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ed as the result of their united counsels, and to be carried into effect by their united strength. But if one or more of their number is at liberty to hold his peace, and allow measures to pass without opposition; and afterwards to oppose them to the extent of his influence, the consequence must be distraction and mischief to the churches; and one great end of these courts which are the guardians of her peace must be lost.
Nor can the second apology of the Bishop avail him more than the first. Finding himself hard pressed by Mr. Jay on this point, he asks in his "Note," Have you ever been a legislator? and in this capacity, have you never given your assent to measures and to laws in which there were some features which you deemed objectionable?"
We are sorry to find the Bishop so ready to adopt the maxims of politicians, as fit principles for the government of the ministers of Christ's Church; and we might at once deny that there is justice or reason in the comparison. But admitting what the
Bishop presumes,-that there is nothing in the obligations and duties of a christian minister,binding him to love and frankness towards his brethren, which does not exist with equal force in the obligations and duties of politicians and statesmen-the Bishop's allusion will not help him out. For without hesitation, we should condemn, as both disingenuous and injurious, the conduct of a legislator who would give his assent to measures and laws, recommending public institutions as of primary importance to the community, but would afterwards do all in his power to decry those institutions as undeserving of the patronage to which they had been thus recommended.
Wishing as we do, to view the case in the most favorable light, we would hope that the Bishop may once have been in favor of Bible Societies; and that, having changed his opinion, he now endeavors to make up for his former error by the warmth of his zeal and the abundance of his labors. (To be continued.)
Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.
It is with great pleasure we announce the completion of the Hebrew Lexicon by Mr. Gibbs. This work, together with the Hebrew Grammar, from the same press, furnishes a much more convenient apparatus for the acquisition of the Hebrew language than has hitherto been enjoyed in our country. We are happy also, to notice the progress of another work at Andover-the translation of Wahl's Lexicon of the New Testament, by Mr. Robinson. From an examination of a few of the first sheets which have been printed, we perceive that the Editor has not confined himself to a simple translation of the original, but has enriched it by additional references to other works, besides otherwise improving many of the articles. It is thus far executed with neatness and accuracy, and will, we hope, receive the patronage it merits from the lovers of sacred literature.
Proposals have been issued by J. Clarke
for publishing by subscription, Stackhouse's Body of Divinity. E. Littell proposes to publish by subscription, Horne's Introduction to the Bible.
Hallam's View of the Middle Ages is in press at Philadelphia.
A Portrait of Columbus, procured at Seville, by George G. Barrell, Esq. American Consul at Malaga, has been presented by him to the American nation, to be placed among the portraits of other distinguished men in the Capitol.
Dr. Chalmers has been appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of St. Andrews. So great was the crowd assembled to hear his farewell sermon to the congregation of St. Johns, and so determined were they to gain admittance, that the police found it necessary to send to the barracks for a military guard. Mr. Irving, minister of the Caledonian Chapel,
London, was present, and took a part in extraordinary as the inmost recesses of the the exercises.
Book-Stores in Montreal.-The literature of the city may be estimated by the fact, that there is at present but one bookshop in it, whose collection of English authors has even moderate claims to respectability; a few others are to be found, with Romish prayer books, and monkish legends; but their shelves can boast of little else,except a few articles of stationary.-Duncan's Travels, (1818.)
A LITERARY and Historical Society has been lately established at Quebec, under the patronage of the Earl of Dalhousie, Governor in Chief of Lower Canada.
Book Trade in Germany.-The catalogue of the Easter Fair of 1823, at Leipsic, contains the names of 2957 new works that have appeared since the September Fair of 1822. Of this number, 190 are novels, 484 theological treatises, 136 works on jurisprudence, 155 on medicine, 398 on education, 184 on the belles lettre, 150 on history, 137 on the natural sciences, 378 poetical and literary, 215 on politics, 159 periodical publications, 30 on philosophy, 32 on the military art, 95 in the French language, 62 in the Danish, 56 in the Polish, &c.
Newspapers in Paris, with the Number of Copies printed-The Moniteur, 3,000 to 4,000; Debats, 11,000; Journal de Paris, 8,000; Courier Francais, 5,000; Quotidienne, 3,500; Drapeau Blanc, 3,500; Jourual de Commerce, 4,000; Gazette de France, 2,200; Pilote and Etoile, together, about 4,000; Oriflamme, 500; Constitutionel, 17,000 to 18,000. These are all daily papers; no weekly paper, or three day's newspaper, is published in Paris.
A Russian has published, "A View of all the Known Languages, and their Dialects." They amount to 3,014: classed as follows-937 Asiatic; 587 European; 226 African; 1,264 American.
The British and Foreign Bible Society has published the Scriptures, in whole or in part, in 140 languages and dialects.
Clearness of the Northern Seas." Nothing can be more surprising and beautiful, than the singular clearness of the water of the Northern Seas. As we passed slowly over the surface, the bottom, which here was in general a white sand, was clearly visible in its minutest objects, where the depth was from twenty to twenty-five fathoms. During the whole course of the four I made, nothing appeared to me so
deep thus unveiled to the eye. The surface of the ocean was unruffled by the slightest breeze, and the gentle splashing of the oars scarcely disturbed it. Hanging over the gunwale of the boat, with wonder and delight, I gazed on the slowly moving scene below. Where the bot. tom was sandy, the different kinds of asterice echini, and even the smallest shells, appeared at that great depth, conspicuous to the eye; and the water seemed, in some measure, to have the effect of a magnifier, by enlarging the objects like a telescope, and bringing them seemingly nearer.Now creeping along, we saw, far beneath, the rugged sides of a mountain, rising towards our boat, the base of which, perhaps, was hidden some miles in the great deep below. Though moving on a level surface, it seemed almost as if we were ascending the height under us; and when we passed over its summit, which rose in appearance to within a few feet of our boat, and came again to the descent, which on this side was suddenly perpendicular, and overlooking a watery gulf, as we pushed gently over the last point of it, it seemed almost as if we had thrown ourselves down this precipice; the illusion from the crystal clearness of the deep, actually produced a sudden start. Now we came again to a plain, and passed slowly over the submarine forests and meadows, which appeared in the expanse below; inhabited, doubtless by thousands of ani mals, to which they afford both food and shelter-animals unknown to man; and I could sometimes observe large fishes of a singular shape, gliding softly through the watery thickets, unconscious of what was moving above them. As we proceeded, the bottom became no longer visible; its fairy scenes gradually faded to the view, and were lost in the dark green depths of the ocean.-Brooke's Travels, [recently published in England.]
Indian Antiquities.-It is stated in a Kentucky paper that as the men employed by General Covington at his Salt Works on Drake's Creek (Ky.) "were digging away the earth a few days ago, they came to numerous fragments of salt boilers, with the remains of furnaces, great quantities of cinders, couls, &c. There was every indication (says the editor) that our predecessors used the spot for the same purpose for which the General is now using it. Among the specimens which he brought us are two pieces of the boilers. They are made of clay, mixed with a shining substance, not unlike the composition of common crucibles, as hard as our best potter's ware, about a quarter of an inch thick,and from the curve of the pieces, we
should judge that the vessels were from
Antediluviun Den.-The following extract is from a paper which was read before the Royal Society. It gives an account of a den of hyænas discovered in the sum mer of 1821, at Kirkdale, Eng. near Kirby Moorside, in Yorkshire.
"The den is a natural fissure or cavern in oolitic limestone, extending 300 feet into the body of the solid rock, and varying from two to five feet in height and breadth. Its mouth was closed with rubbish, and overgrown with grass and bushes, and was accidentally intersected by the working of a stone quarry. It is on the slope of a hill about 100 feet above the level of a small river, which, during a great part of the year, is engulfed. The bottom of the cavern is nearly horizontal, and is entirely covered to the depth of about a foot, with a sediment of mud deposited by the diluvian waters. The surface of this mud was in some parts entirely covered with a crust of stalagmite; on the greater part of it, there was no stalagmite. At the bottom of this mud, the floor of the cave was covered,from one end to the other, with teeth and fragments of bone of the following animals: hyæna, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus,horse, ox, two or three species of deer, bear, fox, water-rat, and birds.
The bones are for the most part broken, and gnawed to pieces, and the teeth lie loose among the fragments of the bones; a very few teeth remain still fixed in broken fragments of the jaws. The hyæna bones are broken to pieces as much as those of the other animals. No bone or tooth has been rolled, or in the least acted on by wa
er, nor are there any pebbles mixed with them. The bones are not at all mineralized, and retain nearly the whole of their animal gelatin, and owe their high state of preservation to the mud in which they have been imbedded. The teeth of hyænas are most abundant; and of these, the greater part are worn down almost to the stumps, as it by the operation of gnawing
"The animals found in the cave agree in species with those that occur in the diluvian gravel of England, and of a great part of the northern hemisphere; four of them, the hyæna, elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, belong to species that are now extinct, and to genera that live exclusively in warm climates, and which are found associated together only in the southern portions of Africa near the Cape. It is certain from the evidence afforded by the interior of the den (which is of the same kind with that afforded by the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii) that all these animals lived and died in Yorkshire, in the period immediately preceding the deluge; and a similar conclusion may be drawn with respect to England generally, and to those other extensive regions of the northern hemisphere, where the diluvian gravel contains the remains of similar species of animals. The extinct fossil hyæna most nearly resembles that species which now inhabits the Cape, whose teeth are adap- ted beyond those of any other animal to the purpose of cracking bones, and whose habit it is to carry home parts of its prey, to devour them in the caves of rocks which it inhabits. This analogy explains the accumulation of the bones in the den at Kirkdale. They were carried in for food by the hyænas; the smaller animals, perhaps, entire; the larger ones piecemeal ; for by no other means could the bones of such large animals as the elephant and rhinoceros have arrived at the inmost recesses of so small a hole, unless rolled thither by water; in which case, the angles would have been worn off by attrition, but they are not.
Judging from the proportions of the remains now found in the den, the ordinary food of the hyænas seems to have been oxen, deer, and water-rats; the bones of the larger animals are more rare; and the fact of the bones of the hyænas being broken up equally with the rest, added to the known preference they have for putrid flesh and bones, renders it probable that they devoured the dead carcasses of their own species. Some of the bones and teeth appear to have undergone various stages of decay by lying at the bottom of the den while it was inhabited, but little or none since the introduction of the diluvian se. diment in which they have been imbedded. The circumstances of the cave and
its contents are altogether inconsistent with the hypothesis, of all the various animals of such dissimilar habits having entered it spontaneously, or having fallen in, or been drifted in by water, or with any other than that of their having been dragged in, either entire on piecemeal, by the beasts of prey whose den it was.
Bones of the same animals have been discovered in other similar caverns in England and in Germany.
"In the German caves, the bones are in nearly the same state of preservation as in the English, and are not in entire skeletons, but dispersed as in a charnel house. They are scattered all over the caves, sometimes loose, sometimes adhering together by stalagmite, and forming beds of many feet in thickness. They are of all parts of the body, and of animals of all ages; but are never rolled.
Three fourths of the total number of bones in the German caves belong to two extinct species of bear, and two-thirds of
the remainder, to the extinct hyæna of Kirkdale. There are also boues of an animal of the cat kind (resembling the jaguar or spotted panther of South America) and of the wolf, fox, and polecat, and rarely of elephant and rhinoceros.
The bears and hyæna of all these cav. erns, as well as the elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, belong to the same extinct species that occur also fossil in the diluvian gravel, whence it follows that the period in which they inhabited these regions was that immediately preceding the formation of this gravel by that transient and universal inundation which has left traces of its ravages committed at no very distant period over the surface of the whole globe, and since which, no important or general physical changes appear to have affected it."
An immense skeleton of a mammoth and another of an elephant have been dug up, in the district of Honter in Hungary.
List of New Publications.
The Moral Dignity of Missionary En- terprize. A Sermon, delivered before the Boston Baptist Foreign Mission Society, and before the Salem Bible-Translation and Foreign Mission Society. By Francis Wayland Jr. Pastor of the First Baptist Church in Boston.-Published by request, 25 cts.
A Sermon delivered in the Tabernacle Church, Salem, Mass. Sept. 25th, 1823, at the Ordination of the Rev. Edmund Frost, as a Missionary to the Heathen, and the Rev. Messrs. Aaron W. Warner, Ansel D. Eddy, Nathan W. Fiske, Isaac Oaks, and George Sheldon, as Evangelists. By Elias Cornelius, Pastor of the Tabernacle Church, Salem.
A Sermon, preached in Brooklyn, Connecticut, at the installation of Rev. Samuel Joseph May, November 5, 1823, by Rev. James Walker, of Charlestown;" together with the Charge, by Rev. Dr. Freeman, of Boston; the Right Hand of Fellowship, by Rev. W. B. Ŏ. Peabody, of Springfield; and the Address to the Society, by Rev. Dr. Thayer of Lancaster, Mass.
"The Distinctive Character and Claims of Christianity: A Sermon, preached at the ordination of the Rev. Orville Dewy, Pastor of the First Congregational Church in New-Bedford, December 17, 1823. By Joseph Tuckerman, Pastor of the Church of Christ in Chelsea, Mass.
"A Collection of Essays and Tracts in VOL. VI.-No. 2.
Theology. By Jared Sparks." No. 5, for January, 1824.
A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, including the Biblical Chaldee: from the German works of Prof. W. Gesenius. By Josiah W. Gibbs A. M. pp. 716, 8vo.-Flagg & Gould, Andover, 1824..
Hints on Extemporaneous Preaching. By Henry Ware, Jr. Minister of the Second Church in Boston, pp. 93, 18mo.Boston, 1824.
An address delivered at the Collegiate Institution in Amherst, Mass. by Heman Humphrey, D. D. on occasion of his inauguration to the Presidency of that Institution, October 15, 1823. pp. 40. 25 cents.
A Voyage to South America; containing an accurate description of many cities in Chili and Peru, as also of the business of whaling in the Pacific Ocean, 2nd edition, 25 cents.-Cummings & Hilliard, Boston.
Conversations on English Grammar, adapted to the use of Schools. By Charles M. Ingersoll, Esq. A new edition.-Portland, 1824;-75 cents.
A new American Biographical Dictionary, or a Remembrancer of the Departed Heroes, Sages and Statesmen of America. Confined to those who signalized themselves in the Revolutionary War. Compiled by T. J. Rogers, from Sketches, furnished by some of the first literary characters in the United States, Second Edition, with important Additions.-Trenton.
MISSIONS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD. The following brief view of the present state of the missions under the direction of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, we think may be valuable to our readers, as well for reference, as for the intelligence it exhibits in a condensed form. It was prepared by the Board.
Hon. WILLIAM REED,
JEREMIAH EVARTS, Esq. Hon. SAMUEL HUBBARD, and Rev. WARREN FAY.
Corresponding Secretary. JEREMIAH EVarts, Esq. Assistant Secretary. Mr. RUFUS ANDERSON,
HENRY HILL, Esq.
CHESTER ADAMS, Esq.
The executive business of the Board is transacted at the MISSIONARY ROOMS, No. 69, Market-Street, Boston, Mass.; which are daily open during the regular hours of business.
The Board has established missions, in the order of time in which they will now be named, at Bombay-in Ceylon,-among the Cherokees, Choctaws, and Cherokees of the Arkansaw-at the Sandwich Islands -and in Western Asia. It has also taken measures to ascertain the religious and moral state of the southern and western countries of South-America, with a view to missionary labors in that interesting part of the world.
I. MISSION AT Bombay.
Commenced in 1813. This mission has three stations--Bombay, Mahim, and Tannah.
BOMBAY.-A large city, on an island of the same name. It is the capital of all the
British possessions on the western side of the peninsula, and is the primary seat of the mission.
Rev. Gordon Hall, Missionary; Mr. James Garrett, Prinler.
MAHIM. Six miles from Bombay, on the north part of the island. Rev. Allen Graves, Missionary. TANNAH.-The principal town on the island of Salsette, twenty-five miles from Bombay.
Rev. John Nichols, Missionary.
The first missionaries to Bombay embarked nearly twelve years ago. Some time elapsed before they were fairly settled at Bombay, and some further time, before they acquired the language; so that, up to the date of their last communications, we have accounts of little more than eight years of effective service. But, during this time, they have translated most of the New Testament into the Mahratta language, spoken by at least 12,000,000 of people, and have printed a considerable part of it; have translated portions of the Old Testament, and printed the book of Genesis; and they will be able to print the whole Bible soon, if funds are obtained. They have printed more than 30,000 books and tracts, most of which have been circulated among the natives, and have been read, probably, by several hundred thousands. They have under their care eighteen schools, containing about 900 pupils; and, not long since, they had twentyfive schools, containing 1,200 pupils; but were obliged to discontinue several, for want of pecuniary means to support them. In various ways, they are daily extending the circle of their acquaintance and influence among the natives.
For a long time, a Mission Chapel has been needed. More than a year ago, the foundations of one were laid, and, during the last summer, the building, which is 60 feet by 35, was probably completed.
Should it please God to give success to the plans of the missionaries, a Mission College will soon be very desirable.
On the 27th of September last, the Rev. Edmund Frost, Missionary, with his wife, and Mrs. Graves, the wife of the missionary at Mahim, embarked for Calcutta, whence, by leave of Providence, they will proceed immediately to Bombay.
II. MISSION IN CEYLON.
This mission was established in the district of Jaffna, which is in the northern