell the two small organs which I saw yesterday?

Les vieilles gens ne sont-ils pas tou-Are not old people always suspijours soupçonneux ?

Le cuisinier a-t-il acheté une couple

de poulets?

N'avez-vous pas acheté un couple de
serins?

Tous les gens d'esprit sont-ils sages?
A-t-on chanté de belles hymnes di-
manche dernier à la paroisse du
Dr. Nichols?

cious?

Has the cook bought a couple of chickens?

Have you not bought a couple of
canary birds?

Are all ingenious people wise?
Did they sing beautiful hymns last
Sunday at Dr. Nichols' parish?

La Marseillaise n'est-il pas un très Is not the Marseilles hymn a very

bel hymne?

L'Amérique a-t-elle encore ses
Washingtons?

La France n'a-t-elle pas cu ses Cé-
sars et ses Pompées ?

fine one?

Has America yet her Washingtons?

Has not France had her Cæsars and her Pompeys?

N'admirez-vous pas ces chefs-d'- Do you not admire those masterauvre ?

pieces?

Le roi a-t-il récompensé le mérite Has the king recompensed the mede ces gentils-hommes ? rit of those noblemen?

grandmothers this morning? Did you not assist at the two high

Ces enfants n'ont-ils pas vu leurs Have not those children seen their grand'mères ce matin? N'avez-vous pas assisté aux deux grand messes hier au matin ? Y a-t-il des garde-fous à ce pont neuf ?

Avez-vous vu mes passe-partout qui étaient avec mes porte-clefs?

La blanchisseuse a-t-elle lavé vos serre-léte ?

A-t-elle lavé mes essuie-mains?

masses yesterday morning? Are there rails on that new bridge?

Have you seen my master-keys

which were with my key-rings? Has the washer-woman washed your night caps?

Has she washed my towels?

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