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was transferred to the Hamilton Road new process, and all were distinguished pottery of Frederick Dallas.
by individual characteristics of style. In her specialty, which may be called Notable among the discoverers and workCincinnati faience, Miss McLaughlin has ers in this specialty are Mrs. William been constantly at work, month by mionth Dodd, Mrs. M. V. Keenan, Mrs. Dr. Mereincreasing her knowledge of methods, etc., dith, and Mr. J. T. Wheatley. until the results show a high degree of ex- In the spring of 1879, a
pottery club" cellence and beauty. Many of her pieces of ladies was organized, with twelve acthave found homes in New York and other ive and three honorary members. Each
one of the ladies is at work upon some specialty, or at least bringing to her work so marked an individuality as to characterize it with distinctive features. All have painted, and still paint, overglaze; each works in incised design, in relief decoration, and in underglaze color.
The Pottery Club has rented a room at the pottery of Frederick Dallas, where it is convenient to work in the various specialties in the “green” clay and “biscuit" ware. Their room is perhaps fifteen by twenty-four feet, having windows on the east, south, and west, in front of which, running round the three sides, is a shelf, or work-table, some two feet wide. A few plain chairs, modelling stools, a stove, and wash-stand comprise the fittings and furniture of the room. The building in which this pottery studio is found was the home of Mrs. Trollope during the time
of her residence in Cincinnati. The acFig. 1.-VASE DECORATED BY MRS. WILLIAM DODD. cess to the studio, which is on the second
floor, is through the yard of the pottery, cities, but some of her largest and most in which stand some of the kilns. successful specimens have not been seen The members of the Pottery Club are outside of Cincinnati. Her “Ali Baba” as follows: Miss M. Louise McLaughlin, vase, forty-two inches high, was pro- president, Miss Clara C. Newton, secreduced in the winter of 1879–80, and has tary, Miss Alice B. Holabird, treasurer, been presented by Miss McLaughlin, with Mrs. E. G. Leonard, Mrs. Charles Kebler, other pieces, to the Women's Art Mu- Mrs. George Dominick, Mrs. Walter Field, seum Association of Cincinnati. In the Miss Florence Carlisle, Miss Agnes Pitrooms of the association, with other ce-man, Miss Fannie M. Banks, Mrs. Anramic work, it forms the nucleus of a col- drew B. Merriam, one vacancy; honorlection probably destined to have historic ary members, Mrs. M. V. Keenan, Miss interest in future years. This “Ali Baba" Laura Fry, Miss Elizabeth Nourse. vase, or jar, has a groundwork of sage While it would be difficult to describe green, blending the gradations of color in this article the character and quality from the full tone up to a fleecy, cloud of the work of each member of the Potlike greenish-white; the decoration is a tery Club, any sketch of the decorative Chinese hibiscus, the colors being held in pottery-work of Cincinnati would be insubdued tones. The potting of this piece, complete and unjust which failed of a due said to be the largest made down to that recognition of its excellence. Calling the time in the United States, is the work of roll of its membership brings into review Frederick Dallas.
much of the best of the enamelled faience, The success of the Cincinnati faience of the underglaze color, of the incised deby Miss McLaughlin led to numerous ex- sign, of the relief-work in clay, and of the periments by others toward the same end. exquisitely finished overglaze painting, A number of them were successful in the which have given reputation to the work discovery of the principles involved in the done in Cincinnati.
To a smaller room, perhaps ten by twelve feet in size, also in the second story of one of the buildings of the pottery, two ladies, not of the Pottery Club, daily take their way through the dusty floors, piled high with partially dried “biscuit" and glazed wares. For them the hours of daylight are too few and short. From this dim and unattractive little nook comes a succession of creations unique in character and beauty. The vase of "green" clay, brought up from the hands of the thrower below, is submitted to the artistic fingers FIG. 2.-VASES DECORATED BY MRS. MARIA L. NICHOLS. of Mrs. William Dodd and Mrs. Maria L. Nichols, who practice every ain, storks, owls, monsters of the air and style of work on “green” and “biscuit" water, bamboo, etc., decorated in high ware, from incised design as delicate as relief, underglaze color, incised design, the spider's web, to Cincinnati faience, and an overglaze enrichment of gold. and relief-work in clay so bold that one is (See Fig. 2.) The large vases are thirtytempted to reach forth her hand and take two and thirty inches high. the bird from the bough.
Other pieces of Mrs. Nichols are in the A piece of Mrs. Dodd's (Fig. 1) is a vase fine-grained red clays of Ohio, decorated thirty inches high, buff body (Rocking- in incised and relief work, and an illuham and white pastes), with bough of ap- mination of dead gold; surface finished ple blossoms in high relief and natural with semi-glaze; also in a mixture of blue colors, in which is a nest of eggs, and and yellow clays, producing charming perched on the bough two brown birds of tints of sage green, blue-gray, etc. life size. To this extent the color is un- It is an interesting commentary upon derglaze. Subsequently Mrs. Dodd add the occupations of our women that the ed an overglaze decoration, by which the dusty quarters of the manufacture of surface is flecked with clouds of gold here iron-stone and Rockingham should be the and there, and the neck of the vase en point of attraction for so many of the reriched with a twining wreath of apple fined and cultivated women of the city. blossoms, and the base with a fringe of So much interest has been felt by the grasses and marsh plants.
public in the practical work of the PotThe work of Mrs. Nichols is shown in tery Club, that to avoid inconvenient invases of all sizes, and in wonderful va- terruption they decided to give an occariety of style, for her talents enable her sional reception, to which visitors would to throw off work with uncommon ra- be admitted by cards of invitation. The pidity. Among her pieces, during the first of the series was held in May, 1880. last year, has been a succession of vases, On this occasion not less than two huneach some thirty inches high. The body dred pieces were shown, which, from is of Rockingham in some cases, in others their variety of style and excellence of exa mixture of Rockingham and white ecution, formed a most interesting exhibit. pistes, giving a soft buff color in some Early in 1878 the first effort in underpieces, in others a rich cream. A ma- glaze color in the Lambeth style, or, as it jority of the large pieces of Mrs. Nichols should be called, the “Bennett"* style, was are Japanese grotesque in design, with made by Miss McLaughlin. the inevitable dragon coiled about the neck of the vase, or at its base, varied
* Mr. Bennett's attitude toward Mr. Doulton is so with gods, wise men, the sacred mount- respectful and deferential, and in regard to what he
In 1879 the attention of a number of ladies was given to underglaze color work: during the year experiments in this direction became general. Success in using blue
not found difficult, and unremitting efforts have finally triumphed in the satisfactory use of a variety Fig. 4.—WORK OF Miss BOLABIRD.
of colors. FIG. 3.- WORK OF MRS. DOMINICK.
The work of Mrs. Dominick (Fig. 3), Miss
Holabird (Fig. 4), Mrs. W. P. Hulbert (Fig. 5), Mrs. Kebler, and Miss Newton, in underglaze color, in the style of John Bennett, is full of interest and promise.
The relief-work in clays by Mrs. C. A. Plimpton is distinguished by features so marked as to make it unique and original among the
various styles of work being
(Fig. 8), a branch of grapeFig. 5. – WORK OF MRS. vine in high relief encircles W. P. HCLBERT. the rim of the vase, while Fig. 6.—Work of Mrs. C. A. PL.Imitox.
delicate sprays spring from the base, the entire decoration being in clays of different colors. The largest diameter of this piece is sixteen inches. Her surface work is substantially that of pâte-surpâte, so beautifully shown by Solon, and it demonstrates in a most interesting manner has himself done is so modest, that his own statement in answer to an inquiry on this point is not without interest. It is as follows: "Your impression respecting Doulton Lambeth faience is right. I introduced it, and taught all the pupils, glazed and burned; but in justice to Mr. H. Doulton, the principal, I must say it is very doubtful whether I would have brought it to the success it attained had I not been engaged by him: his natural good taste and desire to improve in art pottery always had a stimulating effect upon me. You will gather from the above that I think the Lambeth faience ought to be called 'Doulton’; at the same time, I have felt slighted by no mention being made of my name in Mr. Sparkes's paper on Lambeth pottery."
At the time of Mr. Bennett's employment by Messrs. Doulton, the only artistic work done by them was in the gray stone-ware which they were producing in their establishment: they had no studios for painting, either over or under glaze, till Mr. Bennett went there.
the decorative uses to which our common clays may be put. No work yet done here has so much originality, and promises so much in the use of our common clays, as this work of Mrs. Plimpton.
Mrs. Leonard's work has been chiefly overglaze (Fig. 9), but her work in underglaze color has all the delicacy and artistic skill which characterize her china-painting. Fig. 10 shows a vase of stone-china, covered
with blue slip, and decorated Fig. 7.- WORK OF Mrs. C. A. PLIMPTON.
with Parian paste, in low re
lief, by Mrs. Leonard. The use of Parian paste for light relief-work, or for modelling in high relief, has received special attention from a number of ladies. Misses Elizabeth and Adelaide Nourse have produced some effective work in pottery in bold relief. Fig. 11 shows a piece of carving in yellow clay, unglazed, by Miss Adelaide Nourse; Fig. 12, a vase of cream-colored clay, carved by Miss Fannie M. Banks.
An interesting specialty is seen in the work of Miss Agnes Pitman, a part of the design being incised on a common clay body, which is then covered with a colored slip; finally other designs in low relief are laid on in Parian paste, modelled, and wrought with delicacy and skill. Miss Pitman also shows work in incised and low-relief decoration covered with dark glazes. A vase by Miss Pitman (Fig. 13) is of yellow clay, with incised designs and low-relief work in brown and white clay, semi-glaze finish.
The point of interest in the work of these Cincinnati women (leaving out of the question the excellence of its execution) is in the decorative uses which have
Fig. 8.-WORK OF MRS. C. A. PLIMPTON. been made of the common clays, and the variety and originality of the styles in which they are working. The various kinds of work mentioned in this article, except the few pieces of overglaze-work on European porcelain, are all done in Ohio clays from Cincinnati potteries, and, with few exceptions, are from the pottery of Mr. Frederick Dallas.
A piece by Mrs. William Dodd (Fig. 14), body of sage green (a combination of blue and yellow clays), shows a landscape in low relief, in red, brown, and white clays, with a garniture of woodbine in white clay ; semiglaze finish.
Fig. 15.-Stone-china tea - pot : blue glaze ; decoration in gold and white enamel, low relief, by Mrs. Walter
faience vase: soft green ground, with tiger-lilies, by Miss Laura Fry.
Mrs. Merriam's work is shown in group Fig. 17. The central piece is overglaze; a gold and silver decoration on a rich dark green glaze; stone-china body. The end pieces are underglaze on cream-colored body.
Group Fig. 18 shows the work of Miss McLaughlin. The vase decorated with branches in relief is of dark brown clay; branches in red-brown clay. The four
Fig. 11.-WORK OF Miss A. SOCRSE. other pieces are in the enamelled faience.
The illustration at the head of this pa- is of Cincinnati faience; that to the left, per shows a variety of work in plaques: | by Miss Sarah Schooley, is in low relief,
overglaze decoration, on soft buff clay body ; below, an arabesque design in blue, underglaze, on white ware, with overglaze lines in gold, by Miss Clara Newton.
Fig. 19. Mirror frame : designs in brown, on tiles, by Mrs. Charles Kebler.
The experiments of Mr. J.T. Wheatley in Cincinnati faience were begun in 1878. For a time his work was done at the pottery of P. L. Coultry and Co., but in the spring of 1880 he established himself in quarters of his own on Hunt Street, where he built a kiln for firing decorated wares
(underglaze), and where all the processes Fig. 12.—WORK OF Miss F. M. BANKS. of the preparation of clays, of moulding,
glazing, and firing, are performed by him. the central piece at top, by Mrs. Frank R. | It is understood that Mr. Wheatley has Ellis, is blue glaze on white body, dec- been unselfish in regard to his discoveries orated in gold and white enamel ; the of modes and processes, freely communiplaque to the right, by Mrs. M. V. Keenan, cating them to any who wish to learn, and