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ment is guaranteed to these two provinces by several treaties between the Porte and Russia. On the death of the Greek Hospodar of Wallachia, in January, 1821, before a new one could be appointed at Constantinople, Theodore, a native Wallachian, gathered together sixty or seventy adventurers, principally Albanians

a kind of Turkish Swiss found in every part of the empire-and with these marched out of Bucharest, the capital of Wallachia, calling on the inhabitants to revolt and procure the redress of their grievances. It has been said that this revolt was effected by the gold and the emissaries of Ali Pacha. Theodore in a short time collected about fifteen thousand men, without plan or organization, who demanded a redress of the grievances which they suffered under their Greek governors. The Porte received the news of the revolt with little concern, and despatched officers with orders to suppress it, as one of those hasty mutinies, which are frequently happening in all parts of Turkey.

Meantime, however, a more serious event took place in the adjoining province of Moldavia. On the seventh of March, 1821, a proclamation was found pasted up in all the streets of Jassy, the capital of Moldavia, signed by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti, calling upon the inhabitants to assert their liberty, assuring them that Prince Michael Suzzo, the Hospodar of Moldavia, was in their cause, and intimating that the co-operation of Russia might be hoped.-Alexander Ypsilanti is of one of the oldest families of Greece; his father was Hospodar of Wallachia, and escaped to Russia, his life being threatened by the Porte; Alexander had been educated in a Russian military school, served and lost an arm in the Russian army, and at this moment enjoyed the rank of Major General, in the Russian service. He had been an active member of the association alluded to above, and stood in correspondence with the men of most influence in all parts of Greece. It was true that Prince Suzzo was in the secret of this revolt, although, in the first instance, it was against himself. Ypsilanti's proclamation had a powerful effect. The people rose and crowded to his standard, and he was soon in full march towards Wallachia. On the way, he was joined by another strong band, who had revolted at the same time at Galaez, on the Danube, and it may justly be called singular that these three simultaneous insurrections were wholly without concert.

The news of these events produced a lively excitement at Odessa, of which a great part of the inhabitants are Greek. The weal. thy subscribed in the most liberal manner, and the young and adventurous crowded to the bander of Ypsilanti, which was emblazoned, like that of Constantine, with the Christian cross, and the motto “in this thou shalt conquer.” Ypsilanti lost no time in sending an address to the Russian emperor, then at Laybach; and the emperor lost as little time in ordering Ypsilanti's name to be erased from the lists of the Russian army, and directing the Rus

sian consul at Jassy to denounce the revolutionary proceedings in the name of the emperor. Information of these measures was also given to the Porte, by the baron Strogonoff, the Russian minister at Constantinople. The Porte not wholly satisfied, ordered a search of all vessels passing to or from the Black Sea; an order, at which baron Strogonoff took umbrage.

By this time the Porte was alarmed at the progress of the revolt. The lives of the Greeks at Constantinople were threatened. Suzzo was outlawed as a traitor, and the Greek patriarch, by order of the Porte, excommunicated bim and all the Moldavian rebels.-Meantime, however, the flame was spreading. Alexander Ypsilanti had his agents in all the provinces of Greece, who received and propagated intelligence of the events in the two northeastern provinces. Preparations had been making all winter in the mountains of the Morea, and arms were collected and councils held by Peter Mavromichalis, the Bey of the Mainotes, and his brave associates. At the end of March they had eight thousand men ready to throw off the yoke. The news from Moldavia put them in motion, and the Turks were driven to the fortresses in all the southern parts of the Morea. The thirtieth of March, Germanus, archbishop of Patras, raised the standard of the cross, collected the peasantry, and after a skirmishing warfare and many mutual excesses drove the Turks into the citadel of Patras. On the same day, the Messenian senate of Calamata was convened; proclamations were issued, addressed to the Greeks: another to the Turks, promising them protection, on condition of their not resisting; and others to foreign nations. Among the last a proclamation was addressed, by this body, in the month of May, to the citizens of the United States, of which the original was published in a late Number of the North American Review.

It was highly favourable to the cause of the patriots that Churshid, Pacha of the Morea, the ablest Turkish commander who has appeared in this war, was absent, besieging Ali Pacha at Yanina. On hearing of the revolt in the Morea, he detached his lieutenant, Jussuf Selim, with a considerable force. Jussuf landed at Patras, pillaged the city, burned eight hundred houses, and massacred the Greeks who fell into his hands, without distinction of age or sex. This severity produced a happy effect: it roused many, who had hitherto taken no part. The whole province was in arms. Gregory, a monk, ranged the country with a cross in his hand, and took post, with several thousand followers, at the Isthmus of Corinth: and in a few days Attica, Livadia, Acarnania, and Thessaly were in open revolt. The features of insurrection were every where the same. After some bloody skirinishes, the Turks were every where driven to the walled towns, and often to the castles in the towns. Nor were the islands behind the continent. Hydra, Spezzia, and Ipsara, the three islands where the navigation of Greece centres, formed their senate, fitted out in a short time one

hundred and eighty privateers, and swept the Turkish trade from the Archipelago. The single house of Conturioty fitted out thirty small cruisers. Bolbina, a lady whose husband had been put to death by the Turks, fitted out, at her own expense, three cruisers, and commanded the little squadron in person. These fleets raised all the islands; kept up a communication between them; blockaded the ports where the Turks were fortified, and gave life to the patriot cause, in every quarter.

While the revolution was thus spreading in Greece, it was al. most wholly crushed in Wallachia and Moldavia. When the re. solutions of the emperor of Russia were made known by the Russian consul at Jassy, a counter revolution was effected, and prince Suzzo fled from the province. Ypsilanti marched to Bucharest, but could come to no understanding with Theodore, whose movement had been purely accidental, and who had no sympathy with the Greeks. After four days' conference, they separated. Turkish armies entered Wallachia; Theodore tried to make terms with one of the Pachas. His overtures were rejected, and he then, deserted by most of his followers, fled to Ypsilanti. Ypsilanti put him under arrest, tried him by court-martial, and shot him. These events brought dissentions into his way, and prepared for an inauspicious result.-Meantime, the rage of the Turks at Constantinople was raised to the highest, by the news which poured in from all quarters. The Grand Vizier was displaced for want of energy, and Benderli-Ali-Pacha, then in Asia, was called to the post. Benderli, with a host of Asiatic Turks, put himself in motion; on the twenty-first of April he entered Constantinople. The next day was Easter, the great festival of the Greek church; and on that day, the patriarch Gregory was torn from the altar, where he was officiating, and hung at the door of the patriarchal palace. His crime was having known and not having suppressed the rebellion in the Morea." His body was dragged about the streets by Jews, and thrown into the Bosphorus. On the same day, the bishop of Ephesus and two other prelates, and some of the most considerable Greeks, were hung from the windows of their houses. In ten days the new Grand Vizier was deposed and banished; but by the clamour of the populace his banishment was commuted into decapitation. A deputation of three Janissaries was admitted to a permanent seat in the divan, and the whole male population of the Ottoman empire called upon, by solemn proclamation of the sultan, “to relinquish the life of the cities, to mount, to resume the life of the field, the life of their ancestors."

Witnessing the march of troops to Wallachia and Moldavia, contrary to the stipulations of the treaties between Russia and the Porte;—the indiscriminatè slaughter of Christians; the destruction of churches, and the murder of the patriarch, the Russian minister remonstrated warmly with the Porte, and demanded satisfaction. The replies of the Reis Effendi were unsatisfactory;

haron Strogonoff repeated them, allowing the Porte eight days to reply; no reply was returned, and the minister departed from Constantinople. On the day of his departure, an answer was sent him by the Reis Effendi, dated back on the last of the eight days. Baron Strogonoff refused to open it, but sent it to his court at St. Petersburgh. Thus the negociation was hereafter carried on between Constantinople and Petersburgh, with extreme delay—the Turks gained time, and on this, as on every other point, they manifestly outgeneralled the Russian minister. The difficulty was, that Austria and England would not permit Russia to engage in a war. The Russians collected an army of one hundred and fifty thousand men in Bessarabia, a province separated from Moldavia by the river Pruth, and here their interference ended. The Turkish armies in Wallachia met and destroyed that of Ypsilanti, on the nineteenth of June, and Ypsilanti himself escaped with difficulty into the Austrian territory, where he was immediately seized and thrown into the castle of Montgatz, and is there confined to this day. But though all regular insurrection was thus crushed, the dispersed partizans of Ypsilanti, brigands stimulated by Ali Pacha, adventurers of all kinds, profited of the state of the provinces, kept up a warfare from the mountains, and gave full employinent the rest of the season, to a Turkish army of twentyfive thousand men.

In now turning our attention to the incidents of the war in Greece, a very imperfect sketch only can be made. The revolt having simultaneously taken place, in four or five different provinces, it was obviously impossible for Churshid, who commanded in chief, in Roumelia, to undertake any one powerful expedition, especially as he had the siege of Ali Pacha to press. He, however, detached or raised four different corps to act respectively in the Morea, Acarnania, Livadia, and Thessaly, and it possible form a junction in the Morea. The history of the campaign will therefore be briefly told by saying, that each of these Turkish corps desarmées was fully occupied in sustaining itself during the summer against the bodies of revolutionists in the different provinces, who began the war with clubs and forks, and before the season was closed were well armed with guns and sabres, the fruits of their victories.

The naval war was conducted with great spirit. The Capudan Pacha or chief admiral was very late out of the Dardanelles, and the Greeks succeeded in destroying a ship of the line, which they decoyed into an exposed position, and the Capudan-bey perished with this vessel. Emboldened by this success, they attempted to bring off the Greek population of Haivali, a very flourishing town on the Asiatic coast, with a college library, and population of thirty-six thousand. The Turks resisted the Grecian fleet, a general conflict ensued, and the whole town was wholly destroyed. The enterprise was principally conducted by the Samians, who

led the way in the revolt of the isles on this quarter. Great ex. cesses were committed on the Christians at Smyrna, at the tidings of these events; and fifty Greeks were taken out of a Russian vessel in the port of Smyrna and hung on the shore. After these events, the Capudan Pacha left the Dardanelles, but did not succeed in bringing the Grecian fleet to action. The operations of athe Turkish admiral were confined to throwing supplies into the fortresses of the Morea and such of the isles as remained in the hands of the Turks,

As the news of the Grecian revolution spread in Europe, not only supplies of all descriptions poured in, from Europe, but volunteers crowded to the standard of liberty. The sons of Greece, especially, in this hour of evil, resorted to their native land. Among them came Demetrius Ypsilanti, the brother of Alexander, also in the Russian service. Though but twenty-two years of age, he was acknowledged by the senate of the Morea as commander-in-chief, and in this capacity issued his proclamations to the whole Grecian race, on the twenty-fourth of July. But the want of discipline and subordination, and means of all kinds, was a great obstacle to the achievement of any important enterprise.

'Ardor and desperation, however, supplied the place of all other resources. On the third of August, the important fortress of MoZembasia surrendered, and about the same time that of Navatino. In both these cases, the Greek bands, exasperated by the long oppression they had endured, and by the murder of their patriarch, committed some excesses on the Turkish prisoners. Ypsilanti, unable to restrain his troops, declared, that unless full power were given him by an assembly of all Greece to enforce his orders, he would retire from the cause. This firm step produced a general conference of deputies, by whom it was resolved to call a convention of seventy members to form a constitution. Meantime Ypsilanti and the other commanders received full authority to execute their orders.

In Epirus, Churschid was still confined at Yanina. In Macedonia, Cassandra was sacked by the Turks, and a frightful carnage of the unarmed inhabitants ensued. In Thessaly, Ulysses, lately a partizan in the service of Ali Pacha, gained several victories in the defiles of the mountains, where he was posted, particularly at Thermopylæ. In Attica, Athens was taken by the patriots; and in the Morea, after a hard-pressed siege, Tripolizza, the capital of the province, a strong walled town, was taken by assault. To Tripolizza, the principal Turkish population, with all the moveable wealth of the province, had fled, taking with them eighty hostages, of the most respectable of the Greek inhabitants. These hostages were all murdered in the beginning of the siege. Exasperated by this, on the moment of entering the city, the Greeks put to the sword every Turk they met, and were guilty of a carnage, which cannot but be condemned. The person of the com

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