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haron Strogonoff repeated them, allowing the Porte eight days to reply; no reply was returned, and the minister departed from Constantinople. On the day of his departure, an answer was sent him by the Reis Effendi, dated back on the last of the eight days. Baron Strogonoff refused to open it, but sent it to his court at St. Petersburgh. Thus the negociation was hereafter carried on between Constantinople and Petersburgh, with extreme delay-the Turks gained time, and on this, as on every other point, they manifestly outgeneralled the Russian minister. The difficulty was, that Austria and England would not permit Russia to engage in a war. The Russians collected an army of one hundred and fifty thousand men in Bessarabia, a province separated from Moldavia by the river Pruth, and here their interference ended. The Turkish armies in Wallachia met and destroyed that of Ypsilanti, on the nineteenth of June, and Ypsilanti himself escaped with difficulty into the Austrian territory, where he was immediately seized and thrown into the castle of Montgatz, and is there confined to this day. But though all regular insurrection was thus crushed, the dispersed partizans of Ypsilanti, brigands stimulated by Ali Pacha, adventurers of all kinds, profited of the state of the provinces, kept up a warfare from the mountains, and gave full employment the rest of the season, to a Turkish army of twentyfive thousand men.
In now turning our attention to the incidents of the war in Greece, a very imperfect sketch only can be made. The revolt having simultaneously taken place, in four or five different provinces, it was obviously impossible for Churshid, who commanded in chief, in Roumelia, to undertake any one powerful expedition, especially as he had the siege of Ali Pacha to press. He, however, detached or raised four different corps to act respectively in the Morea, Acarnania, Livadia, and Thessaly, and if possible form a junction in the Morea. The history of the campaign will therefore be briefly told by saying, that each of these Turkish corps desarmées was fully occupied in sustaining itself during the summer against the bodies of revolutionists in the different provinces, who began the war with clubs and forks, and before the season was closed were well armed with guns and sabres, the fruits of their victories.
The naval war was conducted with great spirit. The Capudan Pacha or chief admiral was very late out of the Dardanelles, and the Greeks succeeded in destroying a ship of the line, which they decoyed into an exposed position, and the Capudan-bey perished with this vessel. Emboldened by this success, they attempted to bring off the Greek population of Haivali, a very flourishing town on the Asiatic coast, with a college library, and population of thirty-six thousand. The Turks resisted the Grecian fleet, a general conflict ensued, and the whole town was wholly destroyed. The enterprise was principally conducted by the Samians, who
led the way in the revolt of the isles on this quarter. Great excesses were committed on the Christians at Smyrna, at the tidings of these events; and fifty Greeks were taken out of a Russian vessel in the port of Smyrna and hung on the shore. After these events, the Capudan Pacha left the Dardanelles, but did not succeed in bringing the Grecian fleet to action. The operations of the Turkish admiral were confined to throwing supplies into the fortresses of the Morea and such of the isles as remained in the hands of the Turks.
As the news of the Grecian revolution spread in Europe, not only supplies of all descriptions poured in, from Europe, but volunteers crowded to the standard of liberty. The sons of Greece, especially, in this hour of evil, resorted to their native land. Among them came Demetrius Ypsilanti, the brother of Alexander, also in the Russian service. Though but twenty-two years of age, he was acknowledged by the senate of the Morea as comander-in-chief, and in this capacity issued his proclamations to the whole Grecian race, on the twenty-fourth of July. But the want of discipline and subordination, and means of all kinds, was a great obstacle to the achievement of any important enterprise.
Ardor and desperation, however, supplied the place of all other resources. On the third of August, the important fortress of Mozembasia surrendered, and about the same time that of Navatino. In both these cases, the Greek bands, exasperated by the long oppression they had endured, and by the murder of their patriarch, committed some excesses on the Turkish prisoners. Ypsilanti, unable to restrain his troops, declared, that unless full power were given him by an assembly of all Greece to enforce his orders, he would retire from the cause. This firm step produced a general conference of deputies, by whom it was resolved to call a convention of seventy members to form a constitution. Meantime Ypsilanti and the other commanders received full authority to execute their orders.
In Epirus, Churschid was still confined at Yanina. In Macedonia, Cassandra was sacked by the Turks, and a frightful carnage of the unarmed inhabitants ensued. In Thessaly, Ulysses, lately a partizan in the service of Ali Pacha, gained several victories in the defiles of the mountains, where he was posted, particularly at Thermopyle. In Attica, Athens was taken by the patriots; and in the Morea, after a hard-pressed siege, Tripolizza, the capital of the province, a strong walled town, was taken by assault. To Tripolizza, the principal Turkish population, with all the moveable wealth of the province, had fled, taking with them eighty hostages, of the most respectable of the Greek inhabitants. These hostages were all murdered in the beginning of the siege. Exasperated by this, on the moment of entering the city, the Greeks put to the sword every Turk they met, and were guilty of a carnage, which cannot but be condemned. The person of the com
mandant, the Bey of Corinth, and the Harem of Churshid Pacha, were spared. Shortly after this great victory, the citadel of Corinth capitulated. In the month of October, the Capudan Pacha, having formed a junction with the Egyptian and Algerine fleets, entered the Gulf of Lepanto, and took thirty sail of small Greek vessels out of a port near Delphi, and this was the only exploit of the Ottoman navy this year; though the Turks have several three-deckers and seventy-fours equal to any ships in the world.
Ali Pacha held out to the close of the year, but was very hard pressed; yet as he grew weaker a new enemy started up on the opposite quarter, in the Persians, who made work for a Turkish army in the east. The Grecian congress assembled in November, and in six weeks completed their work, and published their constitution the first day of the new year.
In the sketch of the year 1821, it was observed that the Grecian deputies assembled at Epidaurus to form a constitution, discharged this duty, and published the constitution January 1st, (12th, N. S.) 1821. Prince Alexander Mavrocordato, a patriotic Greek of Constantinople, who, with great personal sacrifices, had embarked in the cause from the first moment, was chosen president of the executive council of five, in which body all the executive powers of the state are invested. Three printing presses were soon established, a newspaper published, money coined, and a system of internal and external duties, adapted to the exigences of the moment, organized. The constitution was every where received with joy.
At the same time an event happened in the north of Greece, that cast a shade over this prospect. Ali Pacha, after sustaining a siege of nearly two years in his castle at Yanina, was at length betrayed into a surrender of himself to Churshid Pacha, in the month of January, and on the fifth of February he was put to death. By this event, the army of Churshid was left at liberty to make a descent on southern Greece; and the Greeks seemed to be left single-handed to sustain the encounter. The Turkish plan of operations was the following:-That Churshid, with all the forces which he could collect from Albania, Thessaly, and Macedonia, should traverse Thessaly, cross Parnassus into Livadia, and thence move by the Isthmus of Corinth; while the Ottoman fleet, in two divisions, was to land powerful reinforcements at Patras, which were to form a junction with Churshid at Corinth, whence the combined army was to reconquer the Morea. This well devised plan was, however, unsuccessful in all its parts. Though the death of Åli Pacha in the beginning of February left Churshid at liberty, the Montenegrins in the north of Albania revolted, and the Pacha of Scutari being kept at home to watch them, could not afford the expected aid to Churshid. In Macedonia, a general rising of the Greek peasantry took place, and the Pacha of Salonichi, from whom reinforcements were also expected, was besieg
FEBRUARY, 1824.-No. 262 20
ed in his capital. Besides this, the passes of the Parnassus, particularly Thermopyla, were occupied by strong and active guerilla bands, under Ulysses and other partizan chiefs, and presented a formidable obstacle to the passage of an army. Accordingly, when the first division of the Ottoman fleet landed a force in the beginning of March at Patras, Churshid, who was to have joined them at Corinth, had not yet broken up from his camp at Yanina. The force thus landed, being wholly unsupported, was attacked with impetuosity by Colocottoni, the Greek general besieging Patras; and the Turks, instead of forcing the Greeks to raise the siege, were compelled, with great loss, to take refuge themselves within the walls of the city.
After having landed these troops, the Ottoman squadron sailed for Alexandria in Egypt, in order to effect a junction with the fleets of the Pacha of Egypt, as well as with those of Tunis and Algiers. The Greek squadron, however, hung close upon the Turkish, and in a severe action off Zante, destroyed thirty-five transport vessels. In the moment of arriving in the port of Alexandria, the Turkish fleet was much damaged by a tempest, in which several vessels were driven on shore and others sunk. As soon as the contingent of Tunis and of Algiers had arrived, and that of the Pacha of Egypt was ready, the combined squadron sailed for the Archipelago, throwing supplies and landing troops, by the way, in the islands of Cyprus and Candia, in the latter of which the Turks were shut up in the fortress of Canel, and one or two other strong holds. Having effected this object, the Turkish fleet awaited the second division of their navy, under the Capudan Pacha, who had not yet left the Dardanelles.
Meantime the most tragical event in the war took place. The island of Scio, whose population was rated from 120,000 to 150,000, had enjoyed privileges, beyond almost every part of Grecian Turkey. It was a domain of the Sultana Valideh, was lightly taxed, had but few Turks in proportion to its Greek population; had a college, where four hundred young men received their education; a library of ten thousand volumes; a printing press, and a very extensive and successful trade. Thus prosperous, the Sciotes had taken no part in the revolution, when it burst forth in almost every part of Greece, the last year. The Turkish governor of the castle, however, thought it prudent to take ninetyfive of the principal inhabitants as hostages, of whom ten were sent to Constantinople, and ten were confined in the castle. This measure produced some alarm, and several of the Sciotes fled to the neighbouring islands, particularly to Samos. In the month of March of this year, (1822,) a party of Samians, joined by these fugitives, landed on Scio, and raised the standard of independence. The peasantry joined them en masse. They marched without resistance to the city; the Turks were driven into the castle, which the Greeks immediately began to cannonade. News of this re
volt was communicated without delay to the Turkish squadron, which by this time had been joined by the Capudan Pacha. On the eleventh of April, the Ottoman fleet appeared before Scio, and landed fifteen thousand men. The Greeks of course had nothing to oppose to this force. They sustained, however, a murderous conflict for some time, between the Turks who landed and those of the castle who made a sortie, but were at length driven to the mountains. The Turkish army now entered the city, and an indiscriminate massacre began. The city was soon on fire, and murder and rapine prevailed till the sixteenth, by which time the city was a heap of ruins. The sale of prisoners then commenced, and many thousands, particularly females, who had been bred up in competence, and some in luxury, were sold as slaves. It has been asserted on good authority, that this was the fate of thirty thousand. Some anecdotes of uncommon savageness are related in the French Moniteur, on the authority of a letter from Scio, apparently written by the French consul, to whose courage and humanity a large proportion of those who escaped owed their lives. Seven hundred prisoners had fallen into the possession of two Turkish regiments, that quarrelled as to the partition of their captives. The Turks were about to proceed to violence among themselves, when some one proposed to preserve the peace by shooting the whole seven hundred in cold blood, which was accordingly done. A considerable number, who had escaped the first slaughter, reduced by famine, submitted at discretion to the Turks. Of these, thirty-five of the most respectable were sent by the Capudan Pacha on board his ship, and eight hundred others sent to the castle, till their lot should be decided. On the fifteenth of May, a month after the cessation of every thing like resistance, not to say life, in scio, these thirty-five were hung at the yard arm, on board the admiral's ship, and in reply to this, as a signal, the eighty-five original hostages were hung from the battlements of the castle, and the eight hundred strangled in its courts. The streets of Scio were so encumbered with dead, whom there was no one to bury, no one to remove, that the Jews of Smyrna were ordered over to throw them into the sea. For their payment, they were permitted to glean the plunder of the city, and brought back with them the copper kitchen utensils of thousands of desolate hearths, of which a quantity bought as old copper in the stalls of Smyrna has been seen on the wharves in the town of Boston. There are also now in this town two children, who fled from the horrors of that day to the mountains, and having escaped to Malta, were sent out by our missionaries to the benevolent care of the Foreign Missionary Society in this country. When the news of these events reached Constantinople, the ten other hostages, notwithstanding the interference of lord Strangford, the British minister, were also strangled. When this intelligence reached England, some friends of liberty and humanity in