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when guilty of sin, he poured forth his soul in confessions of his guilt, and in strong cries for mercy. To make these songs popular, and in this manner to extend the influence of true religion, he organized a magnificent band of musicians, who performed morning and evening in the courts of the Lord. By establishing his court at Jerusalem, he soon drew around him all the officers of government, which gave that city such an importance, that in a short time it became the great metropolis of Palestine. The splendour of the city, the removal of the ark to Zion, the brilliancy of his court, and the fact that the most important causes were tried there, attracted Israelites from every part of the Holy Land to this metropolis. Here in the courts of the Lord, they listened to those songs of praise which had been composed expressly for religious worship. At the three great festivals, David undoubtedly endeavoured by his example, to direct the minds of his subjects to religion. The poems which he composed exhibited a devotion much more spiritual, than those which were written before this period. At these festivals, these hymns of praise were sung, and here the Hebrews beheld their king bending the knee before their great Deliverer. In consequence of the popularity of David, these poems were extensively committed to memory and being sung in all social meetings exerted a great influence in refining the rough minds of the Hebrews. The long wars which existed during the days of Joshua and the Judges were carried on in Palestine. The cruelties which were perpetrated in these contests, familiarized the Israelites to suffering, and they soon became fierce and destitue of compassion. The wars of this reign were principally at a distance from the Holy Land and the tumult of battle and the ferocity mutually exhibited by the Israelites and their enemies, were known to the na

tion only by rumour. By not being fam liarized with scenes of cr elty, they lost that spirit of revenge which had previously existed. All these causes uniting, gradually rendered them more mild in their dispositions, and before the end of this reign, a comparative refinement of manners was visible in the Holy Land. By this refinement, the Israelites were prepared to relish the songs of their sovereign, and it is not improbable, that at the conclusion of this age, the minds of the Hebrews were in some measure elevated above the ceremonial worship of their ancestors, to more pure and exalted views of the Deity.


To the Editor of the Christian Spectator. Proclamations of the Continental Congress.

HAVING Occasion to look over some volumes of the journals of that illustrious and virtuous body of men, the Continental Congress, I was highly gratified with their Proclamations, appointing days of public Fasts and of Thanksgiving. The deep and fervent spirit of piety exhibited in them is pleasing, but I was particularly grat ified to notice their full and uneqiv. ocal recognition of the scripture doctrine of the mediation of our Saviour

Jesus Christ. In point of composition, they are worthy of the authors of the celebrated state papers of 1775 -6.

The first proclamation of which I send you an extract, was issued in March 1776. It appointed a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer. The second was issued in November 1777, and appointed a day of thanksgiving for the victory over Gen. Burgoyne. The third was dated March 1782, and recommended a day of fasting.

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and distress; when the liberties of America are imminently endangered by the secret machinations and open assaults of an insidious and vindictive administration, it becomes the indispensable duty of these hitherto free and happy colonies, with true penitence of heart, and the most reverent devotion, publicly to acknowledge the overruling providence of God, to confess and deplore our offences against him, to supplicate his interposition for averting the threatened danger, and prospering our strenuous efforts in the cause of freedom, virtue, and posterity. The Congress therefore considering the warlike preparations of the British Ministry to subvert our invaluable rights and privileges, and to reduce us, by fire and sword, by the savages of the wilderness, and by our own domestics, to the most abject and ignominious bondage; desirous at the same time to have people of all ranks and degrees duly impressed with a solemn sense of God's superintending providence, and of their duty devoutly to rely, in all their lawful enterprises, on his aid and direction, do earnestly recommend that Friday, the 7th day of May next, be observed by the said Colonies as a day of humiliation, fasting and prayer, that we may with united hearts, confess and bewail our manifold sins and transgressions, and by a sincere repentance and amendment of life, appease his righteous displeasure, and through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ, obtain his pardon and forgiveness: humbly imploring his assistance to frustrate the cruel designs of our unnatural enemies, and by inclining their hearts to justice and benevolence, prevent the further effusion of kindred blood; but if continuing deaf to the voice of reason and humanity, and inflexibly bent on desolation and war, they costrain us to repel their hostile invasions by open resistance, that it may please the God of Hosts, the Lord of armies, to animate our of ficers and soldiers with invincible for fitude, to guard and protect them in

the day of battle, and to crown the continental arms, by sea and land, with victory and success: earnestly beseeching him to bless our civil rulers and representatives of the people in their several assemblies and conventions, to preserve and strengthen their union, to inspire them with an ardent, disinterested love of their country, to give wisdom and stability to their counsels, and to direct them to the most efficacious measures for reestablishing the rights of America on the most honorable and permanent basis:-that He would be graciously pleased to bless all his people of these colonies with health and plenty, and to grant that a spirit of incorruptible patriotism, and pure, undefiled religion, may universally prevail, and this continent be speedily restored to the blessings of peace and liberty, and enabled to transmit them inviolate to the latest posterity-" &c. November 1777.

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Forasmuch as it is the indi-pensable duty of all men to adore the superintending providence of Almighty God; to acknowledge with gratitude their obligation to him, for benefits received; and to implore such farther blessings as they stand in need of ; and it having pleased him in his abundant mercy, not only to continue to us the innumerable bounties of his common providence, but also to smile upon us in the prosecution of a just and necessary war, for the defence and establishment of our unalienable rights and liberties, particularly in that he hath been pleased in so great a measure to prosper the means used for the support of our troops and to crown our arms with most signal success; it is therefore recommended to the legislative or executive powers of these U. States to set apart Thursday the 18th day of December next for solemn thanksgiving and praise that with one heart and voice, the good people may express the grateful feelings of their hearts, and consecrate themselves to the service of their divine Benefactor; and that together with their

sincere acknowledgments and offerings, that they may join the penitent confession of their manifold sins, whereby they had forfeited every favour, and their humble and earnest supplication that it may please God through the merits of Jesus Christ, mercifully to forgive and blot them out of remembrance, that it may please him graciously to afford his blessings on the government of these States respectively, and to prosper the public council of the whole; to inspire our commanders by sea and land, and all under them with that wisdom and fortitude which may render them fit instruments under the providence of Almighty God, to secure for these States the greatest of all blessings, independence and peace; that it may please him to prosper the trade and manufactures of the people, and the labour of the husbandman, that our land may yield its increase: to take schools and seminaries of education necessary for cultivating the principles of true liberty, virtue, and piety, under his nurturing hand, and to prosper the means of religion for the promotion and enlargement of that kingdom which consisteth in righteousness,

peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." &c" March 1782.

"The goodness of the SupremeBeing to all his rational creatures demands their acknowledgments of gratitude and love. The absolute

government of this world dictates that it is the interest of every nation and people ardently to supplicate his favour, and implore his protection."

The proclamation then states the aggression of our enemies, and their perseverance in attempting to subjugate the people of the United States, and after a confession of the sins of the people against the laws of God, it

recommends a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer. It fervently recommends the people to pray the God of the universe to grant them the blessings which they then more especialy needed, and ends thus.

"That he would incline the hearts of all men to peace, and fill them with universal charity and benevolence, and that the religion of our divine Redeemer with all its benign influences may cover the earth as the waters cover the seas-Done by the United States Congress assembled &c. &c."

Review of New Publications.

1. A Letter to the Right Reverend Bishop Hobart, occasioned by kis late charge to the convention of New-York; by a CHURCHMAN. pp. 80.

2. A reply to a letter to the Right Rev. Bishop Hobart occasioned by the strictures on Bible societies, contained in his late address to the convention of New-York, by a churchman of the diocess of New-York, in a letter to that Gentleman; by CORRECTOR. pp. 98.

3. A letter to the Right Rev. Bishop Hobart, in reply to the pamphlet addressed by him to the author under the signature of Corrector; by WILLIAM JAY: pp. 33.

4. A reply to a letter addressed to the Right Reverend Bishop Hobart, by William Jay, in a letter to that gentleman; by CORRECTOR. pp. 26. 5. A reply to a second letter to the author, from the Right Rev. Bishop Hobart, with remarks on his hostility to Bible societies, and his mode of defending it; and also on his vindication of the Rev. Mr. Norris's late pamphlet ; by WIL. LIAM JAY. pp. 32.

6. A NOTE from CORRECTOR to WIL LIAM JAY. pp. 8.

It seems to be the lot of man that nothing shall be accomplished for his benefit without opposition, It is

so in science as well as religion.Whether it be Columbus bringing to light a new hemisphere, Harvey discovering the circulation of the blood in the human frame: or Wickliffe the fore-runner of the reformation,spreading the scriptures among the laity, or Luther, Calvin, Cranmer, and Knox, blessing the world with the most illustrious emancipation from darkness and bondage which it has ever enjoyed since Christianity first spread-all have encountered contradiction and reproach in proportion as their object has been noble, their labours great, and their final success complete. The prejudice of some men will lead them to oppose every thing as unwise because in their eyes it is new; the jealousy of others will lead them to oppose it because they have not the bonour of originating or conducting it; and the self interest of still more, will incline them against it because it may diminish the advantages, they may have long enjoyed from the errors, the supineness, or helplessness of those around them.

It is thus God sees fit to humble man by writing a new record of his folly in the history of every improve ment of his condition: and it is thus he would lead the benefactors of our race to look no lower than to himself both for their success and for their reward.

mandment, means were used to spread his Gospel to the heathen, how many of those who were really his disciples in heart, condemned and resisted the efforts which were made to save the nations of the earth. If then the men who are leading on the grand christian enterprizes of the present day, meet with opposition not only from the men of this world, but from those of whom they had hoped better things, and whose religion should teach thembetter things, let them not be surprized "as though some strange thing had happenued to them." It is our happy lot to live and to act in an age when God is calling into action that vast system of means by which he is to introduce the Millenial Glory, in which the kingdoms of this world are to become the kingdoms of our Lord and his Christ, and the "knowledge of the Lord to cover the earth as the waters cover the sea," and if we find these means resisted, and decried from various sources and from various motives, this is only what was to be expected: and from the very chatacter of the opposition when compared with that of former times, we may gain a strong argument, that the work in which we are engaged "is the doing of the Lord."

Was this hostility in religious matters experienced only from the avowed enemies of the Gospel, it would be more easily borne. But it is not confined to them. In every great movement which takes place for the improvement of Christ's kingdom on earth, there has been opposition from mistaken or professed friends, as well as from avowed foes. When the master himself came into our world to bless it with new light, and give his kingdom an extension unknown before, though "he came to his own, yet his own received him not." There were many who afterwards "believed on his name" who for a time hesitated, and even reviled, asking "Is not this the earpenter's son?" and in the following years when according to his com

Among the objects which at present mainly occupy the attention of Christians, "the circulation of the Holy Scriptures without note or com ment," by means of Bible Societies, stands conspicuous and pre-eminent. It has already drawn to it the prayers and munificence of Christians, to an extent that is unexampled in the history of christian charities. Many, it not the majority of Christians in every land, look upon it as first among those measures by which the world is yet to be subdued to the government of the cross. It commends itself so plainly and strongly, that Christians of every denomination are persuaded to unite in it, and perceive the benefits of such union, not only in the improvement of their own hearts, but in the resistless as cendency which they have thus given to their object. But while it thus

triumphantly prevails, it has been strongly, and even bitterly opposed: and believing that we should thus render a useful service to many of our readers, we propose, before reviewing the publications noticed at the head of this article, to give a brief view of the manner in which Bible Societies have been assailed and defended both in other countries and in our own. The cause is the same wherever, and by whomsoever it may have been treated.

Every man who wishes to judge of the subject impartially and intelligently would desire to know something of the controversy from its commencement; and as friends of the Bible cause, we would do every thing in our power to encourage this spirit of inquiry because we are persuaded the more that is known in relation to it, the more will the friends of the cause

be increased and strengthened. In order to render our justice in the following statement the more evident, we will permit the disputants generally to appear in their own words.

Bible societies existed in the Christian Church before our day, but it was on a scale that rendered their operations of comparatively little consequence. It was not until the institution of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804, that the spirit of protestant Christendom became fully awake to the importance of combining the efforts of all christians to circulate the Holy Scriptures without note or comment. We cannot discover that the object has met with opposition from any of the protestant churches on the continent of Europe; while the Greek church has gone into the measure with such unanimity as to have rendered the Russian Bible Society second to none in the world except the British and Foreign.

But although this chief among Bible Societies from the first was advocated and patronized by many pious and distinguished members of the established church of England, and although from the first, a decided preponderance as to numbers and influence was insured

to Episcopalians in all transactions of the Society, yet to this day it continues to be assailed by members of the establishment, as fraught with danger to church and state. Defeat has not in all cases taught wisdom. Though some of the assailants have retired from the coutest in despair, there are others sufficiently daring to persevere; notwithstanding that they have been so often driven to change their ground, as in many instances to have argued down their own arguments, and to have answered their own objections.

It was about a year after the Society had been instituted, that it sustained its first attack by a publication entitled "An address to Lord Teignmouth, President of the British and Foreign Bible Society, by a Country Clergyman," in which the author ventured to argue that if we put the Bible into the hands of a man who has

not previously embraced its truths, it will be the means of confirming him in his errors. "It is to be expected" is his language," that each member of your heterogeneous Society will draw his portion of books for the promotion of his particular opinion: for it is easily seen that a Bible given away by a papist will be productive of Popery. The Socinian will make his Bible speak and spread Socinianism; whilst the Calvinist, the Baptist, and the Quaker, will teach the opinions peculiar to their sects. Supply these men with Bibles, (I speak as to a true churchman,) and you supply them with arms against yourself."* To such a pitch of terror concerning the Society, does the au

The absurdity of such a sentiment could not well fail to become the subject of ridicule. Accordingly a poem afterwards appeared of which the following is a sample

Don't tell me that a Quaker's Bible
Is'nt on all others quite a libel;
That Baptists don't blot out the verses,
And turn the blessings into curses.
Only that Bible's good, I say,

Which good sound Churchmen give away,
Tell what you will to foolish people,
Your plan's to batter down the steeple;
To pull down all our gothic abbies;
Perhaps to unbaptize our babies.

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